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The University of Connecticut 
Libraries, Storrs 


BOOK 635.G863 c. 1 


3 T153 000EST7fl 

yOV2 6190» 


How to Make 




T. Greiner 

Second, Revised aud Enlarged Edition 

Published Ijy 

Wm. Henry Maule 




Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1890, by 

Wm. Henry Maule, 
in the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 

Prefatory Remarks 

(To the First Edition) 

By the Publisher. 

A work on gardening, up to the times and fully explaining 
all modern methods, has long been needed. Several years ago 
I started the rough outline of a treatise on this subject, but 
owing to my time being so largely taken up with my varied 
business interests, I found it impossible to finish it ; and, to tell 
the truth, I did not feel competent to handle the subject as if 
deserved. At this stage of the proceedings my friend, Mr. T. 
Greiner, offered to take a hand, and for a year or more he has 
been busy writing the following pages, which I take pleasure 
in presenting to the public as the very best and most practical 
work ever written for the benefit of the American vegetable 

I am confident it will prove the stepping-stone to successful 
gardening for many thousands who are now unacquainted with 
this, the noblest calling on earth ; while I know it will give many 
profitable common-sense ideas to those who are even now high 
up in the profession. 

In this revised edition I have little to add to the above re- 
marks, further than that the unqualified endorsement and success 
of this work has far exceeded both Mr. Greiner's and my own 
highest expectations. Its cordial reception has encouraged us to 
make the second edition up to and abreast of these progressive 
times, and I can ask of my friends nothing more than this new 
revised edition of" How to Make the Garden Pay" shall receive 
as kind a reception as has been accorded the first edition of 
this work. 

Yours very truly, 

January i^, iSpj. 



Anise i8o 

Ants Ill 

Aphis Ill 

Aquaculture io8 

Artichoke, Globe i8o 

Artichoke, Jerusalem .... iSi 

Asparagus 182 

Asparagus Beetle 112 

Asparagus Buncher 185 

Asparagus Knife 186 

Asparagus Marketing .... 185 

Asparagus Planting 184 

Asparagus, Varieties 186 

Asterias, Butterfly 119 


Balm 186 

Barrow Sprayer 121, 137 

Basil, Sweet 187 

Bean Anthracnose 138 

Bean Blight, or Spot 138 

Beans, Bush 187 

Beans, Pole 190 

Beans 187 

Beans, Varieties of Bush . . . 188 

Beans, Varieties of Pole . . . 192 

Bean, Weevil 113 

Beet Leaf Spot 139 

Beet, Mangel and Sugar ... 196 

Beet Rust 138 

Beet, Varieties 195 

Beets 194 

Bichloride of Mercury .... 136 

Birds as Helpers 132 

Blister Beetles 127 

Boll Worm 115 

Borage 200 

Boreal Ladybird 128 

Borecole, or Kale 245 

Bordeaux Mixture 135 

Broccoli 200 

Brussels Sprouts 201 

Buhach 114 


Cabbage 201 

Cabbage, Diseases 139 

Cabbage, Late 203 

Cabbage, Plusia 113 

Cabbage, Varieties ..... 206 

Cabbage, Wintering 202 

Cabbage Worm 113 

Cardoon 209 

Caraway 210 

Carrots 210 

Catnip 213 

Cauliflower 213 

Celeriac 228 

Celery 215 

Celery, Blanching 219 

Celery Bleachers 221 

Celer}' Blights 139 

Celery, Growing South . . . 224 

Celery, New Culture .... 216 

Celery Planting 218 

Celery Soft Rot 140 

Celery, Storing 221, 223 

Celery, Varieties ....... 226 

Celery Worm 115 

Chervil, Turnip-rooted . . . 228 

Chicory 229 

Chives 229 

Club Root 139 

Cold Frames 57 

Cold Vegetable Houses . 76, 77, 78 
Cold Vegetable Houses, Crops 

in 79 

Colewort 229 

Collard 229 

Colorado Potato Beetle ... 120 

Composting Manure 37 

Coriander 230 

Corn Salad 230 

Corn, Sweet 230 

Com, Sweet Varieties .... 233 

Corn Smut I45 

Corn Worm 115 

Cotton Seed Meal 44 

Cress 234 

Cucumber 235 

Cucumber Beetle 115 

Cucumber Blight 140 

Cucumber Mildew . . • . . . 141 

Cucumber, Varieties 237 

Cutworms 116 


Damping OflF 144 

Dandelion 238 

Diabrotica, Twelve-spotted . . 128 

Dibbers 49 

Dill 238 

Diseases of Plants 134 

Drainage 95 

Drainage by Board Troughs . 98 

Drainage for Boiler Pit ... 88 

Drainage, Surface 99 

Draining Tools 96 

Drill and Wheel Hoe 54 

Drought, Means of Protection 166 


Egg Plant 239 

Electric Light Influence . . . 317 

Electro-Horticulture 317 

Endive 240 


Farmers' Kitchen Garden . . 20 

Fennel 241 

Fertilizer Application .... 41 

Fertilizers for Garden .... 39 

Fetticus 230 

Fire Hot-beds 71-73 

Firming Board 66 

Firming the Roots 163 

Flats 68 

Flats, Soil for 69 

Flea Beetle 117 

Flooding, Sub-earth 103 

Index, — 5 

Forcing Houses 82 

Forcing Pit, Model 83 

Forcing Vegetables in Cold 

Frames 60-62 

Frames, Use of 59 

Frost, Precautions Against . . 168 

Fungicides 135 


Gardening for Local Markets . 29 

Garlic 241 

Germination, Principles of . 148 

Gourds 242 

Grading Vegetables, etc. ... 33 

Greenhouses 82 

Grasshoppers 128 

Grub, White 118 

Gypsine 131 


Hand Weeders 158 

Harlequin Cabbage Bug ... 125 

Harrows 48 

Heating Forcing Pits .... 84 

Hen Manure 43, 44 

Hillside Forcing House ... 90 

Hired Help 171 

Home Gardening 12 

Home Garden, Profits of . . . 13 

Horehound 243 

Horse Hoes 55 

Horse Radish 243 

Hose, Home-made 102 

Hot-beds 64 

Hyssop 245 

Insect Enemies no 

Insect Powder 114 

Insects, Friendly 133 

Irrigated Field, Plan of . . . 103 

Irrigating Celery by Tile . . 104 

Irrigation 100 

Irrigation, Surface loi 


Kale, or Borecole 245 

Kerosene, Attachment to 

Sprayer 131 

6 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Kerosene Emulsion 112 

Kerosene for Insects 130 

Kitchen Garden Plan . 21, 23, 25 

Knapsack Sprayer 137 

Kohl-Rabi 246 

Lavender 247 

I-vCek 247 

Lettuce 249 

Lettuce in Electric Light . . 318 

Lettuce, Mildew 141 

Lettuce, Varieties 250 

Lima Beans 190 

Lima Beans, Trellis 191 

List of Seeds for Home Garden 26 

Liver of Sulphur 136 

Location of Southern Truck 

Farm 28 


Manure, Composting .... 37 

Manure for Hot-beds .... 64 

Manures for Gardening ... 35 

Marjoram, Sweet 251 

Markers 49 

Market Gardening 17 

Marketing 32 

Martynia 252 

May Beetle 118 

Melon Leaf Spot 144 

Melon, Musk 252 

Melon, Water 255 

Mice 129 

Mint 259 

Moles 129 

Monthly Memoranda .... 173 

Mushroom 259 

Mushroom, A Summer . . . 260 

Mustard 261 


Nasturtium 261 

Nitrate of Soda 43 

Nitrates, Effect of 45 

Novelties 153 


Okra 262 

Onion 262 

Onions for Bunching 264 

Onion, Growing Sets .... 263 

Onion Fly 118 

Onion Smut 142 

Onion Spot 142 

Onion, The New Culture . . 268 

Onion, Varieties 270 

Onions for Market 264 

Oyster Plant 294 

Parsley 271 

Parsley Worm 119 

Parsnips . .' 272 

Peanuts 273 

Peas 274 

Pea Weevil 120 

Pennyroyal 279 

Pepper 277 

Peppergrass 234 

Peppermint 279 

Pit for Storing Roots .... 200 
Plan of Home Garden . 21, 23, 25 

Planet Jr. Garden Drill ... 52 

Plant Box in Window .... 93 

Plant Lice in 

Planting in Hard Soil .... 149 

Plants for Home Garden ... 92 

Plants, Starting Early .... 66 

Plowing, Sample of Faulty . 47 

Popcorn 234 

Potash Seldom Needed .... 45 

Potassium Sulphide 136 

Potato Beetle 120 

Potato Blights 142 

Potato Scab 143 

Potato Stalk Borer 128 

Potato Stalk Weevil 127 

Potato, Sweet 287 

Potato, Varieties 286 

Potatoes, Rotation 281 

Potatoes, White 280 

Powder Bellows 114 

Preliminary Remarks by the 

Author 9 

Prevention of Disease . . . 137 

Protecting Plants, Devices for 169 

Puddling 163 

Pumpkin 289 

Putty Bulb 58 

Radish 289 

Radish Fly and Maggot . . . 122 

Rats 129 

Reptiles as Friends 132 

Rhubarb 293 

Rhubarb Curculio 128 

Rosemary 293 

Rotation of Cropping .... 155 

Rue 294 


Sage 294 

Salsify 294 

Savory, Summer 295 

Savory, Winter 295 

Sea Kale 295 

Scorzonera 295 

Seed Drills 51 

Seed Sowing 147 

Seeds, Vitality of 151 

Shallot 296 

Shutters for Frames 67 

Skunks as Insect Eaters . . . 133 

Snails 123 

Soil Tester 107 

Sorrel 296 

Sparrow, English 132 

Spinach 296 

Spinach Anthracnose .... 144 

Spinach, Mildew 144 

Spindling Plants 165 

Spraying for Diseases .... 135 

Spraying Pumps 137 

Squash 298 

Squash Bug, Black 124 

Squash Vine Borer 1 23 

Squash, Varieties 299 

Stable Manure, Value of . . . 36 

Storing Roots 200 

Strawberrj^ Insects and Diseases 314 

Strawberry Growing 307 

Strawberry Planting . . . 311,315 

Strawberry Plants 309 

Strawberry, Varieties . . . . 316 

Strawberries, Forcing .... 315 

index. — 7 

Strawberries, Gathering ... 313 
Strawberries, Manure for . . . 309 
Strawberries in Home Garden 313 
Strawberries, Winter Protec- 
tion for 313 

Straw Mats 68 

Subirrigated Bench 106 

Subirrigation by Flower Pots 107 
Subirrigatiou, Cole's .... 108 
Subirrigation for Greenhouse 105 
Sulphate of Ammonia .... 43 
Sweet Potato Diseases .... 145 


Thinning 160 

Thyme 300 

Tile in Drains 97 

Toad as Insect Eater 132 

Tobacco as Insecticide . ... 112 

Tobacco Worm 127 

Tomatoes 301 

Tomato Diseases 145 

Tomato Worm 126 

Tomato, Varieties 302 

Transplanting 161 

Transplanting Devices .... 165 

Turnips 304 

Turnips, Varieties 306 

Tweezers for Killing Bugs 124 


Underdrainage, Advantages of 98 


Vegetable House 30 

Vitality of Seeds 151 


Watering Cold Frames .... 62 

Water Cress 234 

Weeds, How to Fight .... 157 

Wheel Hoes 53 

Wintering Cabbage . . . 202, 204 

Wire Worm 124 

Zebra Caterpillar 125 



HE considerations which guided me in writing up 
the first edition of this work, five years ago, are 
still potent to-day. Gardening, in the minds of 
many people, is still a dreadful combination in its 
requirements of skill and unceasing drudgery. 
There are yet persons, especially farmers, who 
doubt their ability to acquire the one without 
giving more time and thought than they can 
afford to devote to the garden, and fear the other. But our 
efforts in the direction of clearing up this only too common 
error, of convincing people in rural districts, and in the suburbs of 
cities, that gardening in reality is a very strong combination of 
pleasure, health and profit, and of pointing out the ways and 
means how to relieve the task of all semblance of drudgery, 
have not been without their desired effect. We are continuously 
making converts to our faith. The good home garden is not 
any more the rarity and curiosity that it once was. It is getting 
to be a very common institution. 

Wonderful, indeed, is the progress which we have made 
during the past five years not only in the practice of gardening, 
but also in garden practices. Methods of cultivation have mate- 
rially changed and are changing every day, decidedly in the 
direction and with the tendency of cheapening the cost of pro- 
duction, lessening hand labor, and making gardening more prof- 
itable and more pleasant. A new onion culture, a new celery 
culture, a new potato culture and other innovations have come 
to the front. 

On the other hand, the market gardener of to-day finds 
himself beset with difficulties of which he little dreamed years 
ago. Insect foes and plant diseases have multiplied in an alarm- 
ing degree, calling for increased vigilance, enlarged knowledge, 
and new modes of treatment and protection. At the same time 
the prices of garden products have materially fallen, and made 
old-style, clumsy and therefore expensive methods of production 

In short, every gardener in these days must keep well in- 
formed about every forward move made in horticulture. He 
will need a guide giving minute instructions in every department 


10 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

of vegetable gardening — a guide which he can confidently con- 
sult in every emergency, and which will teach him, the servant 
of the soil, how to make himself 

Master of the Situation. 

The book, as it now lies before the reader, is intended to be 
a guide, safe and true in every respect. 

I have no reason to complain of the reception that was 
accorded to the first edition by the American public. It has 
been very favorably commented on, and my kind critics have 
overlooked or excused many of its shortcomings. I myself 
have perhaps been a more severe critic of my own work than 
the great mass of my readers who have been so universally and 
often undeservedly kind to me and my efforts. 

I could not blind my own eyes to the fact, however, that 
serious shortcomings did exist. Then there had been these 
changes in methods, so great, so violent, that the first edition, 
only these few years after publication, had already become out 
of date, and had to be radically amended in many respects. In 
short, a thorough revision was imperatively demanded, and the 
results of this revision are now before the reader. 

Let me say that I am proud of this work. There is no 
book on the same subject now in the world that can compare 
with it in completeness and freshness. 

Finally, I wish to advise the reader to try the newer ways 
that I point out; for gardening, like life, is what you yourself 
make of it — a paradise of pleasure or a veritable sheol of drudg- 
ery. You have the decision in your own hands; You may 
leisurely accompany your visitors through the well-kept grounds 
that are beaming with thrifty, sparkling vegetation, as your own 
countenance is beaming with pleasure and satisfaction, and that 
is as free from weeds as your face is from care ; or you may 
crawl through the beds on hands and knees, piling up stacks of 
weeds, with a face sour and distorted in hatred of yourself and 
the life you are leading. My instructions, if faithfully followed, 
will insure you the former conditions, and save you from the 
curse of the latter. 

It still remains to be said that the work v/as composed and 
revised on the suggestion of Mr. Wm. Henry Maule, of Phila- 
delphia, who has undertaken its publication, and if the reader 
receives any benefit from its perusal, he is indebted to him as 
well as to the author. 

Autumn, 1894. 

Part I. 

Gardening in General. 




" Man shall not live by bread alone." 

OW I pity the people who from choice or necessity 
are confirmed eaters of hog, and the murderous 
monotony of whose scrofulous diet is not broken 
or offset by the gratifying changes which the 
home garden affords. How I pity the sad-eyed 
house-wife with the daily questions on her mind 
"What shall I cook for breakfast, what for din- 
ner, and what for supper ? " with nothing but 
the pork barrel, the flour chest and the potato bin from which to 
draw material. How I pity the mother whose children are 
ciying for fruit and vegetables, and who is compelled to hand 
them — worse than a stone — a piece of salt meat. And above all, 
how I pity the children — the blessed children with their natural 
craving for the luscious fruits and the crisp vegetables of the 
garden, ever yearning for them as the deer is for salt, or the fam- 
ished traveler in the desert for water — but their desire never to be 
satisfied, unless they steal the articles that their nature urgently 
demands from the gardens of more fortunate neighbors. 

With the opportunities that the vast territory of the States, 
with its thirty acres of land, six of them arable, to each inhabi- 
tant, affords to its people, there is no need of many families 
depriving themselves of garden privileges, and there is not the 
slightest excuse for people in the rural districts to do without 

The physician, the lawyer, the preacher, the book-keeper, 
the bank clerk — in short all people whose life occupation confines 
them to study or ofifice for a large part of the day, and who for 
this reason are in danger of waxing tender and sensitive like hot- 
house plants — will find the gratification of the greatest need of 
their lives in a little garden of their own, namely, contact with 
nature, unadulterated air, relaxation and recreation, pleasure, 
health and ruggedness, not to speak of the more substantial and 
more immediate results : freshly-plucked berries (not the stale 
fruit of the market stands, in the first or more advanced stages 
of decay — in other words, half-rotten), crisp lettuce and radishes 

Home Gardening. — 13 

(not the wilted stuff of the dealer), peas and beans, with the 
morning dew still on them, and melons in all their perfection, 
freshness and lusciousness. With people of this class the 
question of profit may have little weight ; but the home-garden 
affords a combination of pleasure and health which nobody, and 
be he a millionaire, can well afford to. overlook or ignore. The 
greatest luxuries of the garden cannot be bought with mere 

For the hard-working mechanic, on the other hand, who 
passes so many hours daily in the dust-laden, gas-impregnated 
atmosphere of the shop, the point of profit enters more largely 
into this question, with that of recreation in open air, and plea- 
surable contact with nature still prominent. The garden need 
only be small, for much manual exercise in not often desirable, 
although as it comes in a different way from that of the shop, 
resting the muscles already tired, and giving exercise to those not 
called in operation by the regular shop work (thus serving to 
produce the natural balance of the life forces and muscles in the 
same way as garden work served to establish the equilibrium 
between the mental and physical functions of the office man), 
the work of the garden may only come as a pleasant change to 
the mechanic, and not at all appear tiresome. His good spouse, 
less occupied with household duties than the farmer's wife, will 
also find a needed change from indoor life and kitchen routine in 
the fragrant atmosphere of the home garden, and the manual 
labor for both should not be feared, for an abundant supply of 
superior vegetables can be produced on a small piece of ground, 
if proper tools and methods are used. 

With the farmer the question of raising vegetables is chiefly 
one of profit, although other points are not unimportant. Many 
farmers who till plenty of good land concentrate all their efforts 
upon the production of wheat, corn, oats, wool, cattle or other 
so-called " money crops," and pay little or no attention to the 
home garden.. So we have the astonishing and deplorable fact 
that a majority of American farmers have no garden worthy to 
be called a " family garden," unless so named because it is entirely 
given into the care of the already over-worked farmer's wife and 
other members of the family, especially of the half-grown boys, 
if they in true appreciation of the good things to be had in 
compensation, consent to spend an extra working hour now and 
then in hoeing and pulling weeds. Outraged nature, unappeased 
hunger for vegetable food often makes them submit without 
grumbling to the lesser outrage of imposing an extra amount of 
work on their young shoulders. 

Fried Pork, fried potatoes, poor bread from poorly ground 
flour, lardy pies, and rich cakes — these, with hardly a variation, 
are the chief articles of food for thousands of farmer families. 

14 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Can you draw health from a pork barrel ? No more than you 
can gather grapes from a thorn bush. 

Many a farmer having sown a half acre or so of Black-Eye 
Marrowfat or Canadian Field peas, from which his family may 
have an abundant supply of green peas for a whole week, and 
given them the privilege to help themselves to all the roasting 
ears they may desire from the corn field (half a mile away) for 
another whole week, is self-satisfied with his generosity, and 
boasts that his full duty is done. According to statistics taken 
in Illinois in 1888, only seventeen per cent, of the farmers had 
the luxury of a strawberry patch. Think of this. Only one 
boy in every six knew what it was to pluck the luscious fruit 
from the vine, and eat to his heart's content! Without the 
stimulating, cooling and cheering effect of fruit and vegetable 
diet, what wonder that the blood of so many becomes sluggish 
and laden with impurities; what wonder the stomach revolts at 
the excess of grease, and becomes nauseated from want of 
change ; what wonder the race degenerates, dyspepsia, scrofula, 
and similar afflictions are becoming alarmingly frequent and 
general, while the concocters and venders of patent quack medi- 
cines are making fortunes ! What wonder the sons leave the 
farm, and rush to the city, and the daughters have no desire to 
sell themselves into new bondage and deprivations by marrying 
farmers! Boy nature (and girl nature either) will not long sub- 
mit to the daily farm routine of 

" All work and no play 
All pork and no pay," 

Even the dullest kind of a Jack will remonstrate against and 
resent this treatment. I have been a boy once, and I have 
learned the irresistible attraction that luscious strawberries, 
raspberries, gooseberries, currants, plums, pears, nuts, etc., have 
for young people — and old ones too, for that matter. Nature 
only claims her rights, and will not be outraged -with impunity. 
I have learned the charms hidden in crisp lettuce, radishes, green 
peas, and the like, in spring when the human internal machinery 
is clogged with a winter's excess of animal food. 

There is nothing in this wide world, that with just and fair 
treatment otherwise will keep the farmer's boys and girls content 
with rural life, and make them appreciate the great natural 
advantages of their situation as does a good home garden and a 
bountiful supply of good fruits, and nothing that will bring the 
bloom and happy smile on the good wife's face as the assistance 
she will receive from the same source in solving the problem 
how to provide the three daily meals to the satisfaction of all. 

I have already alluded to the moral side of the question. 
The half-starved, lean-faced street gamin standing in front of the 

Home Gardening. — 15 

baker's show window, and longingly contemplating the loaves, 
pies, cakes and other dainties displayed in tempting array before 
his eyes, is not an uncommon sight, and it has often filled my 
inmost soul with pity. Imagine the youngster with an intense 
longing for fruit and vegetables peeking through the picket 
fence which divides his brute father's possessions from the 
garden of his neighbor whose fortunate children he can watch 
as they are gathering strawberries, or pulling crisp radishes in 
joy and glee. There is the luscious and coveted fruit almost 
within his reach, and temptingly displayed. Will you wonder 
if the boy, the first chance he gets to do so unobserved, removes 
a picket, and crawls into what to him is paradise beyond, and 
helps himself to what really is his due ? If the father refuses to 
grow these things in his garden, and has " no money to spare for 
such luxuries," the boy will have no scruples to take surreptitiously 
what is so temptingly put before him. Average human nature 
is not built that way, to be strong enough against such odds. 
You cannot extract purity from glittering temptation, or morality 
from undue restriction, no more than health from the pork barrel. 
The man who willfully and needlessly deprives his family of the 
privileges of a good vegetable garden fails in one of his fore- 
most duties. He cannot possibly be a good husband, nor a 
good father, and he certamly is not a good Christian / 

Neither does he deserve to be called a good manager ; for 
the question of profit also enters in this combination. Self- 
interest is a strong motive power. Here I wish I were able to 
convince every farmer in this glorious country of the great truth 
that an acre of vegetable or fruit garden, properly taken care of, 
will be the most profitable acre on the farm. While at present 
prices many of our farm products grown as " average crops " do 
not return the full equivalent for manure and labor expended on 
them, much effort and energy seems to be simply wasted, and 
might be turned to much better account for the production of 
the garden stuff which is now so sorely missed in the household, 
or might be sold at remunerative rates. 

The amount of " green stuff" that can be grown on a single 
acre, well tilled, in a single summer, is simply incredible — wagon 
loads upon wagon loads ; and there need not be a single meal from 
early spring until winter that is not made more cheerful, more pal- 
atable, more wholesome, and altogether more enjoyable by the 
presence of some good dishes from the garden, not to say anything 
about the canned tomatoes, sweet corn, berries and the crisp stalks 
of celery, etc., during the winter months. I and my family live 
largely on the products of garden and poultry yard during the 
entire summer, and we enjoy pretty good health generally. No 
meat bills to pay, no nausea caused by greasy food, no dyspepsia ! 
Think of sixty meals with big plates of strawberries, and sixty 

i6 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

more with raspberries and blackberries ! Think of the wholesome 
dishes of asparagus, of the young onions, radishes, the various 
salads, the green peas and beans, the pickles and cucumbers, the 
tomatoes, squashes, melons, etc. ! And all this practically with- 
out expense, at least, without cash outlay. There is plenty of 
good manure in the barn-yard; horses stand in the stable more 
or less unused during the gardening season, and the needed 
labor can also be had in an emergency. At the same time few 
farmers will have difficulty to sell or trade off the surplus to 
advantage. The village blacksmith may take part if not all of his 
pay in good vegetables. The wagon maker, the carpenter, the 
storekeeper, the physician, the banker — all of them need vege- 
tables, and often are glad to take what good things you have to 
offer in exchange for money, goods, or services. If the working 
forces on the farm are insufficient, it will often be advisable to 
reduce the area of wheat or oats, and grow an acre of garden 
stuff instead; for the same work devoted to the garden will pay 
you 500 per cent, profit above that realized from grain culture. 




" To produce is one thing, to sell another." 

)ONEY — and money alone — is the object of the 
market gardener ; and the considerations of 
pleasure, health and morality are necessarily 
subordinate to that of profit. Business, not 
pleasure — that is gardening for the man who 
tries to support himself and family by growing 
vegetables for market. To be successful it 
often requires a rare combination of skill and 
experience, with a thorough understanding of the wants of his 
available market, and considerable tact, if not shrewdness, in the 
sale of articles produced. It is no business for the careless, the 
lazy, or the stupid. 

Neither is it a royal road to fortune, and I feel it my duty to 
dispel the cherished delusions of people who wish to engage in 
market gardening as an easy and sure way of making a comfort- 
able living. Before me is a letter received some time ago from 
a " preacher of the gospel," 35 years of age,who having been 
compelled to resign his position on account of throat affliction, 
has hit upon the idea of growing garden stuff for market. 

" Is it possible," he asks, "to make a living on three acres 
of ground, 115 miles from Philadelphia? Soil good, and in town, 
near railroad station. I am happiest when I am hard at work, 
and oh ! I love to work in the soil ! This alone gives me renewed 
vigor, and a degree of health. Yet I am not willing to become 
a market boy, and I cannot peddle out what I raise off the soil." 
Here, evidently, we have met with a wrong conception of 
market gardening; but it is a somewhat common one. I know 
of localities where three acres of good ground well-managed 
would afford quite a respectable living to a small family, with a 
market right at the door, and grocers in the near town willing to 
take almost any good garden produce brought them at fair 
prices. Advantage might often be taken of a local demand for 
certain productions, as berries, onions, celery, etc., and such 
articles grown on a larger scale, for sale to retailers, thus avoiding 
the " peddling " feature. But kid-glove and silk-hat gardening 
2 (17) 

i8 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

will under no consideration fit into successful market gardening 
or truck farming ; " barter and trade " is one of the essentials of 
the business anywhere, and the grower must be in readiness, if 
an emergency arises, to take hold and become merchant or 
peddler. This feature is an indispensable part of the business in 
most cases. 

Gardening for money requires unceasing attention, close 
and thorough management, considerable hard labor, and often 
more or less exposure to the vicissitudes and inclemencies of the 
seasons. Nevertheless it is true that the majority of the profes- 
sion make altogether too much work of it, especially by neglect- 
ing to make use of the newer improved implements of tillage. 
The hand hoe is yet left to play a by far too prominent part in 
garden culture, and the advantages of the wheel-hoe are not yet 
recognized and made use of as they deserve. 

There was a time when even the rudest methods combined 
with hard work insured to the market gardener near large cities a 
good income. But competition has grown with the demand, and 
with cheapened and increased production prices have gradually 
declined until now they are far below what only a fev/ years ago 
growers would have considered mere cost of production. It is 
not so many years since the main crop of strawberries sold at 25 
cents per quart; and when the price first dropped down to 20 
cents, the cry went forth that "Strawberry growing does not 
pay." Then thousands of growers abandoned the business in 
disgust. At present, strawberries are grown at 6 and 8 cents per 
quart in many localities, and people are satisfied with the profits. 
So with vegetables. We have learned to produce much cheaper 
than formerly, and we can afford to produce and sell at figures 
which did not cover first cost ten or twenty years ago, and yet 
realize a fair profit. Hence people who continue to grow garden 
crops in the old laborious and unsatisfactory ways, and with old- 
style implements, who produce inferior vegetables and fruits at 
old-time cost, cannot successfully meet the competition of their 
progressive brethren. This is simply a question of the " survival 
of the fittest ; " and the fittest is the man who by taking advan- 
tage of the latest labor-saving methods and devices manages to 
raise the best produce at the smallest cost, thus preserving or 
even widening the narrow margin of profit which at the present 
time characterizes all legitimate branches of business. The spade 
must give way to the plow ; the rake, and often cultivator also, to 
the harrow ; hand and fingers in sowing seeds to the drill ; the 
hand hoe to the wheel-hoe, etc. These changes are imperative 
and unavoidable, if the business is to be made profitable. The 
grower who has learned to produce most cheaply and can offer 
the earliest or best articles in his line, is the one who succeeds ; 
and efforts to excel must be made continuously to prevent 

Market Gardening and Truck Farming. — ig 

getting left in this race. This requires the exercise of thought, 
study — in short of brains as well as of muscle. Excellence will 
have its reward ; but he who neglects a single point, who allows 
himself to be excelled by others, is not likely to receive a prize. 
Special vegetable crops are often grown on a large scale in 
localities especially adapted to their cultivation, or having special 
market facilities for such crops. So we have the celery fields of 
Kalamazoo, Mich., the onion patches of Wethersfield, Conn., and 
Danvers, Mass., and other places, the cauliflower gardens of Long 
Island, the tomato fields of New Jersey, the melon patches of 
Virginia, etc. To produce is often much easier than to sell the 
product at a profit, and it is not safe to engage in a business of 
this kind on an extensive scale, or invest much money in it, 
unless a local demand is assured for the produced articles. 
Wagon and carloads of good vegetables are yearly thrown away 
for want of chance to sell them in time at an acceptable price. 
Where the enterprise is carried on in colonies, however, there is 
always a local market ; for the centre of production is also the 
centre of demand. 




"Well begun — half done." 

HE home garden in a majority of cases is a fixed 
affair, and no choice is left as to the selection 
of site. While the condition of soil, its fertility, 
convenient lay and proper slope, are questions of 
no mean import, they are almost always second- 
ary to the point of nearness to the house. The 
garden may be filled with good things of the 
season, but if half a mile from the house, com- 
pelling the over-worked and hurried house-wife to tramp such a 
distance every time she wants a supply of vegetables fresh from 
the garden, the cheering presence of young onions, radishes, 
lettuce, tomatoes, egg plants, and other vegetables will be missed 
by the family at many a meal that might have been more palatable 
and more wholesome by the vegetable addition and by the 
change otherwise. What good are the choicest things in our 
possession if we cannot make ready use of them ? 

The condition of many a home garden seems sufficient 
excuse for hiding it from sight. The best location for the garden 
is in a prominent place where it will crowd itself upon constant 
observation from the house. If well kept, it is one of the greatest 
ornaments to the premises, and a source of everlasting admira- 
tion ; if neglected and left to grow up in weeds, it will be a shame 
to the owner, an ever present accuser — a sort of conscience — 
and loudly calling for attention. A good garden is a sort of 
summer resort, to which the owner can take his visitors, and 
show them about with excusable pride ; an inducement for an 
after-dinner or after-supper walk, affording opportunities for a few 
touches of improvement, for pulling up some stray weeds, or for 
the destruction of injurious insects, when thus encountered, 
for watching with pleasurable interest the growth and develop- 
ment of the things that are " new and curious." Nearness to 
the house means nearness to your thoughts and affections ; better 
care and closer attention ; more enjoyable and diversified meals ; 
increased pleasure, health and happiness for the whole family. 
Nearness to the house also increases the chances for convenient 








Farmer's Kitchen Garden. 


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22 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

and prompt utilization of house slops, washing suds, etc., in the 
garden, where they will add to the productiveness of the soil, 
and may aid in doing away with the stagnant pools, rank sink 
drains and offensive odors found near the kitchen door of many 
people, and endangering their health and lives. 

Concerning composition, state of fertility and slope of the 
ground, there is in many cases little latitude for choice. People 
have often to take such as they find, and try to mate the best of 
it. A rich, warm sandy loam, naturally drained, should always 
be given the preference, and if slightly sloping to the south, 
south-east or east, all the better. If deficient in drainage, 
thorough drainage must be provided ; if too heavy and cold, 
applications of sand, coal ashes, sandy loam and plenty of stable 
manure will make it lighter and warmer; if too sandy, the addi- 
tion of clay will improve it. Peat and other vegetable matter in 
a state of decay will often correct either extreme, and good 
compost will ameliorate any soil, both in point of fertility and 
mechanical texture. It tends to make clay soil porous and 
sandy soil retentix^e. 

The old-style gardens, as a rule, are not up to our modern 
ideas as to size. Having in a measure discarded the use of 
spade, and particularly that of rake and hand hoe, and substituted 
horse-power and machinery for hand labor and hand implements, 
we need room to work in with convenience and pleasure. The 
farmer has no excuse to stick to his little corner lot. Throw 
down the old fences, and enclose an acre or even two, in a field 
long and narrow if possible ; then arrange it somewhat as shown 
on opposite page. The whole field should be free from trees, 
stumps, boulders and other obstructions, and enclosed by a tight 
hedge or substantial fence. Neither pigs, hens nor dogs are 
wanted in a garden. 

Commencing on one of the long sides we might have a row 
of grapes, selecting varieties that are known to do well in that 
locality, and training them to a suitable trellis or over an arbor ; 
next a row of gooseberries and currants ; then a row or more 
each of red and black raspberries and blackberries, and one of 
asparagus, with a dozen or more rhubarb plants at one end, and 
next a few rows of strawberries. Now we come to the real 
(vegetable) garden, and this may be arranged as indicated in 
diagram, or in any other order according to the fancy or conven- 
ience of the gardener. The arrangement of the vegetable garden 
proper in this fashion gives abundance of opportunity for rotation, 
and the various vegetables maybe shifted about as circumstances 
demand, and the location of each changed from year to year. 
The adoption of this plan gives us long rows which are easily 
and cheaply kept under perfect tillage by horse and cultivator, 
adjusting width of the latter to suit width of row. The jiarrow 


Farmer's Kitchen Garden. — 23 
























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6 lb 1 20 

40 50 


24 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

rows at north side alone are to be cultivated by hand, using one 
of the modern wheel-hoes, a work also greatly facilitated by the 
length and small number of rows, as it is the turning that 
requires valuable time and effort. 

For a number of years I have practised a plan differing from 
the preceding, and I find it superior in many respects. The fruit 
patch is entirely separate from the vegetable garden, and will 
need no description here. The diagram on opposite page shows 
the arrangement and general plan of garden. 

One of its chief advantages is the easy access it affords to 
all the different kinds of vegetables, especially to the close- 
planted, and most frequently visited ones, lettuce, onions, 
radishes, carrots, beets, etc., and its only disadvantage the neces- 
sity of turning with horse and cultivator in the field and not at 
the fence near the highway. This is not a serious matter, how- 
ever, as a strip eight feet wide is left next the path at the foot of 
the narrow rows, and including it, without planting except with 
a single row of squashes or other running vines at the end of the 
long rows. This arrangement gives every opportunity for turn- 
ing without damage to growing crops, and the empty space will 
be occupied by running vines by the time that cultivation by 
horse power has to cease. Nor is there any want of chance for 
rotation, and the order of both the small stuff and the crops in 
the larger section can be changed to suit the requirements of 
the case from year to year. 

When, as it often happens with me, beans, or early cabbages, 
peppers, egg-plants, etc., are planted in the upper part, in rows 
two and a-half feet apart, with radishes between each two rows, 
the cultivator can here be run right through the whole length of 
the garden after the radishes have all been gathered. At the end 
of rows, facing the path, short numbered stakes may be driven 
in the ground ; and if these are not over eight inches high, the 
double wheel-hoe can be run right over them without being inter- 
fered with in doing its work properly. When sowing seed or 
setting plants, the varieties and numbers are carefully noted 
down, especially in testing new sorts. The opportunity which 
this affords to compare the behavior of varieties, and to speak of 
them intelligently, greatly enhances the pleasure of making and 
taking care of a garden. 

Where there is no lack of land, it may be well to make the 
garden of double size, so that each one-half (divided lengthwise) 
may be renewed and rendered clean from time to time by seeding 
to clover and mowing once or twice before it is cropped again 
with vegetables. Or one-half may be planted to potatoes, corn, 
or tomatoes, or other field crops, and the two halves used alter- 
nately for garden purposes. The great advantage of a thorough 
system of rotation can hardly be pointed out too often. 

Farmer's Kitchen Garden — 25 



.PEAS. Late^ 

-e e- 


Folloified bif^Cucumbers 0/ jate Celery 

-j Spinach- 


-Ea rly Cabba ge — 
- /f q/l Irab ijlapj 'f: Z 

Bush LI 

Peppers, Eggplant 

Winter Squash 


Early Potatoes 


I Late Cabbage and Cauliflower 

\Early Sweet Corn Follouied by Late Celery, Late String Beans 

Later Sweet Corn 

Sweet Potato 

Early Celery 

O' STRAWBERRIES. Followed by Turnips, Spinach, Late Cabbaqe,eti:. 

Sage, Parsley, Winter Onion, Leek, Garlic, Winter Savory, Thyme. 
It yr' V ■! ■£ J Asparagus ti \ii v -Jr \j 4/ ki, ')/ ^ *• >u •/! ^ * i, \i/ m. 

■J/ 4/ \1/ \U vL 

(■•■. -". Currants. and^Gooseberries 


26 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

If the aim is simply to provide an abundance of vegetables 
and small fruits for an average-sized family, a quarter-acre gar- 
den, closely planted and well cropped, would be large enough. 
Usually we like to have the rows the long way, but local condi- 
tions differ and every plan must be fitted into its particular 

On preceding page I give plan of a one-quarter home garden 
with rows running the short way. Perennial growths, like grape 
vines, currants, gooseberries, rhubarb, asparagus, herbs, etc., are 
planted at the further end. The wide-planted vegetables, to be 
also cultivated by horse power, come next, while the close- 
planted stuff, which is to be cultivated by hand machines, is 
planted nearest the entrance, /. e., nearest the kitchen. 

A list of the seeds required to plant this quarter-acre, and 
keep it planted and cropped as persistently as it should be, is 
about as follows : 


For New Jersey, Southern 
Penna., etc.* 
I qt. — Extra Early Smooth Peas, . . . Mar. 1-15 

1 qt. — Early Dwarf Wrinkled Peas, . . . Mar. 8-25 

2 qts. — Later Wrinkled Peas, .... Mar. 8-25 
% lb. — Spinach Mar., Aug., Sept., Oct. 

1 pkt. — Celery, for plants, ..... Mar. 1-8 

2 ozs. — Barletta Onion, for pickling, . . . Mar. 1-25 
2 ozs. — Yellow Dutch Onion, for sets, . . . Mar. 1-15 

Small quantity to be started in box in window, Feb. i-i 5 
2 qts. — Onion sets, ...... Mar. 1-15 

I pkt. — Prizetaker Onion, started in box, . . . Feb. 1-15 
I oz. — Danver's Onion, ..... Mar. 1-15 

1 pkt. — Cabbage, Prize Wakefield, in box, . . Feb. i 

2 pkts. — Cabbage, Late, June 1 

I oz. — Early Beet, Eclipse, Mar. 15-25 

I oz. — Blood Turnip Beet, .... April, May, June 
I pkt. — Carrot, Early Scarlet Horn, . . . Mar. 15-25 

I pkt. — Carrot, Chantenay, .... April i-May 

I pkt. — Carrot, Danver's April I -June 

I pkt. — Pepper, Ruby King, in house, . . . Feb. i 

I pkt. — Egg Plant, New York Purple, in house, . . Feb. i 
I pkt. — Tomatoes, Earliest, in house, . . . Feb. i 

1 pkt. — Tomatoes, Main Crop, in house, . . . Feb. i 
X lb.— Radish, Earliest Turnip, . . Mar., April, May 

2 ozs. — Radish, Long Rooted, . . . June i- 15, etc. 
I pkt. — Radish, Winter, Aug.-Sept. 

3 pkts. — Lettuce, Mar., May, June 

I pkt. — Cauliflower, Earliest, .... Mar. i-June 
I oz. — Sugar Beet, Imperial Sugar, . . . April 1-15 

I pkt. — Cress, Extra Curled, April 1 

I pkt. — Kohl Rabi, Large White, . . April 1-15 and May 

*From one to two weeks later further north. 

Farmer's Kitchen Garden — 27 


I pt. — Beans, Green String, ..... May 1-15 
I pt. — Beans, Wax String, ..... June, July 
I pt. — Beans, Henderson's Bush Lima, . . . May 15 
I pt. — Sweet Corn, Extra Early Cory, .... May i 
I pt. — Sweet Corn, Medium, ..... May 8 

1 pt. — Sweet Corn, Late, . . . May 8, June, July i 

2 ozs. — Cucumbers, Long Green or Early White Spine, May to June 
I oz. — Musk Melon, Emerald Gem, . . . May 15 
I pkt. — Water Melon, . . . . . . May 15 

I pkt. — Squash, Summer Crookneck, . . . May 15 

I pkt. — Squash, Hubbard, ..... May 15 

I pkt. — Parsley, Double Curled, .... Mar. 15 

I pkt. — Sage, ........ June 

I oz. — Ruta Baga, ....... July-Aug. 

I oz. — Turnip, Red Top .Strap Leaved, . , July-Aug. 

Yz bus. — Early Potatoes, ..... April 15 

100 — Sweet Potato Plants, .... May 15 to June i 

240 — Strawberry Plants, ...... April 1-15 

50 — Asparagus Roots, 2 years old, .... April i 

20 — Rhubarb Roots, ...... April i 

1 2 — Currant Bushes, ....... April i 

8 — Gooseberry Bushes, ...... April i 

40 — Raspberries, Red and Black, .... April i 

10 — Grape Vines, ....... April i 

This list may be varied more or less, according to taste or 
notion. Most gardeners will like to plant some novelties, and 
many have special favorites among the vegetables. It is but fair 
that all whims, in this line, should be humored. 

Let us add one more word of advice in regard to the pur- 
chase of seeds. I find it most economical, and surely most 
convenient, to purchase at least a double quantity of seed of all 
my staple varieties which can be depended upon to retain their 
vitality for a number of years, especially cabbage, cauliflower, 
beet, carrot, turnip, pepper, tomato, cucumber, melon, squash, 
radish, lettuce, etc. I can buy such seeds cheaper in quantity 
than by the packet or ounce. 

These seeds are always on hand when wanted, and of some 
of them we desire to sow little patches quite frequently during 
the summer. What is left one year comes handy next year, and 
after the first year we know exactly what kind of vegetables we 
will get from the once-tested seed. 




" Look before you leap." 

iHILE the home gardener must take the cir- 
cumstances as he finds them, and try to make 
the most of opportunities ready-made for 
him, the prospective gardener " for profit 
only " cannot safely do so. He must select 
the most favorable conditions, or run the risk 
of seeing his proud business structure tumble 
down, and his high anticipations wrecked at 
the very start. It will not do for him to select a location most 
favorable to the production of perfect vegetables, if such loca- 
tion has no market for them. Of the two considerations, that of 
market opportunity stands first. Before locating anywhere with 
the intent of growing garden vegetables for money, the near 
markets need the closest study. The difficulty often encountered 
of putting stuff already produced on a paying market, and to 
turn it into cash, is the chief cause of failure with many other- 
wise good gardeners. Vast quantities of choice vegetables are 
left to spoil every season simply for want of a local demand for 
them. The great cities, as a rule, are well supplied with the pro- 
ducts of the garden by growers near by, and the competition 
there is large, often ruinous, at least to the extravagant hopes of 
the shipper ; hence the dependence on distant city markets to be 
reached through the instrumentality of express companies and 
railroads as carriers, is not often justified except in case of the 
early southern products, and of such vegetables as tomatoes, 
onions, sweet potatoes, melons and others that are grown in the 
farm garden (truck farm) on an extensive scale. 

The growers of vegetables for market may be divided into 
three classes, as follows, viz. : 

First. — The southern truck farmer who grows early stuff for 

northern markets. His location must be selected with especial 

regard to his railroad connections with the principal city markets, 

nearness to station, and the conditions favorable to earliness and 


Requirements of Success in Market Gardening. — 29 

perfect development of vegetables, such as rich and warm soil, 
southern exposure, etc. 

Second. — The market gardener near the large cities who 
raises garden stuff in day-time, and draws his products to the 
city, and city stable manure back to the farm, during the night, 
leading a life of unceasing toil, in perpetual fight with competi- 
tion, but receiving good pay for skillful management. 

Third. — The local gardener whose aim it is to fill a compara- 
tively small demand in his immediate neighborhood. Sometimes 
he gives his goods to grocers in near towns to sell on commis- 
sion ; or sells to them to retail to their customers ; or he loads 
up his wagon and peddles his crops directly to the consumer. 
He has the advantage of cheap land, cheap help, and few expenses 
generally, and if he is a good salesman as well as a good 
gardener, he may do well. 

Localities near summer resorts and watering places afford 
special chances. Many of the gardeners near such places, as for 
instance along the beach in New Jersey, in the vicinity of Long 
Branch, have what might be called a " soft snap " so far as mar- 
keting is concerned. The demand for choice vegetables here is 
reasonably large at any time, but reaches enormous proportions 
when city people have taken up their abode amongst them, and 
prices often rise to excessive figures just at a time when the 
season is naturally most favorable to the production of these 
articles. The established gardens in these sections have their 
regular customers, and little trouble in disposing of good pro- 
duce. The truckers or peddlers who run their vegetable wagons 
during the bathing season, supplying their regular customers 
(the cottagers, boarding houses and hotels), make their daily calls 
at the gardens, and load their wagons, paying high prices for 
produce for which in turn they charge excessive, often outrageous 
rates to the w-^althy, city-bred consumer. Here money is plenty, 
easily earned, and easily spent. Some of these people run 
gardens and truck wagons in combination ; they supply the con- 
sumer directly, charging for their own produce the high retail 
price of the truckers ; and their profit for two months often keeps 
them in easy circumstances for the whole year. Others sell both 
to the regular truckers and to the grocers in the near towns ; but 
there is seldom much difficulty encountered by the good sales- 
man to sell what once is produced. Here, as might be expected, 
land is high, often ^500 to ^1,000 per acre ; but considering the 
market advantages it is much cheaper at that figure than the 
$\o an acre clay lands of Virginia colonies, or the $}^o an acre 
white sand plains of Central or South Jersey. 

As nearness to the house or kitchen (in this case the centre 
of demand) is one of the first considerations in the location of the 
home garden, so is nearness to a market with good steady 

30 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

demand the chief point of importance for every market gardener. 
It makes considerable difference whether produce has to be hauled 
to market, and manure back to the farm, one mile or ten. Often 
a sudden scarcity of a certain article in the market, caused by 
delayed shipments, or by other chances, can at once be taken 
advantage of by the near grower who is enabled to rush the 
demanded article to market at short notice, and to benefit by the 
higher prices, while the gardener living at a greater distance 
cannot do as well. This advantage alone will outweigh even a 
considerable difference in price or rent of land. 

The next consideration, and one of scarcely less importance, 
is the suitability of the land. The soil should be a warm, sandy 
loam, level or slightly sloping to the south or south-east, free 
from obstruction, trees, etc., and in a good state of cultivation. 


Vegetable House, Windmill and Hotbeds. 

Want of fertility can be remedied in time, and is not as grave a 
defect as faulty composition of soil would be. Nor should the 
soil be excessively weedy, although this defect can also be 
remedied hy perseverance and painstaking, and at some expense. 
Natural drainage is desirable, but if not perfect, should be made 
so by thorough underdraining. A piece of drained muck-land 
is generally a valuable addition to the upland property. 

Plenty of water is one of the chief needs of the market 
gardener, and the careful calculator will have an eye on the chance 
of supply when selecting his location. A running .stream, an 
artesian well, or a pond in close proximity to the beds and 
buildings, so situated that it can be readily utilized for the various 
purposes of watering, irrigating, washing vegetables, etc., is 
likely to be worth hundreds of dollars to the owner. If such a 

Requirements of Success in Market Gardening.— 3 ^ 

convenience is not in existence, the next best thing is a good 
large cistern near the vegetable house. This latter may be a 
cheaply constructed affair, of any desired or needed size, with 
frost-proof cellar for storing vegetables, a washing department 
above, with tank ; also a storage room for tools, seeds and other 
equipments. A good well is a necessary convenience, and will 
supply water when the cistern fails. 

The degree of success in gardening depends largely on the 
abundance and steadiness of the water supply; for the liquid 
element is needed in vast quantities, and must be furnished at 
just the time when the crops require it. Hand sprinklers and 
force pumps are yet the common means of distributing water 
over the often large area of the beds in many market gardens, 
but through the employment of a modern windmill, tanks and 
rubber hose in their capacities as forcing power, storage room, 
and carrier, respectively, this originally tedious job can be made 
comparatively pleasant and inexpensive. 

This chapter, in my estimation, would not be complete with- 
out an earnest word of warning to the new beginner. I only 
follow the plain path of duty when I point out the dangers of 
engaging in this (as in any other) business on a larger scale than 
experience and available capital will warrant. Profits are easily 
figured out on paper, and often allure the novice into a feeling of 
unjustified confidence and security. Debts are contracted, to be 
paid with the prospective profits ; but such profits do not often 
materialize. It is safe to commence on five acres of good land 
paid for, and with implements and conveniences also paid for. It 
is very risky to start in on twenty acres, mortgaged for half their 
value, and to work with tools obtained on credit. The former plan 
admits of a gradual increase of the business on a safe foundation, 
and as increasing experience and means warrant. The latter 
plan leads the gardener into the meshes of the usurer — the foolish 
fly into the spider's web — and to ultimate ruin. Step by step 
you will rise from the foot of the ladder to the height of lasting 
prosperity ; but the pretender who surreptitiously usurps a high 
position will come to a sudden, and perhaps deserved fall. 




" Doing the right thing at the right time." 

HE all-important secret might be told in a few 
words : " Cater to the demands of the market." 
Produce just such articles as the market calls for, 
and offer them for sale at just such times as 
people want to buy. The more favorable the 
combination of circumstances of your own 
selection — market, locality, soil, and methods — 
the brighter are the chances of success. Start 
in modestly to fill a want already existing. Try to have your 
vegetables in the market a few days, or even a few hours 
sooner than your competitor. Take to market only the 
choicest, and keep the poorer stuff out of your customer's sight, 
thus making a reputation for yourself and your wares, and your 
success will be at once assured and permanent. Study the pecu- 
liarities of your market, and try to hit the periodically appearing 
demands for certain articles. The best at the right time brings 
the profits. 

It is hardly ever advisable to attempt educating people's 
tastes. Give your customers exactly what they want ; and only 
after having gained a firm footing among them, or gained a 
reputation for yourself, would it be wise to begin, cautiously, the 
work of creating a demand for better things by exposing them 
in tempting display to people's attention. There is a rule of 
fashion in markets as well as in attire. When a certain kind of 
vegetable or fruit is popular in a certain market, it will sell 
quicker and at higher prices than even a better kind with which 
people are not acquainted. The process of educating people's 
taste is always an exceedingly slow one; and the gardener 
should not make the mistake of growing any thing new and 
superior, but as yet unknown to customers, in the vain hope of 
gaining an advantage over his competitors, unless the superiority 
lies in outside attractiveness — large size, fine color, perfect shape, 
etc. — and thus appeals to the sight. High quality alone, without 
" catchy " appearance, is at a discount in the open markets. 

Uniformity is one of the chief essentials in making produce 
attractive and salable. Particular pains should be taken to have 

Hints in Marketing. — 33 

all the vegetables in one bunch or package — the radishes, beets, 
turnips, celery, or whatever they may be — as near like each 
other as careful selection can make them. Have everything 
clean and attractive. If the articles to be marketed are of uneven 
size, grade them with greatest care, and put the larger ones in 

Radishes, Properly Graded. 

Radishes, Not Graded. 

one package, and the smaller ones in another. Careful sorting 
and packing is just as necessary as skillful growing. 

Regularity of supply is still another point of importance. 
No matter how good and how abundant your produce may be, 

Strawberries, Mixed and Graded. 

it will not be appreciated by your customers unless you furnish 
them regularly just what they want, and when they want it. This 
inspires confidence and reliance upon you, and insures permanent 
patronage even at higher prices than customers would be willing 
to give to the man who offers his wares spasmodically, at irregular 
intervals, or at rare occasions. 

It is well worth taking to heart what one of South Jersey's 
most successful market gardeners says on this subject: 

" If you are catering to the appetites of the town's people, 
and desire to extend your list of vegetables, plant but sparingly 

34— How to Make the Garden Pay. 

of such varieties as have not yet come into general use, until the 
demand for them is created. 

" Even to-day there are hundreds of families in every large 
town, and thousands of farmers upon whose table spinach, kale, 
cauliflower, salsify, and a long list of other vegetables, both tooth- 
some and healthful, has never appeared. To encourage this 
trade takes time, patience, and no little outlay in labor and cash. 

" It has been, and always will be, that each market has its 
favorites who can sell more at the same price than other growers. 
If to dispose of your load to-day, you sacrifice the price you 
would be sure of to-morrow ; if to-morrow you find yourself 
compelled to make further concessions in order to sell your 
products, you may be sure the necessity for making concessions 
will continue from day to day, until the prices of all goods in 
your line are depressed below the line of profit to yourself and 
all other gardeners ; and you will have lost the esteem and good- 
will of your competitors without being better thought of by 
dealers and customers. 

" Retailers like to deal with producers whose word is as 
good as their bond. They desire to be sure that in every basket, 
box, or barrel the uniform goodness of the contents reaches clear 
to the bottom. They like men who, when taking orders to-day 
for to-morrow, can be depended upon to live up to their engage- 
ments ; whose vegetables are always washed clean, tied tightly, 
arranged neatly, and whose call can be counted upon with never- 
failing certainty every week-day, and under all conditions of 



" Of nothing, nothing comes." 

HE market gardener can produce in a single season 
enormous, almost incredible quantities of vege- 
tables on an acre of ground when systematically 
and continuously cropped. The quality of most 
of this produce depends on its succulence and 
tenderness, and its money value is greatly influ- 
enced by its size and earliness, all of which 
features are the result of rapid, thrifty growth, 
which in turn, is only made possible by the presence of an 
abundance of available plant food in the soil, especially of the 
nitrogenous element, which is the chief promoter of succulent 
growth, in bulbous root, leaf, and stalk. 

The prices which the gardener obtains for his products, 
compared with those realized by the farmer for grain, hay, 
potatoes, etc., are such that he can much better afford to use 
large quantities of manure, and especially pay out money for 
them, than the farmer with whom it is only too often the query 
whether he can profitably use any kind of manure which he has 
to buy. There is considerable doubt in my mind that wheat, 
oats, corn, and products of this sort can be raised at present 
market rates with profits worth speaking of when manure, 
whether yard or concentrated, has to be bought at the figures 
usually paid by the market gardener. The latter, as a rule, finds 
that the more and the better manure he uses, whether bought or 
home-made, from stable or factory, the larger will be his profits. 
Manure, good manure, and plenty of it — that is the corner-stone 
of successful market gardening. 

This assertion is not likely to be disputed. But there are 
economical or methodical ways of using it, and there are wasteful 
ones. It is not always easy to determine, in which shape, in 
what quantities, and to what crops manure can be applied so it 
will do the most good. The importance of the subject demands 
our earnest consideration, deep thought and study; but we 
should look at the question entirely dispassionate, without 


36 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

preconceived preferences in favor of one manure, or prejudices 
against the other. There are gardeners who claim every thing 
for stable manure, and find no good in " fertilizers ; " and there 
are others who put their whole reliance in the latter. As in 
most other cases we will find the " golden mean " by far the 
safest course to pursue. 

Stable manure is yet the favorite article with the masses of 
gardeners. If reasonably free from weed-seeds and properly 
handled, it is a perfectly safe and reliable fertilizer, and when 
made from grain-fed animals, as most likely the case in city 
stables, well worth ^2,00 per ton, if it can be drawn without in- 
curring additional expense, or at a time when no other work is 
pressing. One ton of ordinary, mixed, fresh farm or stable ma- 
nure contains about 8 lbs. of nitrogen, 10 lbs. of potash and 4 lbs. 
of phosphoric acid. At current retail rates for these plant-foods, 
their chemical value would be about as follows, viz.: 

8 lbs. nitrogen at 16 cents, $1 28 

10 " potash at 5 cents, 50 

4 " phosphoric acid at 5 cents, 20 

Total, $1 98 

When thoroughly rotted this manure contains a still larger 
percentage of the plant foods, hence is not only more valuable 
for that reason but also on account of its readiness for applica- 
tion, and immediate availability. When we further consider the 
mechanical effect of this manure, the opening and loosening of 
the soil, allowing air and warmth to enter it more freely — we 
will not be apt to underrate its value. 

A different thing it would be, if in addition to first cost, we 
were obliged to incur much extra expense in hauling it a consid- 
erable distance ; if we were to employ teams, and hire men. I 
think I would use good stable manure in moderate quantities if 
the aggregate cost amounted to ;^2.oo, and very sparingly at a 
higher figure. The manure account is a big item with the rank 
and file of gardeners near the cities who use from 50 to 100 tons 
of stable manure to the acre annually. As we shall see later on,, 
the application of even the smaller amount is excessive, and often 
a sinful and preventable waste. 

Composting Manure. — Raw manure is not in condition for 
the market gardener's purposes, except in rare cases. It may do 
for sweet corn, and comes in play for heating hot-beds, or raising 
mushrooms ; but for general garden crops it must be composted, 
and made as fine as possible. There need be no loss of fertilizing 
materials or elements if the compost heap is properly made 
as shown in illustration next page. Pile it up in a square heap 
with perpendicular sides and flat top, four or five feet high, and 

Manures for the Garden. — 37 

as wide and long as may be required. Let it come to a heat, 
and fork the mass over from time to time until it is in the 
desired condition. It takes time and labor, adding to the origi- 
nal cost, and in deciding on the price he can afford to pay for 
raw manure originally, the gardener will have to take this feature 
in consideration. 

These heaps may be made during autumn and early winter 
right on the arable land, and the material will generally be ready 
to be spread upon the soil where wanted, when the time for 
planting it with spring crops has arrived. It is absolutely neces- 
sary that these heaps be of considerable depth, not less than four 
feet, in order to prevent the rain-water from leaching clear 
through, and washing away valuable food elements. 

Composting Stable Manure. 

It will be all the better if compost heaps of this kind can be 
made under shelter, and especially if liquids from the barnyard, 
or soapsuds from the wash house, or similar liquid wastes can 
be occasionally poured upon them. The compost heap, while 
in process of construction, is the most appropriate dumping place 
for vegetable rubbish of all sorts, the carcasses of animals (larger 
ones cut in pieces), house and kitchen slops, and other waste 
materials. Refuse matter of this kind often adds greatly to the 
value and effectiveness of the compost. 

What we should avoid most scrupulously, however, is the 
addition of any material containing live weed seeds, or of vege- 
table rubbish infected with plant diseases. The best way, indeed 
the only safe way of purifying old tomato and potato stalks, 
celery tops, etc., that had once been attacked, however slightly, 
by blights or other diseases, is to burn them to ashes, and this 
cannot be done too soon for the safety of succeeding crops. 
Even manure from animals fed on blighted or scabby vegetation, 
tubers, and the like, should be rejected for gardening purposes. 

In many of our inland villages and cities quantities of good 
manure from livery stables, from the premises of suburban 

38 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

owners of a family cow, poultry, and other animals, from black- 
smith shops, etc., can be had for the hauling, or at a mere 
nominal price. A dairyman, three miles from here, has great 
heaps of old cow manure which he is glad to sell for 30 cents a 
one-horse load (say a ton) or 50 cents a two-horse load (say two 
tons). Often the nearby gardener has quite a bonanza. The 
opportunities are too good to be missed. When work is slack, 
and roads good, the time cannot be put to better use than for 
hauling manure, day after day. Put it on thick ; it will pay. I 
usually buy my manure supply from the Buffalo Stockyards. I 
have to pay more for it than is asked by the dairyman already 
mentioned. But the station is only half a mile from the place. 
I find it too expensive to have to send three miles after a load 
when we have other work to do. 




" Prove all things ; hold fast that which is good." 

[OMMERCIAL fertilizers are coming more and 
more in general use with market gardeners, and 
are now quite extensively substituted for stable 
manure — and that not without good reason. If 
we examine a good high-grade commercial fer- 
tilizer, analyzing 5 per cent, available nitrogen, 
8 per cent, phosphoric acid, and 8 per cent, potash, 
we will find that one ton of it contains, besides 
less valuable ingredients : 

100 lbs. nitrogen, estimated at 16 cents, - $16 00 

160 " phosphoric acid, at 6 cents, - - 9 60 
160 " potash, at 5 cents, - - - - 8 00 

Total, $33 60 

Such a fertilizer probably retails at $^^ to $40 per ton, and 
is fully worth it. All this large amount of plant food, and per- 
haps one-half more, can be drawn in a single load, while it will 
take ten such loads of stable manure to supply the same amount 
of nitrogen (and that in a far less available condition), sixteen 
such loads to supply the same amount of potash, and forty to 
supply the same amount of phosphoric acid. On an average, 
therefore, the substitution of the commercial fertilizer for barn- 
yard manure will save 14-15 of the labor and expense in hauling 
and in application, besides all the additional trouble and labor 
of composting. 

In a further comparison of the two manures we come to the 
following results : A moderately liberal application of compost 
requires 50 tons to the acre. This means vhe application of 400 
lbs. of nitrogen, 500 lbs. of potash, and 200 lbs. of phosphoric 
acid, at a costof^ 100 to ^125, not taking in consideration the large 
expense of handling and applying it. 

Men most liberal in the use of commercial fertilizers apply, 
and recommend to use, one ton per acre, at a cost of less than 


40 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

$$0, expense of handling and application included. Many after 
having tried a one-half ton application find fault if the results do 
not give as good a showing as a ^150 application of compost. 
This is not common sense. 

Soils that have been utilized for the production of garden 
crops for many years, and are yet filled with humus from previous 
applications of compost, usually contain considerable potash and 
phosphoric acid, which elements of plant food, in these heavy 
dressings of yard manure, are always applied greatly in excess of 
the needs of crops, and permitted to accumulate in the soil. The 
nitrogen alone, however, is taken up by the plants, or leached 
out of the soil as fast as rendered available. When we consider 
that nitrogen is the chief generator of stalk and leaf, and promoter 
of rapid and succulent growth, and that the conversion of unavail- 
able forms of nitrogen into available nitrates (the so-called 
nitrification) is exceedingly slow in the early (cooler) part of 
spring, we have the explanation of the effectiveness of a manure 
application holding 400 lbs. of the most important substance of 
plant nutriment, and of the often comparatively meagre results 
obtained from a dressing of fertilizer having only one-quarter or 
less of that quantity of nitrogen. Bone meal, although rich in 
phosphoric acid, which is not superabundant in stable manure, 
and therefore frequently used in alternation with the former, gen- 
erally with excellent results, has the same scanty supply of 
nitrogen as the high-grade complete fertilizers. This nitrogen in 
commercial fertilizers, however, is generally in a more readily 
available form than that in yard manure ; and, all points taken in 
consideration, a rotation of the several manures should be adopted 
as it has proved far preferable to the exclusive or continued use 
of one or the other of them alone. The heavy tax that the 
demands of the crops impose upon the gardener can often be 
materially lightened in this way. 

Some of our best gardeners go much further. They use 
what stable manure is made on the place, and put all the money 
to be expended for manures in complete commercial fertilizers, 
and nitrates (spoken of in next chapter). I have grown excellent 
vegetables of all kinds on poor soil by this^system of feeding the 
crops ; but I miss the quickening and loosening effect upon the 
soil which is found in an occasional ration of compost. Hence 
I prefer the rotation system of manuring, and if for some reason 
it should become necessary or unavoidable to use commercial 
fertilizers uninterruptedly, I would at least grow and plow under 
an occasional green crop, such as clover, black peas or southern 
cow beans, peas, weeds, etc., merely for the purpose of adding 
decaying vegetable matter to the soil, and thus opening it to the 
ingress of air and moisture. Its state of concentration fits the 
commercial fertilizer especially for application to growing crops, 

Manures for the Garden. — 41 

or to second and succeeding crops planted between rows of 
vegetables still standing. 

This question has still another aspect. Market gardeners 
obtain the bulk of their manure supply from city stables, and the 
demand for the article has raised its price to a figure forcing the 
shrewd gardener to consider whether he can afford to use the 
article or not. Here we have a case where supply is not influenced 
by demand. Nearly the same quantity of manure would be pro- 
duced in cities whether it is disposed of at $2.00, or at 10 cents 
a load, or whether the owner were compelled to pay some one 
;^i.OOaload to take it off the premises. The competition of 
buyers makes the article too high-priced for their own welfare. 
Use more fertilizers, and less manure from the city stables, and 
let the decreased demand force down the excessive prices. 

Even distribution over the area to be enriched is the chief 
point of importance in the application of all concentrated 
manures. This can be attained in no easier and more perfect 
way than by the use of a good fertilizer drill, such as for instance 
is attached to the Empire grain drill. The box holds about one 
bag (200 lbs.) of fertilizer. Place the bags at convenient dis- 
tances, scatteringly, over the area to be fertilized, fill the recep- 
tacle of the drill, and commence operations, refilling as needed. 
In heavy applications it may be necessary to go over the area 
repeatedly, and preferably in different directions, either crosswise 
or diagonally across the preceding application. If such a drill is 
not at hand, as Very likely the case with the market gardener, the 
stuff may be sown after plowing, and a thorough harrowing be 
given afterwards. In sowing a ton to an acre, which is a pretty 
heavy application, the operator will have to make close bouts, 
scatter with full hand, and then probably be compelled to repeat 
the operation crosswise of the first sowing, in order to put on the 
full quantity. 

For convenience in sowing by hand it is always advisable to 
moisten the fertilizer before it is applied. Empty a bagful on a 
tight barn floor, or in a tight wagon box, spread the fertilizer out 
in an even layer, then sprinkle water over it ; next put on another 
layer of fertilizer, apply water as before, and finally shovel the 
whole mass over until it is thoroughly mixed, and uniformly 
damp. It can then be sowed without filling the air around the 
party whose hands scatter it, with the disagreeable dust. 

There is no reason to fear ill results from " too much " fer- 
tilizer, provided it is evenly distributed or thoroughly mixed 
through the soil. Stinginess in this item is poor economy. 



" Cheapest is what serves its purpose best." 

'O other single manurial element gives to the 
progressive gardener the opportunities and 
possibilities that he finds in nitrates, especially 
in the form of nitrate of soda or Chili saltpeter, 
vast natural deposits of which exist in various 
districts of South America. The effect of this 
salt on many garden crops is often truly 
wonderful, and can generally be observed within 
a few days after its application in the darker foliage and remark- 
ably thrifty growth. It is readily soluble, and its nitrogen in 
the exact form best suited for immediate absorption by the roots 
of plants. 

The body of gardeners move but slowly, and adopt new 
things and means reluctantly. So while the merits and possibili- 
ties of nitrate of soda have often been pointed out in the columns 
of the agricultural press, the great public, fortunately for the 
progressive few, knows nothing about it, a circumstance which 
gives it into the hands of the shrewd manager to excel his slower 
competitor with ease, and to beat him in every market. The 
gardener who refuses to use nitrate of soda especially for his 
early crops, neglects to take advantage of one of his very best 

We must bear in mind that the natural process of converting 
unavailable nitrogenous matter into soluble nitrates is very slow 
in early spring ; that, in order to furnish as much as early crops 
require at this time, we were compelled to apply the enormous 
quantities of stable compost with its excess of mineral elements 
of plant food; and that the deficiency cannot be supplied by the 
so-called complete concentrated fertilizers containing only lOO 
lbs. of nitrogen to the ton, except when applied in large quanti- 
ties. In nitrates we have just the element of plant- food needed, 
and by applying it in small quantities about as fast as the plants 
can utilize it, we have it in our power to stimulate a thrifty 

Manures for the Garden. — 43 

growth of foliage at comparatively slight expense, and at a time 
when the product will bring the most money in market. 

Nitrate of soda contains about 16 or 17 percent, of nitrogen, 
but this in a most soluble form, so that it would not be safe to 
use it in large quantities at a time, for what is not at once 
converted into plant structure, will gradually sink through the 
soil as it would through a sieve, and be lost. The most eco- 
nomical and most satisfactory method is the application of not 
over 100 lbs. to 150 lbs. per acre repeated at intervals of about 
two weeks. If lumpy, it should be pounded fine before applying 
it. Scatter it over the ground when the foliage of plants is 
perfectly dry, as it is apt to scorch the leaves otherwise, or still 
better, apply just before or during a rain, when it will be dissolved 
and carried into the soil at once. Sprinkling over the land in 
solution is a safe but generally less convenient mode of applica- 
tion. It costs from ^40 to ^50 per ton, and can be obtained from 
the large fertilizer manufacturers. 

Sulphate of ammonia, a by-product of gas works, contains 
about 20 per cent, of nitrogen ; but this is in a more stable form, 
as it has to undergo the transformation into nitrate before being 
readily available. Its effect is naturally slower, but more lasting, 
and it can be applied in larger quantities, or in single applications, 
without fear of loss. It may take the place of nitrate of soda 
during the warmer part of the season with gratifying results, and 
in combination with that salt at any time, the latter for immediate 
effect, the former as a more gradual source of supply. 

The price of sulphate of ammonia is a trifle higher than that 
of nitrate of soda. Undoubtedly we have in these two salts the 
cheapest forms of available nitrogen, and ready means to produce 
immediate and often astonishing results. I cannot refrain from 
repeating the statement, that the gardener who scorns the use of 
these nitrogen compounds will have a hard stand against the 
competition of growers who put on the market the crisp, succu- 
lent and early vegetables that can be so easily produced in all 
their perfection by the judicious application of nitrate of soda and 
sulphate of ammonia. 

Hen manure might have been mentioned in the chapter on 
stable compost. It is especially rich in nitrogen. A ton when 
fresh contains more than twice, and a ton of the dry article more 
than four times the quantity of nitrogen contained in a ton of 
common stable manure. This will give an idea of its value for 
the garden. I always compost it with loam, muck, coal ashes, 
leaves, etc., apply after plowing (broadcast) and stir it into the 
surface soil by means of harrow, cultivator and rake. My neigh- 
bors sometimes ask me what new variety of spinach, parsley, etc., 
I have in my family garden, and request me to procure some seed 
of it for them. Yet the " new " and wonderfully thrifty vegetable 

44 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

most likely is none other than one of the standard sorts they have 
in their own garden, the only difference being that my ground 
was manured with one ton per acre of high-grade complete 
fertilizer, and a good top dressing of composted hen manure, with 
frequent but very light applications of nitrate of soda, while my 
neighbors grounds were fed with extravagant quantities of stable 
compost. The same method of feeding crops has always enabled 
me to grow celery and other plants, and celery for the table also, 
in great perfection. 

Every year's experience has added strength to my conviction 
that in nitrate of soda and well-preserved poultry manure we 
have the most valuable because most quickening and most 
effective fertilizing substances within our reach. The former has 
an especially sure and wonderful stimulating effect on spinach, 
beets, cabbage, cauliflower, and more or less so on other crops, 
while poultry manure seems to benefit almost all vegetation 
more uniformly, but always to a remarkable degree. Let no 
gardener despise these two manures, or neglect to take advan- 
tage of every opportunity to procure them whenever they are 
procurable at a reasonable price. 

The exact amount which the gardener can afford to pay for 
them depends on their quality and state of preservation. Fresh 
hen manure, reasonably dry and from well-fed hens, contains in 
each ton about 

32 lbs. nitrogen, estimated at 16 cents, $5 12 

30 " phosphoric acid at 6 cents, i 80 

16 " potash at 5 cents, 80 

Total value, $'j 72 

This is the value of the clear droppings. Usually there are 
foreign additions, such as dry soil, muck, sifted coal ashes, or 
other materials used as absorbents, which always justify a lower- 
ing of the valuation. If wet and leached, such manure may not 
be worth half of the figures given. We must take all circum- 
stances in consideration when attempting to estimate the 
commercial value of these domestic manures. I only wish to 
emphasize that poultry manure is worth saving in best condition. 
Don't use wood ashes or lime as absorbing materials under the 
perches and on the henhouse floor. They drive out ammonia. 
Dry muck is best, and an occasional sprinkling of kainit will 
tend to preserve the ammonia. The kainit also adds potash, 
with which this kind of manure is less abundantly supplied than 
with nitrogen and phosphoric acid. 

In cotton-seed meal we have another nitrogenous manure of 
special value for the market gardener, but as yet very little 
appreciated or used. A ton contains about 132 lbs. of nitrogen. 

Manures for the Garden. — 45 

30 lbs. of phosphoric acid, and 20 lbs. of potash, and is 
worth fully ^20-00 as manure. When mixed and composted 
with stable manure it increases the comparative amount of nitro- 
gen of the latter, and therefore its effectiveness. Gardeners who 
keep stock should feed cotton-seed meal to the fullest extent that 
it is safe to do. It then gives double returns, namely, in increase 
of flesh, and improvement of manure. Where nitrate of soda, 
on account of distance from source of supply and consequent 
high cost, cannot be used advantageously, cotton-seed meal can 
often be had at a comparatively low price, and should then be 
used in place of the nitrogen compounds. 

Potash in any special form is hardly ever needed for the 
crops on common garden land, since stable compost and the 
average high-grade complete fertilizer supply an abundance, and 
often an excess of it, to the crops already. A different thing it 

Spinach Fed with Nitrates, etc., and as Usually Grown. 

is with peaty and mucky soils. These have already an abun- 
dance of the nitrogenous element, although mostly in fixed 
combinations, and hence in an unavailable form. On the other 
hand, the mineral elements are scantily supplied. Stable manure 
would add a comparatively large amount of nitrogen at great 
expense to the already vast store, and but small quantities of 
phosphoric acid and potash. Such lands, for that reason, can be 
made productive in the cheapest and quickest way by applications 
of phosphoric acid and potash, in the form of a plain superphos- 
phate, or bone meal, in combination with wood ashes. The 
alkaline nature of the latter neutralizes injurious acids, and helps 
to make nitrogen available. Unleached wood ashes can be 
applied at the rate of 100 bushels and more per acre with perfect 
safety, and leached ashes in much larger quantities. As means 
of protecting crops against the ill effects of a prolonged drought, 
however, wood ashes have no mean value on any soil. I will 
refer to this subject in a future chapter. 

The question is often referred to me : " Will it pay a renter to 
apply manures on land that he will or may have to vacate the next 

46 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

season ? " This can have but one answer. It stands between 
the use of manure and the unsatisfactory outcome of the business. 
No manure — no paying crop. But in case of pending removal, it 
will always be safest to use the quick-acting commercial fertilizers, 
and nitrate of soda in preference to the slower and more lasting 
stable manure. The nitrate of soda is all and entirely utilized for 
the next crop, or leached out of the soil, and of the commercial 
fertilizer only an inconsiderable part will be left to increase the 
successor's crops, if the soil is as thoroughly cropped all 
through the season as it should be. Stable manure is apt to 
donate only a part of its plant-foods for the production of the 
same year's crops, and much of the expensive material would 
probably be left for the benefit of the renter's successor. 




" Only the best is good enough." 

T is not many years since the spade was considered the 
first requisite in the garden. Now we know that a 
good two-horse plow does the work of turning the 
soil not only much faster, and with less labor to man 
than spade or spading fork, but much better at the 
same time. Good plows are now on sale at every 
hardware store, and used by all intelligent farmers. 
In fact there are more good plows than good plowers ; 
for simple as the operation seems to be, but few people know 
how to do it to best advantage. Straight lines and even furrows 
require much less work than crooked lines and irregular furrows. 
There is a knack about this natural to some people, but not 
easily acquired by the average " hired man," and the gardener, H 
he desires to have the work done well, must do it himself or 

g ^^^^-^m 

Sample of Faulty Plowing. 

instruct his men how to do it. Suppose we have a strip of land 
to plow of shape as here shown, and situated between strips of 
standing crops. Even a poor plowman will find little difficulty 
of striking out the furrow in centre, and to go on all right for 
awhile ; but as the plowing progresses, and the team naturally 


48: — How to Make the Garden Pay, 

Cutaway Harrow. 

crowds towards the plowed ground when nearing the end of long 
furrows on each side, the corners become rounded, and when the 
piece is all plowed clear to the sides, the four corners will still be 
left untouched, and must be finished with an immoderate amount 
of turning, and at last will be poorly done, or left partly unfin- 
ished. A good plowman will strike his last furrow exactly on 
the very edge of the piece. 

The market gardener also needs a good, light one-hbrse 
plow, to plow up smaller patches for second and third crops, in 
cultivating and hilling-up celery, and for various other uses. 
Every hardware dealer keeps them. 

Subsoiling is not absolutely necessary for warm loam with 
porous subsoil, but generally of considerable benefit for soils 

resting on a heavier and com- 
pact lower stratum. Such a 
plow following in the furrow 
made by the common plow, is 
intended to lift and break the 
layer next under the top soil. 
It is not often used in the home 
garden. Among modern har- 
rows we have some most 
excellent tools designed and suited for special purposes. The 
" Cutaway " is a deep cutting implement, and in many cases can 
almost take the place of the plow, but it is hardly necessary for the 
market gardener. The "Disk" 
is another good farmer's har- 
row, and doing thorough work, 
especially on freshly-turned, 
tough sod ; but an "Acme " 
will answer as well as any 
other for breaking up and 
fining the mellow lands in the 
garden. In an emergency 
almost any of the older-style, 
plain steel-tooth harrows may be used. The " Thomas* 
Smoothing" harrow, however, is so useful and effective in 
finishing off a piece of land for sowing seeds, in killing 
weeds in corn and potato fields early in the season, that 
neither farmer nor gardener can well afford to do without it. 
The diligent use of this implement will bring the soil in fine 
tilth, and often leave it in moderately good shape for sowing or 
planting, but it will always be advisable to apply the finishing 
touch with a Meeker Disk harrow, which does as good work 
as a steel-rake, and much faster and more conveniently. We 
also need a good spade; a spading fork ; sharp, light hoes; dibbers, 
etc. The latter are simply pieces of hardwood, with an iron 

Acme Harrow. 

Garden Implements — 49 

Old-style Dibbers. 

point and a convenient handle. The new style of dibber, here 
illustrated, consisting of a flat steel blade with handle, is a great 
improvement on the old tool, and I hope will soon be put on sale 
generally. The home gardener, 
who generally sows seeds by 
hand, needs a marker, which may 
be a cheap, home-made affair, 
constructed from a piece of 
scantling 4 by 4, with three or 
four sharpened strips of inch 
board securely nailed on in front, 
or mortised in, so that the pointed 
ends are 15 or 16 inches apart. Two poles are 
adjusted for handles. The marker may be made 
reversible, with another set of teeth, but only 12 
inches apart, pointing in the opposite direction. 
The market gardener will also need a tool of this 
kind for marking the rows where he wishes to plant 
onion sets, or to set lettuce plants, etc. The distance 
between the teeth must be regulated according to his 
purpose, A marker of this kind is here illustrated. 
It has the disadvantage, however, of compelling 
the operator to walk backwards, or at least sideways. If you 

want long rows as 
straight as is always 
desirable for neat 
work, it would be bet- 
ter to adjust a set of 
handles in the rear, 

by which one person 
Marker for Home Garden. can steer the imple- 

ment while another draws it along horse-fashion. This style of 
marker opens the furrows just about deep enough for sowing in 
them onion, beet, carrot, radish, 


lettuce, spinach and other ordi- 
nary garden seeds by hand. 

To mark out rows for plant ' 
setting, especially as required in 
the new onion culture (described 
under " Onion " in Chapter 
XXVIII.), we prefer a tool that 
will indicate the rows by light 
marks, not by deep furrows, and 
can be pushed ahead, enabling 
one person to make as straight 
rov/s as can only be made by 
garden marker. 

Wheel Marker. 

two with the first-described 

A Roller and Marker. 

50 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Some time ago I devised the. marker last shown on the pre- 
ceding page. If well made, it does good work. Take one-inch 
boards, cut to a circle and slightly bevel the edges. The wheels 
revolve on an iron rod, and are held at the desired distance by 
pieces of 4 x 4-inch scantling, through the centre of each, length- 
wise, is bored a hole of corresponding size. A handle fastened 
to the centrepiece and braced by iron rods completes the tool. 
Cut and description of another marker, which I find very 

convenient and serviceable 
for the same purpose, are 
taken from my " The New 
Onion Culture" (third edi- 
tion). " It is an ordinary 
wooden garden roller, such 
as any one can make out of 
a piece of chestnut or oak 
log three or four feet long, 
with iron pins driven in 
centre on each side, and a simple handle attached by means of 
two pieces of old wagon tire. 

" Bore holes into the face of the roller, one foot apart (three 
holes for a three-foot roller, or four for one four feet long), and 
put in pins. To use this tool as a marker, make each of these 
pins hold a small rope encircling the roller, by driving the pins 
into the holes beside the ends of the rope. More than one row 
of holes can be used to change distances if required for other 
vegetables. Strips may be tacked lengthwise of the roller to 
mark places in row for setting plants." 

Of the many other devices for furrowing and marking 
garden land I will only mention the one which I am now using 
almost to the exclusion of all others, and which is a contrivance 
as simple and convenient as we can 
ever hope to make it. It is simply 
an attachment to the Planet Jr. 
drill or wheel-hoe. The illustration 
shows the combined drill and 
wheel-hoe rigged as a furrower. If 
wanted as a marker for plant setting, 
we turn the narrow hoes backward. 
The crosspiece, to which the out- 
side hoes (marker teeth) are 
attached, may be made of iron or of 
hardwood, and is bolted to the plate as shown. This description 
may possibly induce the Planet Jr. manufacturers to offer these 
crossbars as an attachment to their hand drills and wheel-hoes. 
Indispensable in the market garden, and still more so in the 
farm garden, and convenient to have even in the home garden. 

Planet Jr. Combined Drill and 
Wheel-Hoe as Marker. 

Garden Implements. — 51 

is a good seed drill. There are a number of good and service- 
able ones now in the trade. The Planet Jr. garden drill shown 
in illustration on next page, affords a safe, easy, and perfect 
method of sowing smaller seeds over large or small areas. 
The intelligent farmer who has learned to appreciate the 
mangels, and carrots and other root crops as winter food for 
cattle, sheep, hogs and horses, and makes it a practice to plant 
largely of them every year, is not unacquainted with the merits 
of the garden drills, and often would not consider his assort- 
ment of implements complete without a good garden seed 

I am not greatly in favor of combined tools, but if the home 
grower is bound to have a seed sower and wheel-hoe combined, 
the Planet Jr. combined drill, wheel-hoe and cultivator will give 
him what he wants. 
Amongseparate gar- 
den seed sowing de- 
vices besides the one 
already named, we 
have Matthews' mar- 
ket gardener drill, 
the Model drill and 

A later addition 
to our seed sowing 
devices is the Planet 
Jr. hill dropping seed p^^^^^ ^.^^ j^ 5^^^ ^^.^^ 

drill. It places the 

hills as desired, 4, 6, 8 or 12 inches apart, but can be changed to 
a drill sower, and the reverse, in a moment. It has a complete 
marker, does not sow when going backward and can be thrown 
entirely out of gear in a moment. 

There is also an extra attachment for sowing onion seed for 
sets in a band four inches wide. 

Still another tool is the Planet Jr. hill dropping and fertilizer 
drill, which, as a drill, does exactly the same work as the hill 
dropping drill, and in addition gives us a chance to sow fertilizers 
in the drill, either under or above the seed. The fertilizer hopper 
holds one peck. This tool may be used to sow either seed or 
fertilizer alone, and will come handy in many instances. 

There are also larger fertilizer drills on the market. The 
possession of one of them will be a great convenience to every 
gardener or farmer who makes a practice of applying concen- 
trated fertilizers in the drills for potatoes, corn, peas, beets, etc. 
Some of these implements are also serviceable for drilling peas, 
corn, etc. 

52 —How to Make the Garden Pay. 

But the tool of all tools, the modern weed-slayer, the great 
labor-saver, the greatest horticultural blessing of the age — that 
is the modern wheel-hoe. This above all others frees the gar- 
dener from undesirable work, cuts down the labor account one- 
half, and makes tillage, both in the home and market garden, light 
and pleasant. It is quite a number of years ago when it was 
first introduced, but fortunately for the progressive gardener for 
money, the slow moving majority has not yet recognized its 
value. The advantages connected with the possession of one of 
these tools cannot be over-stated, nor emphasized too strongly, 

Planet Jr. Garden Drill. 

nor told too frequently. Without the wheel-hoe's help the gar- 
dener of to-day cannot hope to hold out against his progressive 
competitors. It is the tool that more than anything else has 
cheapened the cost of production in garden stuff. The most 
perfect implement of this kind, at present, is the " Planet Jr. 
Double Wheel-Hoe," illustrated in next Fig., a cultivator, rake and 
plow combined, in fact an all purpose tool of tillage, and good 
to whatever use you put it. It can be made to hoe both 
sides of one row, or between rows, in level culture and in throw- 
ing the soil either to or from the row. This tool banishes the 
old hand hoe from the garden to a certain extent, and reduces 

Garden Implements — 53 

the unpleasant task of weeding to a minimum. Let no gardener 
suppose that he can safely get along without a wheel-hoe. In 
the home garden this implement makes a pleasure of what 

Planet Jr. Double Wheel Hoe. 

otherwise is a job dreaded by all. Now the half-grown boy runs 
the wheel-hoe up and down the rows of vegetables " for fun " and 
recreation, and accomplishes in one-half hour what a man with a 
hand hoe could not per- 
form in a whole day. 
As a separate attachment 
to this we have the Onion 
Set Harvester, illustrated 
on next page. As its 
name indicates it is used 
in harvesting onion sets, 
also in cutting spinach 
for market. Similar 
cheaper tools have also 
been put on the market, 
such as the Planet Jr. 
Single Wheel-Hoe, Gem 
of the Garden Cultivator, 
Gregory's Finger Weeder, and others. They all answer their 
purpose very well, but the Planet Jr. Double Wheel-Hoe stands 
at the head, and I advise you to use no other. People who garden 

Planet Jr. Cultivating with Rakes. 

54 — How to Make the Garden Pay, 

Hoeing Between Rows. 

on a modest scale are often tempted to purchase a combi- 
nation tool — drill and cultivator combined, such as Planet Jr. 
Combined Drill and Wheel-Hoe, seen at work hoeing both sides 

of the row below, and as 
a cultivator on next page. 
Such a combination has 
serious objections, how- 
ever. Its double purpose 
necessarily makes it com- 
plicated, and less efiective 
in either capacity, and 
whenever you use it you 
are wearing out two im- 
plements at the same 
time. If you think you 
can afford but one tool, 
by all means sow seeds 
by hand, and buy a 
separate double wheel- 
hoe. The home gardener may manage to get along without a 
garden drill ; the market gardener will find it 
decidedly inconvenient, and very likely unprof- 
itable to attempt it. 

A GOOD HORSE HOE can now be purchased 
at any hardware store. For cultivation be- 
tween the rows of cabbages, beans, corn, 
tomatoes, vines of all kinds, etc., we want a 
tool with five or more narrow (i 34^-inch) blades 
or hoes which will leave the soil level and as Omon Set Harvester 
smooth as a harrow. There are various styles of cultivator 

harrow which do excellent 
work. When I take every- 
thing in consideration, how- 
ever, I prefer the Planet Jr. 
horse-hoe to all others. It is 
a " general purpose " tool on 
our grounds. We attach the 
five I 54^-inch blades, and use 
it for hoeing purposes, or the 
furrower and marker, for 
marking corn and potato 
fields, or the side hoes and 
rear plow, for hilling, etc. 
The Planet Jr., always unsur- 
passed as a tool for general tillage purposes, is always the leader 
in improvements. As now made, it has a patent lever expanding 
frame which can be closed to five inches, or opened to twenty-four; 

Combined Dull and Wheel-Hoe. 

Garden Implements. — 55 

a side adjustment for the handles by which they may be set from 
one side to another ; a lever wheel by which it may be changed 
to any depth in an instant, and such a variety of adjustable teeth 
that we are enabled to do just the kind of one-horse cultivation 
most desirable. 

Ordinarily we use the set of i^-inch blades, as they do the 
best work in stirring the soil. For many reasons an even surface 
of the soil is most desirable, and we want no ridges and furrows. 
Hilling is required only in rare cases, such as the last cultivation 
of potatoes, or in the celery field ; and the hilling blades can then 
be substituted for the two narrow outside blades. 

People who grow corn, potatoes, beans, peas, and similar 
crops on a more extensive scale, will find a great help in the 
Breed weeder, especially on loose and mellow soils. It is less 

Planet Jr. Horse-Hoe. 

suited to clay soils which are liable to bake after a heavy rain. 
The implement is a scarifier, and built somewhat on the principle 
of a modern hayrake. Its timely use prevents weed growth both 
in and between the rows, while the deeper rooted cultivated 
plants slip through the wire teeth unharmed. 

If I further emphasize the necessity of having the hand-hoes 
bright, clean, and sharp, and hung in the proper angle to a light, 
smooth handle ; of keeping the steel and cutting parts of all 
implements bright, and well oiled when not in use, and all tools 
in their places under cover, little else remains to be added on 
the subject of tools of tillage. Implements for special use, such 
as asparagus bunchers, spinach cutters, hand-weeders, etc., will 
be mentioned elsewhere. It is hardly necessary to speak of 
wagons, etc., as their selection depends on local fashions, and 
special purposes. A good manure-spreader may be a convenient 

56 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

implement ; but I question whether it can be considered indis- 
pensable in even a large market garden. With the use of many 
implements of tillage, such as the various styles of hoes, spades, 
shovels, forks, etc., the question of "best" is often dependent on 
the habit of the user. Some people after having once acquired 
the " knack " of handling a certain tool to advantage will do 
much better work with it than with a stiperior or more modern 
one. The employer must humor the whims of the hired help in 
such cases, and give them just the tool that they have learned to 
use with skill and to best advantage. 

The improvement of gardening implements, both large and 
small, is still going on at a rapid rate. The leader of to-day may 
be crowded into second or third rank to-morrow. This keeps 
the progressive gardener on the alert all the time to enable him 
to profit by any new device that may be of unusual merit, and 
to keep ahead of his competitors. On the other hand I can 
hardly advise the gardener of moderate means to invest in every 
new implement as soon as put on the market under high claims. 
Progressiveness in this respect may well and profitably be tem- 
pered with quite a considerable amount of conservatism. 



" This is an art that mends nature." 

|OLD frames are simple affairs — box-like structures 
covered with sashes. The latter are the chief 
part, and involve the real expense in the construc- 
tion of such frames, but being a staple article of 
commerce, and manufactured with special 
machinery in special factories, can now be bought 
at (or ordered through) any supply store at mod- 
erate prices. They usually cost ^2.00 each, ready 
glazed and painted, and perhaps can be had cheaper in large 
quantities. The usual size is 6 feet in length by 3 feet in width, 
and the frames are made to correspond, namely 6 feet wide and 
3 feet in length for every sash to be accommodated. 

The selection of site is important. The proper place for 
frames is in convenient proximity to the water supply, and also 

Arrangement of Cold Frames. 

m a position sheltered from the north and west, facing south or 
south-east. A close and tall hedge of evergreens affords a most 
excellent protection, but if such does not happen to be where it 
can be utilized for the purpose, a tight board fence, at least six 
feet high, must be built at the north side of the beds and 


58 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

extending their whole length. A building, hedge or board fence 
at the west is also desirable. In this comfortable situation con- 
struct your system of frames, making it as easily accessible as 
convenient for operation, and as snug generally as circumstances 
will permit. The frame is set on top of the ground, no excava- 
tion being required. The back is made of boards 12 inches wide, 
nailed to stakes driven in the ground at the ends and middle of 
each board ; the front consists of boards only 8 inches wide, and 
fastened to stakes in the same manner, at a uniform distance of 6 
feet from the first. When the necessary end pieces are adjusted 
we have a close fitting box, 4 inches lower in front than at the 
back. Such a system of frames, in process of construction, is 
shown on preceding page. 

The number of sashes required by the market gardener 
depends on extent of business and area, and still more largely on 
the particular line of work in which he is engaged. For general 
market garden purposes it may take 20 to 25 sashes to each acre 
of ground, but when frames are extensively used for the produc- 
tion of vegetables, such as spinach, lettuce, carrots, beets, parsley 
and soup celery, or in the special line of growing plants for sale, 
the number of sashes required will be proportionately larger. 
Some gardeners devote their energies almost exclusively to cold- 
frame products. 

In some cases it is more convenient to buy the sash frames 
unglassed, and put the glass in them on the premises. In this 
emergency, as also in the work of repairing and patching old 

Improved Putty Bulb. 

sashes, the newer method of putting on putty in liquid form, and 
by means of a putty bulb, can be recommended as quite con- 
venient, and preferable to the old way. The mixture used for 
this is composed of one-third white lead, one-third common 
putty, and one-third boiled oil, all by measure not by weight. 
Mix oil and putty thoroughly, add the white lead, and strain. If 
too thick, as liable to be in cold weather, add a small quantity 
of benzine or turpentine. Paint the sash ; then fill the bulb with 
the liquid putty, run a little of it along the sash bars, then bed 
the glass on it, and run more of the liquid along the edges of the 

Cold Frames — 59 

glass, next to the bars ; allow it to harden and you have a neat 
and tight joint. 

Use of Frames.— Let us suppose that the cold frames are 
available in the autumn for regular work. The first use to be 
made of them is in wintering cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce 
plants for the extra early crops. Some gardeners sow the seed 
directly into the frames in rows a few inches apart and thin 
afterwards. A better way, undoubtedly, is to sow the seed in 
open ground, about 15th of September, and transplant four weeks 
later to the frames. It is of greatest importance that each plant 
should have its just allowance of space. Cabbage and cauliflower 
plants should have 5 or 6 square inches each (plant in rows 
3 inches apart and 2 inches apart in the row), and lettuce plants 
somewhat closer ( I J^ inches apart in the rows). The general 
tendency with gardeners is to plant too thickly — and this is a 
prolific cause of failure, or of poor plants. A good practice, also, 
is to make two sowings in open ground, about September 1 5th 
and 20th, to be sure of plants. If the first sown get too large, 
the others will be just right. Cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce 
plants are quite hardy, and can endure considerable cold weather 
without injury. The sashes must be put on by the time winter 
sets in, and the chief point of importance afterwards is unceasing 
and untiring attention to proper ventilation. We should bear in 
mind that the object is not, to grow plants during the winter, but 
to keep them on a perfect stand-still (dormant), and make them 
so hardy that they will at once start into lively growth when 
planted out in spring, even in rather cool weather, and be able to 
endure late severe freezes without check. For this reason a 
moderately low, not a warm temperature is required in the 
frames, and also a considerable amount of exposure. On cold 
but clear winter days, and when the temperature is not lower 
than within a few degrees of zero, the sashes should be partly 
raised, by tilting at back or front, or by partial removal, or in 
any other convenient way. This requires considerable attention 
and good judgment. During moderate weather the sashes had 
best be removed entirely. Constant watchfulness, and doing the 
right thing at the right time, will insure good plants. Only in 
a climate with severe winters are shutters or mats required for 
additional protection. What they are, and how made, is told in 
next chapter. Deep snow should not be left very many days 
upon the sashes, unless the ground in the beds was frozen at the 
time of its fall. Early removal is the safer treatment. 

With all the progress that we have made of late in horti- 
cultural art, and in spite of all the efforts put forth by good 
writers and publishers in behalf of the distribution of horticultural 
knowledge, it is a fact that the production of good plants is the 
exception, and that failure, wholly or in part, is the rule. Hence 

6o— How to Make the Garden Pay. 

we often find the liveliest demand for well-grown wintered plants 
at paying figures, ^^4.00 to ^5.00 per i,ooo, being the usual price, 
which gives an average of $2.00 to ^2.50 for the plants covered 
by one sash. 

One of the most successful gardeners says : " I would pre- 
fer such wintered plants at $10 per thousand to spring (hot-bed) 
grown plants as a gift — not to speak of the worthless plants that 
are shipped every spring by the hundred thousand from the 
South, and palmed off on the public as cold-frame-wintered 
plants." If, on account of failure or neglect, the frames are not 
provided with plants, and these are needed for early use, the next 
best method of growing them is the following : pack a layer of 
fermenting horse manure all around the cold frames, and sow the 
seed in them in February; or still better, use hot-beds as directed 
under proper heading. 

Another, and a very important use of the cold frames is for 
the production of spinach, radishes, parsley, soup celery, carrots, 
beets, etc., for early market. Spinach may be sown in the 
autumn, and marketed during the winter, or as soon as the crop 
is large enough, and prices acceptable. The frames can then be 
replanted with the same or some other crop. Vegetables thus 
grown in cold frames often find ready sale and remunerative 
prices in April or May. The extent to which the gardener can 
engage in this work depends on local conditions, and these must 
be consulted. Make the soil in the frames very rich by mixing 
it freely with good compost. Watering the beds with weak solu- 
tions of nitrate of soda generally has marked results in pro- 
ducing quick growth, heavy development of foliage and excellent 
quality, especially crispness and tenderness. Always sow the 
seeds in rows across the beds. Early " marketableness " and the 
greatly desired uniformity can only be secured by attention to 
proper thinning, and this should be given just as soon as the 
young plants are large enough to show individual thrift and other 
qualities, so the most promising may be left, and the undesirable 
ones removed. Growing crops under glass is an expensive busi- 
ness on account of the glass and the attention it requires, and 
space is valuable. Hence, to attain satisfactory results, we must 
aim to cover the whole area under glass with vegetable growth, 
yet without undue crowding. Not a single square inch of the 
available area should be left unutilized, and yet not a single plant 
checked in its development for lack of space. This is a matter 
requiring considerable care and judgment, and without these 
failure is more certain than success. 

The results of a series of careful experiments made by 
observing and inquisitive growers of cold frame crops right in my 
immediate neighborhood seem to speak in favor of the distances 

Cold Frames — 6i 

named in the following table, as most profitable for this special 
purpose, viz. : 

Sow spinach in rows 8-9 inches apart, thin to 2 inches. 

" beets " 7 " " " 3 

" carrots " 6 " " " 2 

" radishes " 4 " " " 2 " 

" soup celery " 6 " " 

" parsley " 6 

Under no circumstances would it be safe to make the rows 
still narrower, or leave the plants closer in the rows. If you 
vary from these distances, by all means make them larger. 
Instead of planting the radishes by themselves, however, it is 
generally preferable to sow one row between each two rows of 
any of the other vegetables. This makes the rows as close as 
three inches apart in some cases; but the radishes will be off in 
time for the other stuff to occupy the space when it is needed. 

The usual time for sowing these crops is about March ist 
for New Jersey, and correspondingly earlier or later further south 
or north; in other words, from two to four weeks sooner than 
the same vegetables could be sown in the open ground. This is 
late enough to insure safety from injury by the tail end of winter; 
it is also early enough to hit the time of brisk demand, and realize 
the best prices. The aim is to get these crops from one to four 
weeks ahead of the earliest out-door supply. The competition 
from the South is generally not very formidable, as their modes of 
cultivation, perhaps their soil and climate, and certainly the long 
shipment always lower the value of vegetables from there in the 
eyes of consumers and dealers. The near-by products often 
bring high prices when the southern supply goes a-begging. 

This also is the case with head lettuce, so-called. This, like 
the other crops, is grown in cold frames during the latter part of 
winter for marketing in early spring. Many gardeners make it 
a practice to have a number of spare frames without sash, but 
covered during winter with litter to keep the ground from freezing. 
When the time arrives that the cabbage and lettuce plants in the 
regular frames can get along without glass protection, perhaps 
by March 1st, the spare frames are made ready, planted with 
lettuce plants from the wintered supply, and these set six or 
seven inches apart each way. They are then covered with the 
sashes taken from the cold frames containing wintered plants, and 
tended in a similar way as the plant frames by giving ventilation 
when needed. Aim to stimulate early and full development of 
the crop in every way possible. Applications of nitrate of soda, 
either dry or in solution, or of liquid manure hardly ever fail to 
pay well. If it is thought risky to leave the wintered plants, 
from which the sashes were removed, entirely without protection, 

62 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

simple home-made frames covered with common muslin (or with 
the waterproof cloth now made for the purpose), might be sub- 
stituted for the glass sashes, and the plants kept thus protected 
during the night until danger is past. 

Watering the Beds. — It is not necessary to apply water at 
this time very frequently, except quite late in the season, and 
during clear weather ; but when done the application should be 
thorough — no mere sprinkling will do. The most convenient 
method is by means of force pump or pressure, and rubber 
hose. Later the rains of heaven should be called into service 
whenever they happen to occur at an opportune period. The 
careful manager, by speedy and entire removal of the sashes 
from the beds, can often save much labor otherwise required for 
watering the crops by artificial means. 

In many localities, especially where the seasons are com- 
paratively long, as in New Jersey, the cold frames after having 
done duty in the production of vegetables, may then be further 
used for growing late tomato plants, or for finishing and harden- 
ing off tomato plants raised in hot-beds. Market gardeners in 
districts where tomatoes are grown in field culture for the canning 
establishments, often have considerable call for plants up to July. 
It is true such plants must be sold low, often at no more than 
;^i.50 per thousand ; but as they are grown as a second or third 
crop, and 600 to 800 of them may be grown under each sash, 
this feature adds quite considerably to the profits of running cold 

Forcing cucumbers is another industry in which the cold 
frame is made to serve a good purpose. After the lettuce or crop 
of wintered plants is cleared off, a few cucumber seeds are planted 
in center of sash. When the vines are up, ventilation is given as 
needed, and the sashes removed entirely as soon as the season 
has pretty well advanced, and the vines begin to crowd the 
sashes. This crop, coming, as did the other, a few weeks in 
advance of the earliest out-door supply, generally brings remune- 
rative prices. Melons can be grown in a similar way. 

The exact dates of planting, what crops to grow, and to what 
extent for each — all these are questions of local bearing, depend- 
ing on climate, season, demand of the market, and usual price 
of products. In every one of these enterprises constant thought 
and study, earnest consideration of these questions in all their 
intricacy and various aspects and bearings, and pretty good 
judgment, are first requisites of success. On these the whole 
matter hinges, much more than on rules and instructions which 
at best can be only of a general rather than special character. 

Southern climate often permits the use of cold frames where 
hot-beds would be required at the north. 

Cold Frames. — 63 

By taking advantage of the additional protection during the 
night that mats or shutters afford, tomato and even egg-plants 
can be grown without bottom heat. This question, however, 
must also be left largely to the judgment of the individual grower, 
who is acquainted with his local conditions. 

The use of cold frames in starting lima beans, cucumbers, 
melons, etc., by planting on squares of inserted sod, which are 
to be transferred to the open ground when the season has 
sufficiently advanced, will be referred to at another occasion. 




" A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump." 

and under 
or hedge, 
wide (for 

N outward appearance and arrangement hot-beds resem- 
ble the cold frames described in preceding chapter. 
In the cold frames no artificial heat was employed, 
while the hotbeds have what is called "bottom 
heat." The material most generally used by gardeners 
for producing this heat is fresh horse manure. 

The proper place for the hot-beds is in same 
plot with the cold frames, near the water supply, 
the shelter of a hill, building, or tight, tall fence 
Make an excavation a little more than six feet 
sash of common length), 24 inches deep, and as 
long as needed to accommodate the desired number of sashes, 
running east and west, or northeast and southwest. 
Set stakes half a board length apart on each side, and enclose 

the excavation tightly 
with boards clear from 
the bottom up, to hinder 
the intrusion of moles, 
rats and mice. The north 
side may be 12 or 18 
inches high above the 
surface, the south side 
six inches lower, so as 
to give the sashes the 
needed slope to carry off 
rain and snow water, and 
the sun all the better chance to reach the soil, and stimulate plant 
life under the sashes. When the frame is in place, a strip of 
inch board, wide enough to serve as rest for the sash edges, and 
having a two inch upright in the centre, as shown in illustration, 
is then fastened across where each two sashes meet. 

The preparation of the manure, although quite a simple 
matter, is still a mysterious subject for many gardeners, and the 
knowledge of the simple principles involved in this question is 

Cross-bar for hot -bed. 

Manure Hot-Beds. — 65 

not general. Many growers fear the uncertainties connected 
with this method of heating beds. The yeast fungus, which is 
the cause of fermentation, if once introduced into a manure heap 
suitable to its growth, spreads quite rapidly, and soon has the 
whole mass in a state of heat. Horse manure is the best because 
richest or " hottest," for this purpose, and sheep manure comes 
next. The manure made from animals fed highly with grain, 
bran, oil meal, etc., is most suitable. It should contain plenty of 
urine-soaked litter; and the addition of half its bulk of dry forest 
leaves, especially after they have been used as absorbents in the 
stables, is always of advantage. The object in view is the pro- 
duction of uniform and immediate heat all through the bed, and 
for this reason the spores or seed of fermentation should be 
spread all through the manure heap, and the latter 
thus tempered — leavened, as it were. To do this, draw the 
manure to a convenient place near the hot-beds, and pile it up in 
a conical heap, leaving it there until fermentation has well started 
in. In very cold weather it may be necessary to cover the pile 
lightly with straw, hay, or other loose litter to prevent freezing 
from the outside before the heating has begun. Before fermen- 
tation becomes too lively, 
as indicated by escaping 
steam, the heap may be 
forked over again, and 
piled up as before for a 
few days to heat, or 
thrown immediately into 
the pit, taking pains to 
mix the fermenting part 
all through the whole 
mass, and to break 
up all lumps. If the 
manure is already very 

hot at this time, tread it down firmly; but if fermentation has 
only just set in lightly, leave the manure in the pit somewhat 
loose, and fill up clear to the top of frames. In settling, a 
depression is apt to form all along the middle of the bed, and 
right there the manure should be packed more solid than at the 
sides. Now put on the sashes, and leave until fermentation 
has again become quite active all through the bed; then tread 
down solid, even off where needed, and cover with soil about 
six inches deep. Soil, to be in best condition for this purpose, 
should have been prepared the fall previous, and be kept safe 
from freezing until wanted. It must be rich and fine, and consist 
of about one-third well-rotted compost, and two-thirds good 
loam, rotten turf, etc. 

The beds should now be left until the soil has become 

Hot-bed cross section. 

66 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

warmed through, and the weed seeds near the surface have 
had time to germinate. Then remove the sashes, rake the 
surface thoroughly to kill the weeds, and make a smooth and 
fine seed-bed; and you are ready for planting or sowing seed. 
The illustration on preceding page represents a cross-section of 

Sometimes the manure, especially if poor, /. e. from poorly- 
fed animals, refuses to come to a heat. Then all you have to do 
is to make it richer by mixing it with hen manure, bone dust or 
by throwing hot soapsuds, rank liquid manure, etc., upon it. 
This treatment will generally bring it to terms. One good load 
of manure is about sufficient for two sashes. 

The depth of the manure in hot-beds is variously given as 
1 8, 24 and 30 inches. This is a question hinging on locality, 
season and plants to be grown. For general purposes in a climate 
like that of New Jersey or southern Pennsylvania, and late in 
February, or beginning of March, an 18-inch layer of fermenting 
manure may do ; but in a severer climate, earlier in the winter, 
or for the production of pepper and ^^g plants, or other plants 
requiring considerable heat, the manure should be 24 to 30 inches 
in depth, and the pit be dug deep enough to answer these condi- 
tions. The first use in the season made of the hot-beds is in grow- 
ing lettuce for early 
market. They are got 
in readiness and planted 
by middle of January. 
I Plant about 6 or 7 inches 
i square, cover the beds 
f with straw mats or light 
shutters during cold 
nights, and give ventila- 
tion in clear, warm days. 
Radishes are grown in 
same way. Watering, if not done by means of a stream forced 
through rubber hose, is facilitated by means of a long-spouted 
watering pot or sprinkler. When the crop is taken off, the beds 
may be used same as cold frames. 

Starting Early Plants. — The chief and most important 
use of hot-beds is for the production of ^g^ plants, tomato and 
pepper plants, also of cabbage plants for early planting when the 
needed supply of cold-frame-wintered plants is not at hand. 
For starting tomato, &%% and pepper plants, the beds are 
generally put in readiness in February or March, and the seed 
sown rather thickly (best in regular rows), lightly covered 
with fine soil, mold or pulverized moss, and firmed by lightly 
patting the soil with some convenient implement, as the back 

Firming Board. 

Manure Hot-Beds. — 67 

of rake or hoe, or with a piece of board with handle, made 
especially for this purpose, of the shape shown in engraving. 
In watering, a fine rose sprinkler, or a coarse spray nozzle 
and tepid water should be used. It is not safe to let the soil get 
dry, or to neglect ventilation on warm clear days. During cold 
nights, especially at the extreme North, the beds will need 
additional protection by straw mats or board shutters. The 
liability of the weather to suprise us with sudden changes must 
keep the grower always on the alert. It is never wise to with- 
hold protection for the night because the evening is warm, or 
neglect the" bed for the day because the morning is cloudy. 
Sometimes in a dark day, when ventilation does not seem to be 
required, the sun will suddenly break through the clouds at mid- 
day, threatening to burn the plants if the sashes are not speedily 
removed or raised. In short, hot-beds require constant and 
careful watching. 

Shutters and Mats. — The shutters used for additional 
protection are made of half-inch stuff, and of size of sash. A 
stack of them piled up when not in use, is here illustrated. 

Stack of Shutters. 

The straw mats can also be made by the most unskilled person 
from long rye straw tied with tarred string. Their manufacture 
is a simple thing indeed. Make a frame 7 by 4 feet, as seen in 
engraving, and tightly stretch four or five parallel stout tarred 
strings, ten to twelve inches apart, from top to bottom. Have as 
many balls of lighter tarred string, and fasten one end to each 
upright string next the bottom, leaving the balls in front of the 
frame. Now lay a whisk of straw, cut sides out, in the junction 
of the strings at the bottom, and fasten it there by twisting each 
of the smaller strings once around the straw and the upright 

68 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

string. Next put on another whisk of straw, and continue 
until frame is full, and the mat finished. The whole expense 
connected with these handy conveniences and effective means of 
protecting early tender plants in frames is a quantity of nice, 
clean, bright rye straw and some tarred string. The labor 
required in making them does not count for much as the work 
can be done in a convenient outbuilding, or under a shed during 
rainy days at leisure. In the course of a season a large supply 
of such mats may be made, and as they can be rolled up, stored 
and handled conveniently, and besides give the very best ol 
protection against cold, they are greatly to be preferred to 

Frame for making Straw Mats. 

board shutters. Rye cut before the grain has formed makes the 
best material for mats, and the gardener in need of them will find 
it a good plan to have a piece of rye grown and cut at the period 
named for this very purpose. 

Flats, etc. — When the plants are large enough — perhaps 
in five or six weeks — they are transplanted in other newly-made 
hot-beds giving space enough for their full development, or 2 to 
4 inches square. This is often done (and a superior way it is) 
by putting an inch or so of sand or soil upon the new manure, 
and placing upon this foundation, close together, shallow boxes 
called " flats " into which the plants are set at the proper distance. 
If plants are to be retailed by the dozen, it is well to make the 

Manure Hot-Beds. — 69 

flats hold one dozen plants each, or of various sizes and contain- 
ing various quantities as may be desired by the purchaser. 
More and more ventilation is given as the season advances, and 
the plants must be perfectly hardened off by exposure, transfer 
to open cold frames or otherwise, before they can be safely 
placed into the open ground. This is a matter of greater 
importance than most people imagine. Millions of early started 
and well-grown plants are annually set out, that in transplanting 
before they have been properly accustomed to the hardships of 
outdoor life, receive a check from which they do not recover soon 
enough to prevent much later plants, or even natural seedlings, 
from getting ahead of them, and producing fruit much the earliest. 
The proper hardeningoff of plants is one of the secrets of success, 
and perhaps a leading one, in the production of early crops of 
garden fruits. 

Soil for Flats. — The most important item of annual 
expense connected with running manure hot-beds is the manure 
used for fuel. But, after all, this costs nothing in reality, since it 
loses very little fertilizing substance by the process of slow com- 
bustion in the hot-bed, and when dug out next fall, or in the 
spring following, is worth fully as much to the gardener as when 
first put in, if not more. It went into the pit — a raw and 
unreliable manure ; it comes out — a fine, rich compost that can 
be used with advantage for feeding any of our garden crops, or 
may be compounded with sand, muck, loam, etc., thus giving 
us the very best soil for forcing vegetables under glass. I must 
warn, however, against the only too common practice of making 
the soil for flats, in which vegetable plants are grown, excessively 
rich. Over-fertile soil encourages sappy, succulent, tender growth, 
which is not wanted, because little able to endure the hardships 
of transplanting and outdoor life. We prefer a nice fibrous loam 
of medium fertility, such as you can procure by piling up sods 
from a rich old pasture, or from fence corners, for a sufficient 
length of time to have them well rotted and thoroughly fined. 
It may take a year, and repeated turning and spading over, to 
get these sods in the desired shape, but the fibrous loam thus 
obtained is, for the purposes of plant raising, well worth all the 
trouble it causes to get it. If additional plant foods are thought 
to be necessary, 10 or 15 pounds of superphosphate (dissolved 
bone) and a few bucketfuls of unleached wood-ashes, or a larger 
quantity of leached ashes, may be added to each load of com- 
post without fear. Strong, stocky growth of plants is and must 
be our aim, and the sod loam will be sure to give it. 

In forcing succulent vegetables for the table, such as lettuce, 
radishes, onions, rhubarb, etc., we want the bed soil very rich. 
The mixture already spoken of comes handy. Early in the 

70 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

summer we always make a compost heap as follows : One load of 
muck, one load of sand, one load of old cow or horse manure. 
To this is added a quantity of old sods (from pasture or fence 
corners), old hot-bed manure, manure from spent mushroom 
beds, etc. All this material is worked over at least once a month 
with spade, shovel, spading fork or hoe, until reasonably fine and 
uniform all through. In late fall it is sifted and put upon the 
benches of the greenhouse, or if wanted for hot-beds and cold- 
frames in spring, into the cellar or any place where we can get 
at it at the proper time. 

If we neglect to make provisions for the needed supply in 
good season, we may find ourselves in sore straits to find just 
what is wanted in the winter with the ground frozen solid. It 
may then be necessary to look for a supply in the cellar, under 
barns, sheds, other outbuildings, or under the manure heap. 
Cart from any source at hand, mix and sift, through a coarse 
sieve first, and through finer ones as the stuff becomes drier and 

While the item of expense alone is decidedly in favor 
of manure hot-beds, there are, on the other hand, serious 
inconveniences, and sometimes obstacles connected with it. The 
right kind of manure is not always to be easily obtained, or not 
in the required quantities ; the heat is only partially under the 
control of the gardener, and the whole thing connected with 
many uncertainties, especially for the less experienced manager. 
Then there is the annual digging, and composting, and refilling, 
and with all these inconveniences, your fuel will last only for a 
few weeks. For this reason I have always looked with some- 
what of disfavor upon manure as fuel for hot-beds, and have had 
an open eye for a more steady and controllable heating method. 
In some respects I consider the fire hot-bed a great improvement 
on the manure hot-bed. 



" Nothing is denied to well-directed labor." 

HE cognizance of the weak points in the common 
manure hot-bed has led progressive people to 
try wood and coal heat in beds otherwise 
similarly constructed. The heat is generated in 
a simple furnace at the lower end of the bed, 
and distributed by an ordinary flue beneath the 
bed, running its entire length, and ending in a 
chimney at the opposite end. To promote the 
equal distribution of heat under the soil, the flue at a little 
distance from the furnace may be divided in two or three 

Fire Hot-Beds. 

parallel branches or pipes, uniting again before they enter the 

For reasons of better utilization of the heat, and convenience 
of management, it is preferable to make these beds intermediate 
between hot-bed and common greenhouse. For many years I 
have had such beds under my observation, and found that they 


72 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

can be run very successfully and economically, and are now 
run so in many places for forcing lettuce, radishes, etc., followed 
by egg plant, tomato, pepper or sweet potato plants, A bed of 
this kind is shown in illustration on preceding page and consists 
of a double row of sashes forming a gable roof. 

The proper place for the structure is near the cold frames or 
regular hot-beds, and running in same direction of compass. A 
trench, see illustration, is excavated in centre of bed, slanting 
from the surface of the ground where it is nearly as wide 
as the bed, to the bottom where it need not be over half that 
width. The furnace end should be on lower end of bed and 
from three to four feet deep. From there the flue rises gradually, 
say one foot to every ten in length, until it enters the chimney at 
the end opposite the furnace. 

The fire-place may be constructed of fire-brick. Its height 
is about two feet, ten inches of which are the ash-pit below the 
grate ; its width about twelve inches, and the length of grate 
twenty-eight or thirty inches. The bottom of the flue immediately 

in the rear of the furnace 

..--''' "■--,. must be somewhat above 

...-■"" "■■■•-..... the level of the grate, say 

"^p^H . :.■."^:::;:;.^;::.:.::.^"..::.::.:..""■',:'^' " '^^^ 6 or 8 inches, to prevent 

^' \j '/^^^^P^ ashes and cinders from 

fk I I / ^^^' getting into the flues. The 

^^;^ y \l 1 / ^ "^ first 8 or lo feet of flue 

must be constructed of 

^^^^ brick; the remainder may 

Trench for Fire Hot-Bed. consist of terra-cotta as 

used as a substitute for 
brick chimneys, or even of lo-inch tile drain. The chimney 
may be of brick or of terra-cotta, whatever the builder prefers. 
A pit immediately in front of the fire-place, to the depth of 
bottom of ash-pit, allows the operator to tend the fire, and when 
not in use, is kept covered by a slanting door. A solid 
frame-work, well supported underneath, holds a floor of plank 
or boards for the soil, and a frame for the sashes to rest upon. 
The most common mistake made in the erection of a fire 
hot-bed is right in this frame-work. Few people seem to bear in 
mind that this has to carry a considerable weight, and being 
exposed to the influence of constant dampness, is liable to decay 
and give out very soon, unless the timbers are strong, well-put 
up, and of a kind not easily affected by moisture. The whole 
arrangement of the bed is so simple that anybody of ordinary 
understanding should be able to put it up without difficulty. 
The gardener's common sense will dictate to him the details not 
mentioned. The greatest objection to a hot-bed of this kind — 
tendency towards dryness of atmosphere, and necessity of frequent 

Fire Hot-Beds. — 73 

watering — may in a measure be overcome by placing shallow 
pans upon the flue under the floor of bed, and keeping them 
constantly supplied with water. 

The Michigan Agricultural College has recently built a fire 
hot-bed which comprises some very meritorious features, and the 
description given by C. S. Crandall in " Popular Gardening" 
well deserves a place here. " Our fire hot-bed," says Mr. Crandall, 
" was not alone a hot-bed, but combined a small forcing house 
where we could work under the glass, and a tool room twelve 
feet square. Depth ofexcavation, and position offurnace is indicated 
in illustration. The hot-bed, six feet by sixty feet,was excavated full 
width, one foot deep at the chimney end and three feet at the 

Length Section of Fire Hot-Bed. 

other, and was fitted with frame same as for an ordinary bed. 
Then narrowing the trench to two and one-half feet, it was 
continued twelve feet to the furnace, where it was lowered six 
feet from the surface, and continued on this level for furnace 
bottom and tool room floor. Seen from above, the excavation 
would appear as in next figure. 

" The dotted line indicates the outline of forcing house portion. 
This was 1 1 feet wide. The outer walls consist of pieces of two 
by four-inch scantling set into the ground, boarded on both 
sides, and the top capped with 2 by 6-inch scantling, on which 
the rafters and sashes rest. These walls project above ground 
about 18 inches, and are banked to the top on the outside with 
earth. Upright pieces of scantling placed against the sides of the 

Tool Room 

. 12 X 12 FT 


Hot Bed 6x60 ft. 


Ground Plan of Fire Hot-Bed. 

trench served as supports for the rafters. Five sashes are used on 
each side. The adjoining tool room wall formed one end, the 
other was double-boarded down to the hot-bed frame, with which 
it was connected. 

Jr4 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

" The trench was boarded up as high as the ground level, 
and the bottom floored over, a few inches above the flue, thus 
forming a passage between the beds. The beds were covered 
with boards, and on these were placed our seed and plant boxes. 
In the hot-bed frame the floor made of inch-boards was laid 
level, being close down to the flue near the chimney end, and 
nearly two feet above it at the other end. The sides were ex- 
tended above the floor 14 inches in front and 18 inches at the 
back, giving slope sufficient to carry the water off the sashes. 
At intervals of six feet, and alternating from side to side, spaces 
were left between the floor and the sides for the passage of warm 
air to the plant space above. 

"On a portion of this floor earth was placed to the depth of 
eight inches, and some seeds sown here, but nearly all our 
plants were started in the forcing house in boxes, and as it be- 
came crowded, the boxes were transferred to the hot-beds, placing 
the tender sorts at the end nearest the furnace, but cabbage and 
similar plants near the chimney. 

" The tool room, used also for the storage of coal, potting 
soil, etc., was walled with brick and covered with a shingle roof. 
The furnace was built of brick. A frame with doors to fire box 
and ash pit formed the front, and was set even with the inner face 
of the tool room wall, and held in place by rods built into the 
furnace wall. The fire box, lined with fire brick, was 30 inches 
long, 15 inches wide, and 18 inches high in the centre. The ash 
pit, 8 inches deep below the grates, had same width and length as 
fire box. We used a single flue of 6-inch sewer pipe running 
straight from furnace to chimney. This was supported on brick, 
four inches from bottom of trench, and the joints were made 
tight with fire clay and mortar. 

" On starting the hot-bed we found a difficulty in the 
excessive radiation from the flue joints nearest the furnace. 
This was obviated by encasing the first twelve feet in an outer 
brick flue, which was allowed to open into the air chamber under 
the hot-bed. The dryness of heat obtained by this method of 
heating renders necessary the maintenance of pans of water over 
the furnace, and at intervals along the flue. The experience of 
the year proved so clearly the utility and convenience of our 
forcing house that we removed the hot-bed frame and converted 
the whole length into forcing house, excavating full width of 
eleven feet, and running two flues, one under each trench." 

" Plants can be successfully grown in fire hot-beds, and in 
many cases at less expense than in manure-heated beds. For a 
forcing house, such as I have spoken of, the same sashes, the 
same furnace and flues required for a hot-bed can be used. The 
only difference is in the additional lumber necessary for the 
frame, and the extra labor of construction. So I would suggest 

Fire Hot-Beds. — 75 

to anyone contemplating a fire hot-bed, that they carefully 
calculate the cost of both hot-bed and forcing house, and then do 
not let a reasonable difference in cost prevent them from choosing 
to build the forcing house. Very many cheap houses of this 
character, varying somewhat in construction, according to the 
taste and means of the owner, are built every year. Their utility 
has been demonstrated, and their cost is within the means 
of gardeners who now depend entirely upon hot-beds." 

I have given this detailed description, not to advise the 
reader to build exactly in the same way, but to make him 
acquainted with the true principles underlying the construction 
and management of fire hot-beds and similar structures, general 
rules which he will be wise to follow pretty closely while the 
arrangement of minor details can be left to his individual taste 
and preferences. 

Fire hot-beds in some respects are undoubtedly a great 
improvement on the old-style manure hot-beds. Yet I believe 
there is still room for further improvement. Hot-water boiler 
and pipes may yet play a very important part in the make-up of 
the hot-bed of the future. As the old flue had to give way to 
hot water and steam pipes in green-house heating, so will the 
fire hot-bed have to make room for the hot-bed heated by hot 
water or steam. Flues will have to go ; but it looks to me that 
the hot-bed of the future may be a hot house or forcing pit, and 
not a hot-bed at all. But whether the one or the other, now that 
we have cheap iron furnaces, some of them self-feeders, for hot 
water heating, I can see no reason why the flue beds with their 
dry heat should be used. Hot water gives us an easily-controlled, 
uniform and altogether unobjectionable heat, and can be used 
with perfect safety, and for any purpose of forcing and plant- 
growing with far less attendance than afire hot-bed will demand. 
The hot-water heating system has the further advantage^that it dis- 
penses with deep trenches under the beds and with the frame work 
needed for fire hot-beds, which is so liable to give out in conse- 
quence of the supports rotting away. The only excavation worthy 
the name is that for the boiler or furnace, while the pipes can be 
imbedded one foot below the surface of the hot-bed soil, or other- 
wise arranged in the same way as will be described for the 
modern forcing house. 

In some instances the waste steam of factories has recently 
been utilized for heating hot-beds and pits. Wherever the gar- 
dener finds opportunities of this kind, he should try to make the 
most of them. 




" Make the most of it." 

HE management of cold frames for forcing 
vegetables naturally involves considerable incon- 
venient outdoor work during the season of raw 
and chilly winds, cold rains and snows ; and 
progressive market gardeners have sought to 
relieve themselves of the unpleasant job, and at 
the same time of a part of the real hard back- 
aching work connected with it, by the substitution of plant 
houses for plant beds. Such structures which afford glass pro- 
tection not only to the crops but also to those who work among 
them, have recently come in use among Eastern market garden- 
ers, especially within marketing distance of the large cities near 
the Atlantic Coast, and generally give entire satisfaction to the 
owner, not only with respect to the personal convenience of doing 
the work in them, but also from a financial standpoint. Next figure 
presents a full view of a house of this kind — in reality nothing 
more nor less than a piece of ground covered and enclosed by a 
simple frame-work which supports a roof of common hot-bed 
sashes. The sun rays and the protection that the glass affords 
are the sole reliance of the grower for the heat needed to produce 
his crops. Such houses, of course, will do very well in a climate 
like that of the coast section from New York city southward ; 
but where the winters are much longer and severer, and clear days 
less the rule during the winter months, artificial heat will prob- 
ably be indispensable. 

The construction of the building is very simple. Each side 
of the roof consists of two tiers of common (3 by 6) hot-bed 
sashes, the peak being 8 feet high, making the building about 
20 or 21 feet in width, and three feet for every four sashes in 
length. The sides are two feet high, and made of common rough 
boards (of double thickness with building paper between) nailed 
from the inside to short stakes driven into the ground at suitable 
intervals. Banking with earth nearly up to where the sashes 
begin, is a commendable practice. The end facing south or east 
is glass, while the opposite end is made of boards, preferably of 

Cold Vegetable Houses.— 77 



78 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

double thickness, like the sides, and with a layer of building paper 
between. The door is tightly fitted in this end. A row of stakes 
or posts capped with 2 by 3 (or 3 by 3) scantling under the 

Frame of Cold Forcing House. 

junction of the two tiers of sashes on each side, and a similar 
support for the peak, give a solid foundation for the rafters and 
sashes, and a cap for the peak completes the structure. The 
frame appears as shown in illustration. The sashes are fastened 
to the rafters in such a way that they can easily be taken 
off to be stored away at the beginning of the warm season. 
Every other one of the lower tiers should be arranged so that 
it can be slid down, to give ventilation as required, and be held 
in place by a simple iron button, as illustrated. I need 
hardly say that it is of greatest importance to have the whole 
structure snug and tight, for success depends mostly on the 
effective retention and utilization of the heat accumulated. As 
little as possible of it should be allowed to escape. 

Cost of House. — One of my former neighbors in New Jersey 
has two such houses in successful operation, and he is still adding 
to his area under glass. They are forty sashes, or a little over 

120 feet, in length each, covering at 
least 2.500 square feet of tillable 
ground. The 160 new sashes for 
each, ready for use, were bought for 
^300. The lumber and the frames 
and glass for the south end cost 
about $ 100, and figuring the labor of 
putting up at another ^100 (in the 
present case there was no cash out- 
lay connected with it, as the owner 
and his help did all the work them- 
selves): we have an aggregate expense of ;$500 for each building, 
or ;$ioo for each 5 square feet of tillable ground. The cold-frame 


Cold Vegetable Houses. — 79 

system, it is true, gives us about 7 square feet of glass-covered area 
for the same money, but considering the waste space (near the front 
side of frame for instance) and other disadvantages, the difference 
in cost of the working surface is hardly worth mentioning. The 
forcing house, on the other hand, gives us a comfortable place to 
work in, a chance to work to best advantage in a natural position, 
instead of lying over the beds on our stomachs, and to work on 
days when the weather would not permit keeping the beds exposed, 
or working outdoors without great inconvenience. Considering 
all the points — the chances for continuous cropping, the full utili- 
zation of all available space, the ease of management, and the 
convenient method of planting, sowing, weeding, etc., and the 
satisfaction generally which it affords — I do not hesitate to pro- 
nounce the house a model of cheapness and convenience. It 
may not economize the heat as well as if built lower, and in the 
shape of the heated forcing houses described in next chapter, 
yet its shape is preferable for many reasons. Comfort, conveni- 
ence, avoidance of backache, etc., are worth as much to the 
gardener as to people in other pursuits of life. The satisfaction 
which the possession of such a house affords is alone worth a 
good deal. There are people of means who would rather have a 
more costly and more elaborate affair. These when intending 
to build a forcing house, should consult agricultural architects, 
and the catalogues of manufacturers of greenhouses and green- 
house supplies. I have no advice for them. The house which 
I have described will also be suitable for localities with longer 
and colder winters, but it will need artificial heating, and this can 
easily be provided by putting in a furnace and a system of hot- 
water or steam pipes. Two one-inch steam, or two-inch hot- 
water pipes around the sides and south end will probably give all 
the heat required for the purpose of forcing hardy vegetables. 

Growing the Crops. — The cold house being put up and 
ready for use by the first of November or December, the whole 
tillable ground is made very rich by the free application of fine 
compost, thoroughly spaded or forked in, with perhaps an addi- 
tional top dressing of composted and thoroughly fined hen 
manure. If the soil is of a clayey nature, and the compost does 
not make it sufficiently porous, spread a few loads of sand over 
it, and mix the whole by spading or forking over. The gardener 
can afford to prepare the ground well, for his 2,500 square feet 
are calculated to give larger returns in cash than a hundred times 
that area,of farming land can be expected to do. The first crop 
to be grown, same as in cold-frame forcing, is spinach. The rows 
are marked ofi 8 or 9 inches apart crosswise of the house, and 
the seed sown in the usual way, leaving a path through the 
centre from door (at north end) to rear. Watering should be 

8o — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

attended to when needed, and whenever done should be 
thorough, so as not to require over-frequent repetition. In theory 
the plants are to be thinned to 2 inches apart in the rows. In 
practice they are usually left to grow as they come up ; and with 
good seed, a thorougly prepared, almost perfect seed-bed, and 
the water supply under entire control, the gardener can sow 
thinly enough that the plants will not be unduly crowding each 
other, and yet cover the entire space — for this latter, as in cold 
frame management, must be the foremost aim. Stimulate the 
growth by all legitimate means, give ventilation when needed, 
and generally treat like plants in cold frames. Cut, barrel and 
market the stuff when the demand is brisk, and prices good. 

Towards the end of February, or early in March, every spot 
cleared from spinach is at once prepared for the next crop, which 
may be lettuce and radishes. These vegetables are planted, and 
generally handled and marketed same as if grown in cold frames, 
always bearing in mind that they should stand thick enough to 
cover and utilize every available inch of space, yet without undue 
crowding. On this point hinges the measure of success. And 
don't forget the early thinning of the radishes to two inches 
apart. Boston Market lettuce is yet a general favorite for glass 
culture. Of radishes, the early round varieties, especially Ear- 
liest Scarlet Erfurt, Round Dark Red, Maule's Earliest Scarlet, 
etc., can justly be recommended for this purpose. All these, 
under stimulating treatment, can be put in market in between 
four and six weeks from the time of sowing, so that the house, 
wholly or in part, will be ready for another crop early in April. 
This next crop may be cucumbers, egg plants, tomatoes, or what- 
ever promises to give best returns at the time of maturity. Cu- 
cumbers (Long Green or White Spine) are usually the crop 
selected. They are planted in hills five feet apart each way, leav- 
ing two or three plants per hill, soon cover the entire area with 
thrifty and generally healthy vines, and produce cucumbers a 
number of weeks in advance of the earliest grown in open air, 
hence at a time when they always bring a good price. When the 
vines begin to bloom, the sashes are removed, first partly during 
the day, then entirely both day and night, so that insects have 
all the chances needed to fertilize (pollenize) the fruit blossoms, 
and the gardener has no need of using artificial means for the 
transfer of the pollen to the embryo fruit. 

If tomatoes or egg plants are the crop selected, the aim must 
be the same as with a cucumber crop, namely, to get the fruit 
into a willing market a few weeks sooner than competition from 
outdoor growers begins, thus getting the benefit of consumers' 
sharpened appetites and readiness to pay a remunerative price 
for the product. Lorillard and Ignotum, and possibly many 
others, are suitable for glass culture. They can be planted 

Cold Vegetable Houses. — 8i 

reasonably close — say 2 feet each way — and should be trimmed 
to single stalk, and trained to stakes or strings. The removal of 
the sashes at the proper time, as with the other crop, will give 
the dry atmosphere needed for " fruit setting." 

Proceeds from season's work. — Some of my readers will 
desire to have some estimate of the money that can be realized 
from the various crops produced durmg one season in a building 
as described, and covering 2,500 square feet. 

The spinach crop, if well grown, should not be less than 30 
barrels. I have seen 40 barrels taken off a cold house of this 
size, and am sure that 50 can be grown easily enough. 
To be on the safe side we call it 30 barrels. Late in 
February, or early in March, it usually brings from ;^2.oo to $3.50 
at wholesale in the New York City market. If it nets the grower 
;^3.oo the crop gives him ;^90.oo. Next comes the radish crop, 
consisting of at least 5,000 bunches, netting 2 cents each, or 
;^ 100.00 in the aggregate. Lettuce, if grown instead of the 
radishes, wholly or in part, will bring approximately the same 
figure. The cucumber (or tomato) crop may add ^$75. 00 more 
to the net proceeds, which sum up as follows, viz. : 

Spinach, 30 barrels, at ;^3.00 $ 90 00 

Radishes, 5,000 bunches, at 2 cents, 100 00 

Cucumbers, 75 00 

Total net proceeds, ;^265 00 

Deducting from this sum the amount of interest on invest- 
ment, with ;^35.oo, and legitimate wear and tear, with ^30.00, or 
;^65.oo in all, we have for our season's work in the one cold house 
the net amount of ;^200.oo. In most cases the proceeds will be 
larger, since I have purposely put the returns low enough, and 
the expenses high enough, in order to be on the safe side in 
either direction. 

I will only add that the cold forcing house as here described, 
is a contrivance which gives the gardener an opportunity for 
employment at very fair paying rates during a time of more or 
less enforced idleness, thus also enabling him to keep a good 
hired man, if he has such, permanently the year round, instead of 
discharging all hands at the beginning of winter, and beginning 
with an entirely new set of raw hands next spring. 






" What you do, do with your might.'' 

'OW that I have told the reader in one of the 
preceding chapters how to construct and manage 
hot-beds, I go a step further, and advise him not 
to build them. When any one wants hot-beds for 
use in commercial plant and vegetable growing, 
let him build the more convenient, more econom- 
ically managed, and more controllable hot-houses 
or rather forcing pits, which in reality are some- 
what intermediate between hot-bed and hot-house, and now in 
use by some of our leading market gardeners. Of elaborate, 
fancy, and therefore expensive structures, I shall not speak. 
Cheapness in construction of his buildings and in'their operation 
must always be a leading consideration with the average market 
gardener, but he can combine quite a large element of conven- 
ience and comfort with it. If he values convenience sufficiently 
to forego for its sake slight advantages of economy, the cold 
house, which I have previously described as " a model of cheap- 
ness and convenience," can easily be arranged for a forcing 
house as already suggested. When run as a regular hot-house, 
for forcing lettuce, strawberries, cucumbers, tomatoes, etc., 
during the winter, more heat and consequently more piping or 
greater boiler capacity will be required than if used merely as 
related for the cold house, but for the purposes of propagating 
and plant growing, it will certainly be preferable to have the 
whole system of heating pipes underground, in order to warm 
the soil somewhat in the congenial fashion of the manure hot- 
bed. In growing plants for sale, we consider the root the chief 
part, and for root development bottom heat is essential. With 
lettuce and spinach, and all the other forcing crops except rad- 
ishes, the grower wants top, and is not in the least concerned 
about the root, and in that case he will prefer to let the heat 
come upon his plants from above, in the natural way. It is a 
general principle that bottom heat favors root growth, heat from 
above top growth, and we must make our arrangements in accor- 
dance with the intended use of the forcing house, . 


Forcing Houses or Pits. — 83 

Economy and absolute safety will always be the weightiest 
considerations with market gardeners. I think the great merits 
or advantages of the hot-houses or forcing pits in use, for instance, 
by my friend, Mr. Theo. F. Baker, of Cumberland County, N. J., 
and of the similar structure erected by Mr. R. Bingham, of Cam- 
den, N. J., will be readily appreciated by every reader, and give 
many of them a clue to the satisfactory solution of the problem : 
How shall I build a hot-house ? 

The Model Forcing Pit. — A sectional view of the most 
sensible forcing pit yet constructed is here presented, the great- 
est difference in outward appearance between it and the cold- 
house shown on page 68, being in the arrangement of the sashes. 
In the cold-house, as described, the four tiers of sashes form a 
single roof and a single building, while the sash arrangement in 

Market Gardener's Forcing Pit — Sectional View. 

our forcing pit divides the house in two sections lengthwise, 
making, we might say, two parallel buildings of it, the roof of 
each being formed by two single tiers of sashes. In the former 
we had a pathway in the centre of house, and an opportunity to 
walk all over, and work upon the beds. The forcing pit, on the 
other hand, has two alleys or walks (AA), one under the centre 
of each roof, dug into the ground 18 inches wide, and 18 inches 
deep ; and standing in these the operator, reaching over to each 
side, in same way as in any green-house, manipulates the beds 
and plants. The sides of the alleys are either walled or boarded 
up. The beds or " benches," as in the cold-house, are even with 
the surface of the ground, but the glass is pretty close to them, 
as the peak of the roofs is only 41^ feet above the level of the 
ground, and consequently 6 feet from the bottom of the alleys. 
The sashes should be 7 or 7^ feet long, and of any convenient 
width, although the common size of hot-bed sash (3 by 6) might 

84 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

be made to answer. Large-sized glass is preferable, say 12 by 
16 inches. The sides, consisting of boards nailed to stakes, 
double if possible and banked up, are only one foot from level 
of ground to eaves. The width of the whole double structure is 
26 feet. In the centre, at B, where the two roof sections meet, 
the sashes rest on a plate or plank 2 inches thick and 12 inches 
wide, gathered out ^ by 8 inches to catch and carry off the 
water, and these centre planks, as shown in engraving, rest upon 

Centre Plank and Support. 

two rows of 2 by 3 inch posts, 2^ feet long and 12 inches above 
the beds. These posts in each row are 4 feet apart. 

Methods of Heating the Pit. — The old method of 
heating by means of a brick (or similar) flue has a slight saving 
in the expense of construction in its favor, but it requires a 
much greater running expense, especially in the items of fuel and 
attendance. Hot-water and steam heating give us superior 
advantages for the one single drawback of greater cost' of con- 
struction, to such an extent, indeed, that the gardener who lays 
the least claim to progressiveness, has only his choice between 
the hot-water and the steam system. While the battle 
between the advocates of hot water and those of steam is still 
raging, I can state it as a fact, that either method may be made 
use of with perfect success. Florists and gardeners who work 
on a very extensive scale, and can afford to employ a night 
watchman, generally favor the steam system, and claim that it 

Forcing Houses or Pits. — 85 

not only saves fuel, but also gives the operator better control of 
the heat, since there is but very little of it stored up in the cir- 
culation ; but nearly everybody admits that hot water is prefer- 
able for small houses, especially on account of safety, the pipes 
distributing heat just as long as the water in the boiler is hot, 
whether actually boiling or not. 

My own preference is for hot water ; but the use of a large 
boiler with low pressure will render steam heating also perfectly 
safe and probably satisfactory; only be sure to have the boiler 
low enough, the chimney high enough, and the pipes at such 
gradual inclination from the boiler upwards, that the condensed 
water will freely return to the boiler and not accumulate in any 
part of the pipes. If the latter is the case, the trouble makes 
itself known by what is generally termed "hammering," which is 
a sound repeated at regular intervals somewhat like that made by 
striking a hard article against the pipe. The use of steam 
also involves a smaller outlay than that of hot water, since one- 
inch pipes will do, and are often preferred for the one system, 
while two-inch pipes are usually considered the smallest suitable 
for the other. 

The boilers used for steam heating are generally bought 
second-hand, of four or five-horse power, such as have faithfully 
served for high pressure, and are condemned for that purpose. 
Hot-water and steam furnaces and boilers of any desired size, 
from the simple self-feeding, base-burning water heater, to that 
for heating buildings covering many thousands of square feet, 
may be bought at reasonable figures from manufacturing firms 
who make a specialty of them, as Hitchings & Co., of New 
York City, and others. 

Mr. Baker's Method of Heating. — Mr. Baker's forcing 
pit is constructed on the plan given on page 83, 26 feet wide by 
100 feet in length. The boiler is a second-hand four or five- 
horse power, and at an outside temperature of zero has to carry 
about 5 pounds of steam in order to maintain a temperature of 65 
to 70 degrees inside. Two-inch pipes conduct the heat from 
the boiler, one line of pipe running up on each side of the house, 
and both returning through the centre back to the boiler. The 
furnace room is an excavation 10 feet by 12 feet, and 6 feet deep 
at the north or northwest end of the house, walled up or cemented, 
and covered with a roof Length of pipe required is 450 feet. 
The entire cost of a structure of these dimensions, boiler and 
pipes included, amounts to ;^450 for the material, to which the 
cost of steam-fitting by a plumber will have to be added. Any 
man of ordinary intelligence can do all the rest of the work on 
the house. 

86 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

For the purpose of vegetable forcing, the pipes are laid all 
above ground, as shown at E and B page ^-i^. If wanted for 
starting seedlings, and for general propagating purposes, how- 
ever, the pipe had better be placed from lo to 12 inches under the 
surface, encased in an ordinary 3-inch drain tile, as shown at D, 
or perhaps still better in the manner employed in Mr. Bingham's 
house, and shown on this page. Mr. Baker tells me that he has 
been most successful in growing lettuce, radishes and such vege- 
tables by tunning the pipes above the benches, fastened to the 
outside posts, and in the centre the same way, thus heating the 
air and letting it warm up the soil in Nature's own way, rather 
than drive out the moisture by bottom heat, which he thinks is 
the chief cause of " damping off" and of mildew, 

Mr. Bingham's Method of Heating. — The house here 
shown is constructed exactly like the one shown and described 
on page 83, but 124 feet in length. The paths or alleys A A are 

Mr. Bingham's Method of Heating. 

somewhat narrower so that the outside benches are 5 feet 
8 inches in width. The boiler is second-handed, with upright 
flues and 19-inch grate, rated four-horse power. The direct heat 
from the furnace is perfectly utilized by means of an under 
ground terra-cotta flue C, 10 inch diameter, which runs from the 
boiler room to the smoke stack B at the north end. The steam 
pipes are placed from 18 inches to 6 inches under the centre 
of each bench, as shown \x\D D D D, resting on a concrete and 
covered with a 5-inch horse-shoe tile. The concrete is made 
of one part Portland cement and 5 parts gravel, laid two feet 
wide and two inches in thickness. Two lines of i- or i)^-inch 
pipe under each bench would be an improvement, but the heat 
radiation is good, and the surface of the benches warmed pretty 
uniformly, certainly much more so than by Mr. Baker's plan of 
simply encasing the 2-inch pipe with a 3-inch tile. With the 
hot-water system the distance of underground pipes from the 
surface should be more uniform, but a double line of pipes in 
this case is still more desirable. 

Forcing Houses or Pits. — 87 

While theory and the opinion of expert growers give 
preference to heating from above ground for forcing purposes, 
Mr. Bingham has, practically, most excellent success with the 
underground system. " The ground is thoroughly warmed 
several inches deep," says Mr. B., "and retains the heat much 
better than the air, which comes in contact with the cold glass. 
By keeping our source of heat lower, we get a much larger per 
cent, of its value than by air-heating systems. Theoretically we 
claim to save 50 per cent, of heat which is wasted by other plans, 
and our trial has practically proved it." This is a matter yet 
open for investigation ; but in the meantime it will be advisable 
to place the pipes in the cheaper, handier and entirely safe way 
in use in Mr. Baker's forcing houses, when the house is 
intended chiefly or wholly for forcing vegetables. There is no 
objection, however, to introducing the underground system for one 
of the benches, as shown at D, page 83? mainly for plant growing 
and propagating purposes, as also to try forcing for the com- 
parison of results between the two systems. 

Provision has to be made for ventilation. The simplest 
method consists in hinging every alternate outside sash, so that it 
can be lifted, or in arranging it as explained for the cold plant 
house, allowing every alternate outside sash to slide down or be 
removed entirely. Mr. Bingham's house is also constructed in 
such a way that the caps, rafters and sashes can be entirely taken 
off during the warm season, and stored in a convenient place 
under shelter. At the approach of another forcing season, the 
benches can thus be enriched and otherwise prepared for 
cropping as easily and conveniently as beds in the open ground. 

I do not think that a simpler, cheaper, and safer forcing house 
could be conceived than one built on the same general principles 
here described. It combines the best features of the hot-bed and 
the greenhouse, and will tend to elevate the undertaking of 
growing vegetables and plants during the winter and early spring 
from drudgery to be dreaded to a pastime and pleasure. The 
cost of heating a house of this kind is inconsiderable — a few 
tons of coal go a great ways, and the management of the furnace 
is so simple that any boy can tend it. The vegetable crops are 
grown in the same way as described for the hot-beds. Lettuce 
is the first crop, and can be gotten ready for market from 
Christmas on. This is followed by radishes, or any other 
vegetable which the market may usually call for, or by straw- 
berries, and perhaps later on, by egg-plants, tomatoes, peppers, 
etc. Boston Market, a strain of Tennis Ball, is yet considered 
the safest lettuce variety for early winter forcing. Mildew and 
aphis (or green louse) are the two dreaded enemies of the crop, 
and must be fought with the means named in the chapter on 
" Insects and Plant Diseases," 

88 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Drainage for Boiler Pit. — Sunken houses, like Baker's 
and Bingham's, are out of the question where an outlet lor 
drainage water cannot be secured at least six or eight feet below 
the ground surface. The boiler pit has to be dug deep enough 
for the top of boiler to be below the point where the flow pipe 
enters the greenhouse. On porous subsoil nothing need be 
feared, but if the soil does not allow the speedy absorption of 
surface water, either some sort of artificial drainage, below 
bottom of furnace or boiler pit, has to be provided, or the house 
must be elevated, and the walks put on top or above the ground 
rather than sunk into it. 

Beginner's Greenhouse. — The little greenhouse here illus- 
trated in perspective was intended solely for amateur purposes, 
and in this respect I consider it nearly perfect. But I find it 
fully large enough for a modest start in market gardening, and if 
a somewhat larger house should be preferred, a few feet might 
easily be added to its length, at little additional cost. It stands 

Small Double-Span Greenhouse. 

on the ground level, with furnace pit dug about four feet deep 
and good chances of drainage just below this. The building is 
heated by means of one of Hitchings & Co.'s base-burning 
water heaters (No. 22), and four lines of two-inch gas pipe, 
requiring a moderate amount of coal, and but little attention. 
The whole building, heating apparatus and all, was put up at a cost 
of about ;^250, and a little of my own work and supervision. 
Each span is ten feet wide and sixteen feet long. The wood- 
work, posts and boards excepted, consists of southern cypress, 
and was purchased, ready for putting together, from one of the 
firms advertising such lumber in the columns of horticultural 
journals. The structure is attached to permanent posts reaching 
below the frost line. The sides are double-board walls, with 
sawdust packing. The three thicknesses of board, two thick- 
nesses of building paper, and a four-inch layer of dry sawdust 
allow very little waste of heat. The walls are as high as the 
benches, and the side posts extend eighteen inches above the 

Forcing Houses or Pits. — 89 

plates or wall caps, and support the side gutters. This eighteen- 
inch space, all along the sides of the building, is closed in by- 
means of hinged sashes. The gable ends, except the one at the 
northeast and which joins the furnace room, and is simply 
boarded up, have vertical bars {i}i by 1^ inches) resting on the 
gable plates and extending to the end rafter. In one of the 
gables, facing the dwelling house, is the large door with sash 
top. The middle gutter is supported by posts inside the house, 
and all three gutters have a slight deviation from the horizontal 
line in order to give rain and snow water a better chance to run off 
If desired, a house of this kind might be roofed with hot- 
bed sashes. I have used permanent sash bars, placing them four- 
teen inches apart, and the regular greenhouse glass of double 
thickness. The latter, both on the roof and at the gables, is 
*' butted, " that is, simply placed together edge to edge, not 
lapped. Care is taken to select panes that fit well together. 
When the glass is once carefully laid, )'ou have a roof that is as 

Cross-Section of Greenhouse. 

perfect as any glass roof can be made. The glass lies smoothly 
and evenly on the projection of the sash bar, and is held down 
firmly by the cap. We use a little soft putty in which to bed the 
glass, but none on top of the glass. Everything, of course, is 
made snug and tight. The top ventilators, of which there are 
four (each 14 by 16 inches) and the hinged side sashes should 
also be well and closely fitted in, so that there will be no leaks 
of heat during cold nights. All the ventilators are worked by iron 
lifting rods of simple construction. 

The heater stands in a pit north of the east span, the chim- 
ney is close to the heater and extends somewhat beyond the 
ridges of the house. We must be sure to have good draught 
and security from catching fire. One end of pit is partitioned 
off for a coal-bin. The location and arrangement of benches and 
pipes may be seen in the illustrations representing cross-section 
and ground plan. If you have no idea of the arrangement of 
pipes, and how to get them together, it will be advisable to 
employ a regular plumber. I always do such work myself. 

90 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

By the help of a plan drawn on the one-inch-to-the-foot 
scale, you or the party who is to furnish you the piping can get 
the correct length of every piece of pipe, and make a list of all 



'Onions' //S,'/^ 




Ground Plan of Greenhouse. 

the fixings needed ; and when you have all that, it is easy enough 
to put the whole thing together. 

Other Houses. — Many other plans might be given. Those 
found in the preceding pages are merely samples on which I 

Section of Hillside House. 

have tried to demonstrate the leading principles. Some people 
may have a good location for a cheap lean-to placed directly 
against the south side of some building ; others for a hillside 

Forcing Houses or Pits. — 91 

house, plan (cross-section) of which is here given. I do not 
think it necessary to go into all the details of construction, heat- 
ing, etc. Any person intending to build a greenhouse of any 
kin should not only study works on greenhouse construction, 
but also visit the greenhouses in his vicinity, and talk with the 
men who run them. Many good suggestions may be gathered 
by such a course. 



" A will — a way." 

lOR the average-sized kitchen garden only a 
comparatively very small number of early plants 
are needed, so few, indeed, that people often 
come to the conclusion it is cheaper to buy 
them than to raise them, especially when plants 
are to be had as cheap as they are now. Yet we 
cannot always, nor even often, get what we want. 
Professional plant-growers frequently are very 
careless about the seeds they sow. The plants are for sale, and 
a tomato plant will sell, if well grown, no matter what fruit it 
will produce afterwards. So in the purchase of plants we 
always run a risk, and at best have to deal with uncertainties. 
Then we may wish to try a new tomato, or pepper, or egg- 
plant, etc., and plants of high-priced novelties cannot often be 
purchased. Furthermore, while poor plants, grown in crowded 
hot-beds, and consisting of much stalk and little root, are 
abundant and cheap, really first-class, well-grown, well-rooted 
and well-hardened plants are generally rare, always dear, and 
often not on sale. Take it on the whole, therefore, I think 
every home gardener who takes the least interest in his garden, 
will of necessity have to dabble in the business of plant growing. 
He can go at it in a variety of ways. 

Where a sunny kitchen window is at disposal for the 
purpose, some tomato, pepper and egg-plants can easily be 
started in a box or in boxes placed in front of it, as shown in 
illustration. A common soap box, obtained from the nearest 
grocer will furnish material for two or three such boxes. Suitable 
soil is prepared by mixing one-third of well-rotted compost and 
two-thirds sandy loam or rich garden soil, and of course it should 
be got in readiness in the autumn before the ground freezes. The 
boxes are filled with this nearly to the top, and the seeds sowed 
thinly in shallow furrows. Each variety should be plainly labelled, 
or the name written on outside of box facing each row. Sift a 
little sandy loam, leaf mould or pulverized dried peat moss upon 
the seeds, pat it down gently to firm the seed, then water with 

Early Plants for the Home Garden. — 93 

hot water from a fine rose sprinkler, and as often afterwards with 
tepid water as the soil becomes dry, and needs it. Thus treated 
the young plants should make their appearance in about a week's 
time. A few cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce plants may be 
grown in a similar way, but the box should be set in a colder 
room, or in a less sunny exposure. It generally falls to the lot 
of the good housewife to care for such plant boxes, and in most 
cases she will enjoy the task. The chief aim must be to make 
the plants strong and stocky by giving each sufficient space, and 
thin out the surplus at an early stage of development. Tall, 
over-grown things are not desirable. Where there is sufficient 
window room, and if possible, any way, the plants should be 
transplanted once or twice, and more space given at each time. 
Nothing is more serviceable than empty tomato cans (with a hole 
punched in the bottom) for setting 
in tomato and egg plants, one in 
each, from there to be trans- 
planted to the open ground. 
The true lover of a good garden, 
and the man who has a large 
family to supply with vegetables, 
will sorely miss the convenience 
and aid of a hot-bed, and the best 
thing for him to do is to invest 
the amount of ^4.00 or $6.00 
in sashes, and put up a little 
frame. The excavation may be 
made for only one-half or two- 
thirds of the bed, if this is three 
sashes in size, so that a part of it 
is managed as hot-bed, and the 
other as cold frame. Plants must 
be ranged according to their 
degree of tenderness, and begin- 
ning at the hot-bed end, as fol- 
lows : egg-plant, pepper, tomato, cauliflower, cabbage and lettuce; 
and ventilation given more freely and frequently on the cold 
frame side than on the other. For directions as to general 
management I can only refer the reader to Chapters X and XI. 
The well-to-do home gardener who can afford to spend a 
little time and money for the privilege of running a miniature 
green-house or forcing pit, which will not only give him an 
abundance of plants such as he may desire, but also a chance to 
raise a few nice, crisp vegetables in the winter months, may 
construct a building, answering one of the two sections of the 
forcing pit described in preceding chapter. Such structure is 
here shown, and will need no detailed explanation. Hot water 

Plant liox in Window. 

94 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Amateur Green- House. 

will be found the proper method of heating, and a base-burning 
water heater that manufacturers furnish for from ;^25.oo upwards, 
will do good service. 

The people of Hammonton, New Jersey, use a boiler of this 
kind for heating the brooders in their chicken houses, and it may 
be arranged 
somewhat in 
the same man- 
ner, and as 
shown in next 
figure. When 
the house is 
all made snug 
and tight, and 
where winters 
are not ex- 
severe, it 
seems that a 
single pipe for 
each bench, 

either in an air-chamber under it to provide bottom heat, or near 
the outside would be fully sufficient. 

To make the arrangement perfectly clear, I will say that the 
barrel B is used merely to give pressure to the water in the stove ; 
C '\s the faucet for drawing water from the barrel; D the faucet 
for emptying water out of stove, pipes and barrels. £ is a cock 
for letting out air from the pipes in order to prevent it from 
interfering with the water circulation. F and G are cocks by 
which the connection between stove and water pipes can be broken. 

If one of them is shut, the 
circulation stops, and the 
pipes will gradually cool off. 
If it should be desired to 
heat or boil the water in the 
barrel, it can be done by 
shutting off the two cocks, 
F and G^ and opening the 
one in the vertical pipe lead- 
ing from the upper heating 
pipe to the barrel, thus com- 
pleting the water circulation 
through boiler and barrel. 
Base-burning Water Heater and An arrangement of this 

Arrangement of Pipes. kind, simple and inexpen- 

sive as it is, sometimes may come handy, even if not entirely 
necessary for the regular purpose of green-house heating. 



" The ability to overcome obstacles is a certain guarantee of success.'' 

HE best garden soil — that adapted for the 
production of early vegetables, and composed of 
a dark, sandy loam resting on a porous subsoil 
— needs no artificial drainage. My experience 
with red sandy subsoil in New Jersey was highly 
satisfactory. The soil water moves freely up 
and down through subsoil of this character, and 
the air has a chance to warm it deeply and 
quickly. The possession of such land (without a single under- 
drain on it) gives advantages against which the proprietor of 
clayey loam underlaid with stiff blue clay will find it utterly 
impossible to compete successfully, no matter how much money 
he may expend for drainage. Whatever may be said in favor or 
greater fertility and the retentiveness of clayey loam, and the 
leachy character of " lighter " soil, the fact remains that vege- 
tables grown on the former will be days if not weeks later than 
on the latter. This only shows the importance of selecting a 
more or less sandy loam with porous subsoil for general garden- 
ing purposes, and of steering entirely clear of clay on clay 
foundation. Muck resting upon blue clay meets with the same 
objection. Still such cooler soils, when properly drained, can 
generally be utilized with advantage for certain crops, such as for 
instance, onions and celery. Ifa piece of such land belonging 
to the gardener is yet in an undrained condition, he should lose 
no time to make it available, and often exceedingly profitable by 
preparing a thorough system of drainage. In some cases an 
otherwise fine garden soil is underlaid with a fairly porous loam 
which, however, offers some obstruction to the free passage of 
surface water. Then drainage will improve it wonderfully, and 
perhaps render it equal to the best garden land in earliness and 

The first concern is to find an outlet 2^ to 4 feet below the 
lowest part of the field, as a starting point for the main ditch 
that is to be carried right along the lowest line of the surface 
across the whole field, with a gradual rise of not less than 


go — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

^-inch (more is better) to the rod. The laterals begin from this 
main, are 2 or 2^ rods apart, and closer if it can be afforded 
or is thought necessary, 3 to 4 feet in depth, and also rise 
gradually at least ^-inch to the rod. As the only object is to 
places the tiles into the bottom, we have no need for wide 
ditches, and in order to save labor, aim to make them as narrow 
as possible. With the improved ditching tools now on sale in 
every hardware store, such drains can be cut quite conveniently 
to the depth of 4 feet with only one foot across on top and 
6 inches at the bottom. The work is begun with common spade, 
shovel and if needed pick-axe, perhaps with the assistance of a 

common plow and subsoil plow; but 
the last 12 inches of depth are dug 
with the long narrow spade shown at 
the left in engraving, and the finishing 
touches given with the draining scoop 
shown in centre of same figure. This 
scoop, which is drawn towards the 
operator, only finishes the perfect 
cleaning out of the bottom, correcting 
faulty grade, etc. , and leaves a concave 
bed for the tile. Scoops of this kind 
are made in different sizes to fit the 
tile. Too much care cannot be be- 
stowed on the grading. To secure 
perfect working order, and durability 
of the drains, their every part should 
have a slight incline towards the out- 
let; and everything that might tend 
to obstruct the continuous flow of 
water in the tiles must be carefully 
guarded against. Common sense in 
the whole matter must dictate the details, and will be found a 
safe guide throughout. 

Size of Tiles. — The amount of water that runs off in an 
even and continuous stream, after the first rush from the newly 
ditched field, determines the size of tile. Two-inch tile are 
generally preferable for the lateral drains, while the main must 
have a size fully capable of carrying off the water that collects 
from the laterals above, at the time of greatest supply. The flow 
from a well-arranged system of underground drains, when in 
perfect working order, is pretty nearly unifoj-m through the whole 
year, only of greater volume in winter than in summer. For water 
containing iron larger sizes are necessary, as the deposits adhere, 
and are liable to fill up the tile after awhile. The extreme upper 
end of the main, for a short distance, may be arranged as a lateral, 
and laid with small tile, but it should then be made larger by using 

Set of Draining Tools. 

Drainage. — 97 

3 or 4-inch tile, and for the lower half or one-third 6-inch and perhaps 
even larger sizes may be necessary. The number and length of 
laterals, and amount of water passing through them, determines 
this question. 

Laying the Tiles. — Next to perfect grading of the bottom, 
the effectiveness and permanency of the whole draining operation 
depends on the careful laying of the tiles. The work should never 
be entrusted to a raw hand, unless the latter is endowed with an 
unusual amount of common sense, skill and intelligence. It is 
much safer to employ a man used to such work, and pay him 
good wages by the day, not by the rod or job. It is not safe to 
run the least risk of having this important job slighted. Laying 
the tile should follow immediately upon the levelling (grading) 
of the bottom, and in order to perform this task without stepping 
into the ditch, a six foot pole with a y^ inch iron rod fastened to 
the end and bent in the form of an elbow, is used to handle section 

Tile on Soft Bottom. Tile on Clay Bottom. 

after section of tile, and placing it- in its proper place. The ends 
should be closely fitted together, and clay subsoil firmly packed 
around them to hold them in their place, until the ditches can be 
filled up again to the top. Fine surface soil or anything that will 
decay, should not be put immediately in contact with the tiles. 
It is also essential that the point of discharge in the laterals 
should be a few inches above the level of the main, to insure a 
good flow. It is obvious that the tile can be laid directly upon 
the bottom of the ditch when the subsoil is perfectly hard and 
solid, especially if of stiff clay. Soft muck or quicksand in the 
bottom of drains makes it necessary to rest the tiles upon a line 
of narrow (6 inch) boards placed in the drain, as here illustrated. 
In some instances tile cannot be readily obtained, at least not 
without paying heavy transportation expenses, and other means 

98 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

(Faulty Construction). 

of constructing the drain have to be found. I have used board 
troughs with excellent results. The poorest kind of lumber may 
be utilized for this purpose. Two boards are nailed together at 
right angles, and held firmly in place by strips nailed diagonally 

Usually such troughs are laid directly upon stiff clay bottom 
carefully graded, or upon a line of boards placed upon soft bot- 
tom, pointed side up, as 
here illustrated. This 
construction, however, is 
decidedly faulty. The 
water has a chance to 
spread out quite widely. 
Consequently it moves 
with very little force, 
and will continually de- 
positsediment, gradually 
filling up the trough. If 
he trough is inv^erted, 
as shown in the next 
illustration, so that the water runs in a narrow and deep little 
stream, it will have sufficient force to carry all the sediment 
along with it. 

Stones and pebbles, where plentiful, can be used to good 
advantage also ; but to get a properly constructed drain with 
such material, the inexperienced owner will always find it safest 
and cheapest to have the work done by somebody that under- 
stands it. Tile is always best, and clr?ins thus made will be of 
more lasting value. AH stone drains are quite liable to get 
choked up after awhile, since 
it is almost impossible to keep 
the soil from washing and work- 
ing among the stones, and finally 
fill up the throat. 

The Advantages of Un- 
DERDRAiNiNG. — As oue of the 
most beneficial results of good 
underdraining on many soils, the 
crops are given more root room. 
The roots of almost all our garden crops (and field crops also) 
thrive in moist soil, but not in that which is wet or water-logged, 
and they are stopped when they come to the soil water. Under- 
draining lowers the soil water level, allows the roots to go deeper, 
and therefore gives them more room to work in. Each plant 
needs a certain amount or weight of soil for its best development. 
Jf it can feed cleeper it will not require as much surface, and hence 

Board Trough 
(Proper Construction). 

Drainage. — 99 

plants in well-drained soil can be planted closer than in undrained 
land. But good drainage gives still other benefits. It warms the 
soil by admitting air more freely, lengthens the season at both 
ends, and by promoting the circulation of air and moisture, 
furnishes chances for chemical action by which insoluble plant 
food is rendered available. 

But, after all, tile drains, if ever so well laid, cannot be 
expected to last forever, and often they give out quite unex- 
pectedly, making it necessary to take up parts of them for 
repairs In an emergency of this kind it is quite convenient to 
know the exact location of every drain, and to be able to find it 
without having to dig over a large area. A map showing the 
location of every tile drain put down, with distances marked in 
rods and feet, will be of great advantage, and a valuable assist- 
ance sooner or later. 

Surface Drainage. — An opportunity for the easy escape of 
surface water, especially during the winter, is a good thing for 
all soils, and urgently needed on tile-drained, level lands which 
otherwise are liable to be saturated at times to such an extent 
that the drains are unable to carry the surplus off as fast as it 
accumulates. Beds that were kept high and dry all winter by 
plowing during the fall in ridges allowing the surface water to 
run off at once in deep dead furrows, are always ready for plant- 
ing earlier in spring, and then usually give better crops than land 
just plowed level. Good surface drainage, in short, is an advan- 
tage not to be ignored, even on land supposedly well tile- drained. 
I would always advise to plow such land in the fall in narrow 
beds, giving the dead furrows a suitable outlet. It will pay. 



" More powerful than art is Nature." 

RRIGATION, while a necessary and common practice 
under the rainless skies near the Pacific coast, is 
hardly ever thought of at the east. I have made a 
few trials on a somewhat limited scale, and the 
results fully convinced me that the chances are not 
rare where the eastern gardener might employ some 
system of irrigation with as telling effect. The first 
requisite, of course, is a sufficient water supply, one 
which can be controlled or made available without great 
expense. The amount of liquid needed for thorough work — and 
this alone gives satisfactory results — is so immensely large, that 
I have little respect for any source of supply of less "magnitude 
than a pond or small stream. I cannot do better than quote 
from a paper read before the American Horticultural Society, 
by Mr. J. M. Smith, Wisconsin's noted and successful gardener, 
and President of the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society: 
"A few things should be remembered by those who contemplate 
artificial watering. Suppose that you have one acre of cabbage 
that you wish to water. To do this fairly well requires at least 
30,000 gallons of water, and this will need to be repeated at least 
once a week until rain comes. To make strawberries do their 
best in dry weather, requires considerably more than for 
cabbages, and to be put on oftener. To merely sprinkle the 
ground when it is very dry, is, in my opinion, a damage rather 
than a benefit. It has a tendency to form a thin, hard crust, 
both air- and water-tight. Neither the damp air nor the rains 
will pass through it, neither will a light shower. It requires a 
heavy rain to dissolve it. Thus you shut out the benefits to be 
derived from the cool, damp night air, the heavy dews that we 
often have, also the little sprinkles of rain that are almost sure to 
come occasionally. For a couple of years after my water-works 
were put up, I was at a loss to understand why our watering had 
so little effect. I had a piece of early cabbage that was suffering 
for want of rain. The men were told to put on water until the 
ground was thoroughly soaked for at least six inches deep. They 

Irrigation. — loi 

did so, and I learned two things by it. One was that a thorough 
watering would make the plants grow; the other was that it 
took a great deal of water to make it thorough. 

" Hence if you water at all, do it well. No system of arti- 
ficial watering that I have ever tried is equal to rain from the 
clouds. I do not state these things to discourage any one, but 
because I believe them to be facts that should be known to those 
who contemplate some improvements of this kind. My water- 
works cost me nearly ;^i,ooo, and I have no doubt but that they 
have more than once paid for themselves in a single season." 

Surface Irrigation. — Where a pond or other body of water 
is available, so that a stream can be run directly to the highest line 
of the field, irrigation is a very simple matter. Make light fur- 
rows down the slope, 8 or lo feet apart, between the rows of 
plants, and let the water run down in one after another, long 
enough in each, to soak up the ground pretty thoroughly to the 
lower end, before turning off the flow into the next furrow. The 
application should not (or need not) be repeated until the ground 
becomes quite dry again, but it is absolutely necessary for best 
results, and lasting effects of the operation, to cultivate the 
ground thoroughly just as soon as the surface is again dry 
enough for such work. Always make the water channels in the 
higher places, as the lower ones are apt to take care of them- 
selves. In irrigating a ^ acre lot of celery one season, between 
6,000 and 8,000 gallons of water were needed to give the ground 
one thorough soaking, but this had a most excellent effect on the 

Very much, of course, depends on the nature of the soil. A 
loose, porous loam, resting on porous subsoil, will drink in 
rapidly almost unlimited quantities of water, and allow it to per- 
colate, from any point of discharge, over a wide area. Conse- 
quently the channels into which the water is turned and made to 
flow down the slope, gradually soaking in and away, maybe ten, 
twelve feet or a rod and more apart, even on considerable of a 
slope. On soils which do not allow the percolation of water 
quite so freely, the channels must be nearer together, and their 
course more nearly, or almost quite, on a level. 

In some cases water from a near supply (pond, stream, etc.) 
may be conducted to the highest part of the field in a box ditch, 
and from there distributed through holes bored into the side 
boards, opening and stopping them up as the case may require. 

A natural water supply, above the field, however, is not 
always at command. In that case, it may be advisable to secure 
it by letting a windmill or steam pump raise it from a pond, 
stream or well into large tanks, from which it is to be distributed 
over the field by means of hose, or by a combination of iron 

102 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

pipe and hose, or in other ways that may suggest themselves to 
the intelligent gardener. 

Home-made Hose. — A method of surface irrigation prac- 
ticed by Mr. H, A. March, a well-known gardener and grower of 
cauliflower seed, of Washington State, deserves more than a 
passing notice. The following are the details of his plant as 
described by himself: 

" On the south side of our farm, we have a never-failing 
spring of water that gives us about 45,000 gallons every 24 
hours. It is situated about 20 feet higher than any of our tillable 
land. This water is brought down in open troughs to the tanks 
on the upper side of the field to be irrigated, holding 20,000 gal- 
lons each. We turn the water into the tanks in the heat of the 
day, and the sun warms it up to about 60°. 

'* To distribute the water, we use a hose made from 12-ounce 
duck. We take a piece 30 feet long, and cut it lengthwise into 
three pieces, which makes 90 feet of hose about 2^ inches in 
diameter. We fetch the edges together, double once over, and 
with a sewing-machine sew through the four thicknesses twice, 
which makes a hose that will stand a six or eight-foot pressure. 
To make it waterproof, we use five gallons of boiled linseed oil 
with half a gallon of pine tar, melted together. Place the hose 
in a washtub, turn on the oil hot (say 160°), and saturate the 
cloth v/ell with the mixture. Now, with a clothes-wringer run 
the hose through with the wringer screwed down rather tight, 
and it is ready to be hung up to dry. A little pains must be 
taken to blow through it to keep it from sticking together as it 
dries. I use an elder-sprout about a foot long with the pith 
punched out. Tie a string around one end of the hose and 
gather the other end around the tube and fill it with wind, then 
hang it on a line and it will, dry in a few days and be ready for 
use. It will last five or six years. 

"To join the ends, we use a tin tube 2^/^ inches in diameter 
by one foot long. It is kept tied to one end of the hose all the 
time. To connect them, draw the open end of the hose over the 
tube of the next joint and tie it securely. When ready to irri- 
gate our celery we take the hose in sections convenient to carry, 
lay it from our tanks to the third row from the outside and down 
this row to the end of the field. Then the water is turned on. 

" To connect the hose with the tank, we take a hardwood 
stick 15 inches long, bore a two-inch hole through it, and with a 
hot iron burn it out smooth on the inside, work one end down 
until it will fit into the end of the hose next the tank and tie it 
securely ; then work the other end down so that it will fit tightly 
into a 2j/-inch hole. With a 2}^-inch auger, bore a hole in the 
tank on the side next the field you wish to water, two inches up 

Irrigation. — 103 

from the bottom — then no sediment or dirt will wash into your 
hose. Push the plug into the hole ; with a mallet give it a few 
gentle taps, and the work is done. We now have our water run- 
ning, and it can be carried to any part of the field for any crop 
that needs it." 

The crops most markedly benefited by irrigation, be this 
from the surface or from undergrouno, are cabbage, cauli- 
flower, celery, lettuce, radish, and perhaps strawberries and 
onions. There are many instances where the increase of a single 
crop, due to artificial watering, has more than paid the original 
cost of the whole irrigation plant. 

Sub-earth Flooding. — One of the simplest, cheapest, and 
most effective methods of subirrigation has been in use for 
years in some celery, cauliflower, and onion fields near Mount 
Morris, New York. This is a tract of deep, rich, sandy muck, 30 
or 40 acres in extent, situated at the foot of a hill, and slightly 

Plan of Irrigated Field. 

sloping away from it. A little brook flowing down the hillside 
and passing by at one corner of the tract' furnishes a moderate 
and never-failing water supply, A deep ditch is dug all along 
the foot of the hill on a dead level, forming the head of the low- 
lands. Another ditch, parallel with the other, forms the bound- 
ary on the lower side, and the two ditches are connected by a 
number of parallel cross-ditches, as shown in illustration. All 
these ditches are provided with flood-gates to dam up the water 
when required. Ordinarily all the flood-gates, except the one at 
the head of the upper main, are kept closed, and the water flows 
along in its natural course unobstructed. When the soil begins 
to get dry, however, and shows the need of water, the mountain 
brook is turned into the head ditch, and the latter is allowed to 
fill up almost to overflowing. This alone will give the whole 
strip next to the head ditch, several rods in width, a pretty good 
soaking in a comparatively short time. Then by opening the 

104 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

flood-gates at the head of the cross-ditches the water is turned 
into the latter, allowed to rise to the top at the next set of flood- 
gates, and by overflow and soaking in, well distributed over 
another strip parallel with the head ditch. Then these flood- 
gates are raised and the water allowed to flow into the next sec- 
tion of the ditches, etc, until the whole tract of land has had a 
thorough soaking. Just as soon as the surface has become again 
dry enough for cultivation, horse cultivators and hand-wheel 
hoes are at once brought into action. 

There are other tracts of sandy muck or other porous soils 
in various parts of the country offering just or nearly as favor- 
able opportunities for a similar method of sub-earth flooding as 
this tract near Mount Morris, New York, and wherever found 
they can easily and with little expense be made to produce large 
crops of celery, onions, cabbage, cauliflower, and other garden 
crops. Such land, properly arranged, is easily worth, for these 
purposes, a clean ^i,ooo per acre. 

^^ 3 

mil .^ ., 

Celery Irrigated by Tile Line. 

SuBiRRiGATiON BY TiLE. — Another system often mentioned 
but rarely employed, is that of placing tiles in close, parallel, 
shallow ditches all through the field, so the tiles are just out of 
reach of the plow. The water introduced into these tiles, one 
line after another, from some source, soaks up the land from 
below the surface, otherwise in the same fashion as by surface 
irrigation. This method is especially suited to stiffer soils, on 
which surface soaking would be liable to do more harm than 
good, in consequence of leaving them, after drying, hard and 
baked as a brick. On such soils, however, the tile lines should 
be just about on a dead level. The water escaping at the joints 
soaks in rather slowly, and should be given all the chance re- 
quired to do so, otherwise the greater bulk would run off to the 
lower end of the tile line and leave only little for the upper end. 
The exercise of good judgment will be necessary in arranging 
each particular spot for this style of subirrigation. 

Irrigation. — 105 

I have tried a tile line right along the centre of my patch of 
early celery, planted closely on the plan of the " New Celery 
Culture." A cross-section of bed is shown on preceding page. 
There is a box at the upper end into which the water is poured 
directly from a barrel on wheels. The barrel holds about 6o 
gallons, and is drawn by single horse. We get the water from 
the creek close by. Even with slight fall we have to turn the 
water into the box quite slowly, or else see it run to the lower 
end much faster than is desirable. On the whole we call this 
plan of irrigation a success. 

principle of watering crops by means of underground tile lines 
has been applied to the greenhouse benches, for forced let- 
tuce and radishes, apparently with the best of success. The 
idea originated in the fertile brain of Prof W. J. Green, of the 
Ohio Experiment Station. 

The bench is made solid and water-tight, or nearly so, by 
the free use of white lead or cement, and lines of two-inch horse- 
shoe tile, with an elbow at one end, are laid two feet apart in the 

Iron Irrigation Pipe in Bottom of Bench, 

bottom of the bench, which is then filled with soil in the ordi- 
nary manner. The even distribution of water will be facilitated 
by having the tile lines across the bench, and therefore the runs 
of water short. If the lines are laid lengthwise, requiring long 
runs, a nice leveling and adjustment of bench and tile line will be 
necessary, so that the water will neither run too freely at first, 
nor be carried too fast to the further end. 

One of my benches has been arranged for subirrigation by 
means of a five-quarter-inch gas-pipe laid on the ordinary plank 
bottom in the manner shown in accompanying sketches. The 
two parallel pipe lines are two feet apart. Quarter-inch holes 
are drilled through the pipe four or five inches apart, alternately 
on opposite sides. The further end is closed, although not per- 
fectly tight; the other end is turned up and receives the water 
through a funnel, or directly from the hose. The bench bottom 
is not absolutely water-tight, being made of ordinary matched 
two-inch pine-plank. Neither lead, cement, nor paint has been 
used. This has saved work, time, and expense, and the ar- 
rangement seems to work well. 

io6 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

I find the following advantages in the new method of water- 
appHcation : (i) Ease of application; (2) certainty of thorough- 
ness in watering ; (3) exemption of plants from disease. Over- 
head watering in amateur houses, when it has to be done by 
means of the ordinary garden-sprinkler, is a tedious task. In 
the new arrangement we simply pour a few bucketfuls of water 
into the funnel and the work is not only done, but done well. 
This method of application also enables us to use washing suds, 
manure-water, and similar liquids which we would not like to 
put on the plants from overhead, either from considerations of 
cleanliness or for fear of clogging the sprinkler. 

Watering beds with the sprinkler is rarely done thoroughly. 
A bucketful of water sprinkled on in the usual fashion will make 
a good-sized bed appear soaked, while, in fact, the application 
may not have reached beyond an inch deep, leaving the lower 
portions dust-dry. Such, indeed, is not an uncommon condition 
of many benches and flats in the glass-houses of amateurs. Sub- 
irrigation gives us reversed conditions. On a bench, which one 
bucketful of water applied by surface-sprinkling would render 

Subinigated Bench. 

apparently quite wet, you may turn two or three bucketfuls 
through underground pipes, without bringing moisture enough 
for a respectable show to the surface. The consequence is that 
'almost everyone, without exception, would apply a greater quan- 
tity of water by subirrigation than by the old overhead sprinkling 
method. Herein, I believe, may be found one of the chief 
reasons for the greatly increased growth of certain crops observed 
as the result of subirrigation. It is only an experience similar to 
the one made in the application of fertilizing substances on pota- 
toes and other crops. Quantity of application is the deciding 
factor rather than the mode of application. Lettuce and onions 
are especially subject to this influence. On an ordinary bench, 
and in nicely prepared, porous soil, I can produce almost double 
the growth of these vegetables in a given time by doubling the 
ordinary overhead applications of water. It is surprising what 
large quantities of water lettuce will take and delight in. 
Amateurs seldom give it enough for be?*; effect. With a sub- 
irrigation arrangement this will be different. The application 
does not quickly show on the surface, and consequently it is 
naturally more abundant than under the old method. The roots 

Irrigation. — 107 

of the plants are kept well supplied with moisture all the time, 
and the growth, therefore, is rapid and healthy. 

When watering beds by subirrigation, it will occasionally be 
desirable for the gardener to examine the soil at the bottom of 
bench, in order to be able, judging from its con- 
dition, to properly gauge the quantity of water 
to be turned on. A home-made soil-tester, like 
the one here shown, will come quite handy in 
such an emergency. It is simply a tin tube with 
a wooden pestle, built something on the principle 
of the boy's pop-gun. The tube is pressed down 
into the bench, then withdrawn with the core of 
soil remaining in it, and finally the core pushed 
out by means of the wooden pestle, ready to be 

Another style of underground watering of 
greenhouse lettuce — the simplest and cheapest of 
all, and just as effective as any other — consists of 
turning water into four-inch flower-pots sunk 
into the bench in the centre between every four 
plants. Cross-section of bench thus arranged is 
here shown. A few dozen pots reach over quite 
a bench and may be sunk in their proper places 
at the time the plants are set. On account of its 
great simplicity, I prefer this method to the other 
for my uses. 

The principle of subirrigation is now also applied to water- 
ing seed flats or pans. Overhead water applications to small 



Subirrigation by Flower Pots. 

seeds or small plants in seed pans has always been objectionable 
and risky. Every objection is met and every risk avoided, how- 
ever, when we place the flat into the " water-bench," a shallow. 

io8 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

water-tight box or pan containing about an inch of water, and 
letting it remain until thoroughly saturated from the bottom up, 
then taking out and replacing by others. The water application 
in this method is a thorough one, and yet it does not disturb the 
surface of the flat, damaging plants or washing out seeds, as 
overhead sprinkling often does. 

Aquaculture, or the New Agriculture. — Reports of 
wonderful crops produced on slopes of soil by no means rich, 
under a new system, called by the inventor (A. N. Cole) "aqua- 
culture " (water culture), or new agriculture, at one time at- 
tracted considerable attention ; but since this method is quite 
expensive, and possible only under certain conditions, namely, 
on a slope with impervious clay subsoil, it is not of general 
utility nor excessively meritorious. Mr. Cole gave the follow- 
ing description of it : "A ditch is opened on a water level along 

Slope Subirrigated after Cole's Method. 

the hillside or slope, say a yard wide, and from three to five feet 
deep. At the bottom of this ditch are loosely placed cobble and 
blocky stones, for a foot or two, then flat stones are laid over 
these, then a quantity of smaller stones ; these are covered over 
with weeds, briars, brambles, fine brush, straw, corn stalks, or 
other available material, to prevent the fine earth from falling 
among and filling the crevices between the stones. A heavy 
coating of manure may follow, and then the excavated soil is 
spread over it, and a terrace is graded if desired. Whatever 
course the trench may take, the surface of the hard pan at the 
bottom of the ditch must never vary from a water level. A series 
of such ditches, one above the other, are dug a rod or so apart 
and similarly filled, over as large a surface as is to be improved, 
each forming an elongated reservoir, which will be filled by the 
watercourses cut off, or by the melting snows and early rains; 

Irrigation, — 109 

and if the subsoil is firm clay, or hard pan, it will be retained, 
and as the surface soil dries, absorbed by capillary action, and 
brought within reach of the roots of vegetation. 

" The connecting overflow trenches should be in the subsoil, 
and filled with .fine stone to the depth of a foot at least, and 
shingled with flat stones in the same manner as the reservoir 
trenches. This shingling should be of sufficient depth to escape 
the plough or the deepest spading. The head of the overflow 
trenches at the base of the slope should be at least twelve or 
eighteen inches above the bottom of the reservoir." 

Cross-section of slope thus subirrigated is presented in 
engraving. A is the surface soil ; B, the reservoir trenches ; 
C, the subsoil ; D, the connecting overflow trenches (which 
might be laid with tile where that can be had conveni- 
ently and cheaply), and E, the outlet of drainage trench. I have 
given this for information more than in the expectation that 
many readers will make practical use of it. 




" Eternal Vigilance — the Price.'* 

F all the obstacles to the successful production of 
choice garden vegetables, none has ever shown itself 
in a more serious aspect than the multiplication 
of injurious insects. The problem how to get rid 
of them often sorely puzzles the ingenuity of even 
the best gardener. Frequently our plants come 
up nicely, and we are pleased with their apparent 
health and thrift, and perhaps pride ourselves on our skill ; only 
to find, at our very next visit to the garden, soon after, that the 
whole plantation is badly damaged, if not already ruined beyond 
any chance of recovery, by an unexpected attack of insect foes. 
Occasionally we have to admit our utter defeat. 

The question how to deal with insects is a serious problem. 
The best of talent has been, and still is, engaged in the attempt 
to find a satisfactory solution. Columns upon columns on the 
subject have of late been published by the agricultural press. 
Lectures upon lectures on insect lore have been delivered by 
specialists, and bulletin upon bulletin touching upon this matter 
are issued by the Experiment Stations, and sent out by the 
thousand, and yet I am asked more questions on " insects and 
what to do for them," than on any other subject. So I will 
endeavor to give pretty plain and full instructions. 

As a general rule it may be stated that the most satisfactory, 
and often the only effective measures are those of a preventive 
character or tendency. The aim should be to keep our crops 
entirely out of reach or observation by their insect foes, and 
success in this can more generally and more easily be achieved 
by a judicious system of rotation ("wide" rotation, as I am 
tempted to call it), than by the application of drugs, etc. The 
gardener knows, or should know, the exact location of the 
breeding places of the various bugs and beetles. Where their 
food plants had been grown the year before, right there we may 
confidently expect to see the foes reappear this season. In last 
year's cabbage and radish patches the flea beetle will be 
found plentiful this year ; and where we had cucumber and squash 
yines then, we will find the yellow-striped squash beetle, the blacH 

Insects and Other Foes.— m 

squash bug, etc. Wherever circumstances allow, therefore, each 
crop should be planted at considerable distance from any place 
where the same or a similar crop was grown the year before. 
This practice, although it may not prevent insect visits entirely, 
must at least put enough of the depredators off the track to 
materially moderate the amount of damage coming from that 
source. For the home garden, and for smaller operations 
generally, such a course cannot often be followed, and other 
means of protection have to be sought. 

Foremost among preventive measures stands the often 
employed practice of hiding the plants, in boxes or open frames, 
or under mosquito netting, or by surrounding them with other 
quicker-growing plants (buckwheat, beans, etc.), which not only 
serve as a screen, but also disguise their scent. Strong-smelling 
substances, such as carbolic acid, kerosene, turpentine, etc., are 
also quite frequently used to hide the natural scent of the exposed 
plants, thus removing one of the chief means by which insects 
are enabled to find their food plants. Another quite common 
preventive consists in covering the endangered plants with some 
substance (plaster, lime, etc.), that is distasteful to their enemies, 
and this, unless they come in excessive numbers, or are 
exceedingly hungry, is often effective in driving them off. Either 
hand-picking and mashing, or poisoning, must be resorted to 
where preventives cannot be employed, or have not proven 
effective. That all the natural enemies of our injurious insects — 
birds, toads, snakes, cannibal insects, such as the useful and pretty 
little ladybird, the colosoma (ground or tiger beetle), the soldier 
bug, etc. — should be encouraged and given shelter, need hardly 
be mentioned. A list of the most destructive and common 
insect enemies and the most improved ways of preventing their 
•nischief, will be found in the following : 

Ants {Formica). — Although not generally directly destruc- 
tive to garden vegetables, they are sometimes quite obnoxious 
in consequence of their manner of throwing up hills. Destroy 
their nests by pouring boiling water, or hot strong alum water 
over the hills. The ants can also be trapped very easily by 
placing a coarse sponge moistened with sweetened water near 
their haunts, thus attracting them in large numbers. When the 
sponge is black with the creatures, throw it into boiling water; 
then wash it out and reset the trap. Poisoned molasses placed 
near their haunts, will also soon make an end to their existence. 

Aphis or Plant Louse. — Of the hundreds of species of green, 
black, and blue aphis in existence, quite a number are trouble- 
some to the gardener. Fortunately the whole tribe is quite 
tender ; and lettuce, cabbages and cauliflowers seriously infested, 
perhaps almost wholly covered by these lice, are sometimes 
entirely cleared of them by a cold spell or a hard rain, etc., and 

112— How to Make the Garden Pay. 

for this reason their injury to such crops in the open ground is 
less feared and serious than to those under glass, where they 
often become a real source of danger. 

In tobacco we have a simple preventive and remedy. Apply 
tobacco dust freely, both directly to the soil, as a means of 
prevention, and upon the infested plants as a cure. Strong tobacco 
tea, made by steeping tobacco stems in water, if sprinkled or 
sprayed on plants, will also quickly rid them of lice. Fumigation 
(burning dampened tobacco stems two or three times a week) is 
quite generally practiced, and universally successful as a preventive 
measure in greenhouse culture. 

A simple and effective remedy for this and other injurious 
insects is the kerosene emulsion, made by churning one quart of 
soft soap (or one quarter pound of whale-oil soap), one pint of 

kerosene oil, and two 
quarts of water, until a 
perfect union or emulsion 
is formed. The operation 
of churning can be per- 
formed in an easy and 
convenient manner by the 
use of a good force pump, 
forcing the liquid back 
into the vessel containing 
it. The emulsion should 
be diluted with two gallons 
of water, and applied with 
a force pump and spray 
nozzle over the infested 
plants. The fine spray 
makes the operation eco- 
nomical as well as safe, 
and if thrown with suffi- 
cient force, is more liable 
to touch all lice. It is 
sure to kill eggs as well as 

Asparagus Beetle 
( Creoccris asparagi) — . An 
Asparagus Beetle, Larva and Egg. asparagus branch infested 
with this comparatively new insect enemy in its different stages 
of development, natural size, with enlarged specimen of beetle 
and larva at the lower right hand corner, is here shown. This 
insect has a natural enemy in the cat-bird, which feeds on both 
beetles and larvae, and sometimes greatly reduces their number. 
Dusting the infested plants when wet with dew, with air-slacked 
lime on a quiet morning, is probably the simplest, and a reason- 

Insects and Other Foes.— 113 

ably sure remedy. Hand-picking is a rather tedious operation, 
and only practicable in a small patch. Cutting the affected tops, 
removing and burning them is often practiced with good effect. 
Dusting with tobacco dust, or spraying with the kerosene emul- 
sion, are also reasonably safe remedies. 

Bean Weevil {Bnichus obsolchis). — This insect has become 
a really more formidable foe to the grower of beans, peas, and 
other leguminous planis, than even its much larger relative, the 
pea weevil. It devours the seeds of nearly all plants of the 
pulse family with apparent equal relish, but is easily enough 
managed. Simply throw the beans or peas as soon as gathered 
and threshed for a few seconds into boiling water. This will 
kill the larvae of either weevil contained in them. Seed beans 
and peas should always be treated in this way to guard against 
injury to the next crop. Old seed is always free from bugs, and 
by its use all danger of carrying the pest to new fields in the seed 
is averted. It may be a good plan to tie up beans and peas 
intended for seed tightly and securely in stout paper bags, and to 
keep them over without opening the bags, until the second year. 
The bugs will then have died without living issue. The larvae 
can also be destroyed by exposing the seeds in a closed vessel, 
box or barrel, to the fumes of turpentine, or bisulphide of 
carbon, or by mixing with them a small quantity of fresh insect 

The Ohio Experiment Station finds that the exposure of 
the infested seed for one hour to a temperature of 145 degrees 
Fahrenheit destroys the larvae without injuring the germinative 
quality of the seed. An ordinary gasoline stove oven, with a 
lighted kerosene lamp beneath it, was used in conducting the 
experiments. Only a very small flame is needed to produce the 
required amount of heat. To be of most benefit, this remedy 
must be applied as soon as possible after the beans or peas are 
fully ripe. 

Cabbage Plusia (sometimes called green lettuce worm). — It 
is the caterpillar of a pretty moth {Plusia Brassiccz), and sometimes 
does serious injury to cabbage, lettuce, celery, endive, sage and 
some flowers. It is a ravenous eater, and in cabbages and lettuce 
bores clear through to the hearts, and prefers to feed from the 
inside rather than the outside. For this reason it is not so easily 
reached with insecticides as the green cabbage worm. Try 
buhach and careful hand picking. 

Cabbage Maggot. — See Radish Fly. 

Cabbage Worm. — The larva of the cabbage butterfly [Picris 
raphes), shown on next page, has for many years been the 
most serious obstacle to the home production of cabbages, and 
yet few insect foes are so easily kept in check as this. The 
butterfly is double-brooded. The first brood is seen flitting about 

114— How to Make the Garden Pay. 

the fields in May, the second in August, and the progeny of 
the latter causes the most trouble. 

The sovereign remedy for this pest is fresh Pyrethrum pow- 
der, generally called Persian or Dalmatian insect powder. The 
imported article, when in full strength, is perfectly reliable, but 
\ y^ when stale (and this is the usual 

condition of the powder on sale in 
drug stores) gives rather uncertain 
results. Buhach is a California 
product, the ground flower of 
PyrctJiriLin cincrariafoliuin, gen- 
erally fresh, and put up in tight 
tin cans, and in my experience has 
never failed to give entire satisfac- 
tion. While the imported article 
may be bought for less money, pound for pound, the California 
product, on account of greater strength and certain death-dealing 
effect, is by far the cheaper in the end, and every gardener should 
try to get buhach in preference to the common insect powder. 

The remedy can be applied in various ways. When to be 
used in liquid form, take a tablespoonful of the pure powder, and 
with a little water work it into a paste, then dilute with two 
gallons of water, and sprinkle it on the plants with a watering 
pot, or still better, apply in a fine spray with considerable force, 
so that every worm will be reached. 

A very convenient mode of application for the home garden 
is that in dry form, by means of a simple dusting apparatus or 
pocket rubber bellows, as for instance shown in illustration. This, 

Butterfly of the Cabbage Worm. 

Simple Powder Bellows. 

or a similar and just as effectual one, can undoubtedly be had of 
our friend, Wm. Henry Maule, of Philadelphia, Pa., or most other 
seedsmen, at a mere nominal price. During the summer months 
I generally carry one of the bellows charged with a mixture of 
one part of buhach, and four or five of flour or air-slacked lime 
in my pocket, and apply a few puffs here and there, wherever I 
notice the effects of cabbage or similar worms. That puts a 
sudden stop to their mischief The whole matter is so simple, 
inexpensive and certain, and requiring so little time or effort, 
that I would hardly give any man lo cents to insure me perfect 
immunity from worms for each lOO head of cabbages. 

Insects and Other Foes.— 115 

When we have at hand a remedy so highly effective and 
satisfactory as buhach, there is absolutely no reason why we 
should search for other means, and I believe it is simply fooling 
away time to experiment with hot water, ice water, solutions of 
saltpetre or alum, or with pepper, road dust, or the many other 
remedies of like nature recommended. Mr. A. S. Fuller also 
reports that he has had the very best success in killing the worms 
by sprinkling the infested plants with tar water. 

Celery Worm. — The caterpillars found on celery, parsley, 
etc., which are the progeny of the asterias butterfly {Papilio 
asterias) can be got rid of by the remedies recommended for the 
cabbage worm ; but since they are hardly ever numerous, I have 
always disposed of them by hand-picking. 

Corn or Boll Worm {Hcliothis armigerd). — The moth of this, 
like the cabbage butterfly, is double-brooded ; the first brood 
generally attacking the very early varieties of sweet and other 
corn varieties, and the second brood doing 
considerable damage to the late varieties, so 
that the intermediate sorts usually escape 
altogether. The fruit of tomatoes, bean and 
pea pods, and vine fruits are also occasion- 
ally attacked. The only remedy that prom- 
ises relief, is to hand-pick the first brood of 
larvae, found on early sweet corn, and to 
destroy them, thereby rendering the attacks 
of the subsequent brood less serious. It is 
sometimes recommended to bait and catch 
(drown) the moths by means of a mixture of molasses and vinegar. 
Cucumber Beetle {Diabrotica vittata). — Of all the insects 
in the garden, the little creature that wears a yellow-striped suit, 
and troubles young cucumber, melon, squash and pumpkin plants 
is probably the worst, and diflEicult to deal with. Hiding away 

the whole patch so the 
beetles cannot easily 
find it, by changing 
location (the "wide 
rotation " spoken of) 
is yet one of the very 
best methods ; but this 
cannot well be prac- 
ticed in the home gar- 
den, and here we may often adopt the plan of hiding away 
individual plants or hills, either by placing a simple frame or 
bottomless box around them, as here illustrated, or by 
covering them with muslin-covered plant protectors, or with 
little pieces of muslin fastened down to the ground at the four 

Corn, Boll or Cotton 

Frame for Protecting Young Vines. 

ii6-How to Make the Garden Pay, 

corners, or by similar devices. A ring of buckwheat or beans 
sown around the vines when the latter are planted, is another 
expedient sometimes employed for the purpose of hiding the 
vines. The period of danger is only while the plants are young, 
especially in seed-leaf, and our first aim should be to push the 
plants by rich stimulating food, liquid manuring, if needed, past 
the stage when they are liable to ruinous attacks. 

The young plants are so tender and succulent, and there is 
so little of them, that the first visit of a number of striped beetles 
usually means little less than destruction to the victims. Treat- 
ment must positively be begun in advance of the insects' first 

The usual method, suited especially for larger plantations, 
but having considerable merit for the home garden also, consists 
in keeping the plants from the day they first begin to break 
ground until they are beyond the period of danger, well covered 
with plaster or bone dust The coating must be renewed 
promptly whenever washed off by rains or heavy dews. Air- 
slacked lime is sometimes used, but it is always risky, on account 
of its still caustic nature. In all cases where plaster is made to 
serve as insect repeller, I would prefer to have it flavored with 
carbolic acid, by mixing a pint of the crude article with a bushel 
of plaster. The acid can do no possible harm, and it always 
adds to the effectiveness of plaster or air-slacked lime. 

Another equally meritorious remedy is the following : Mix 
a tablespoonful of kerosene in two quarts of plaster, sifted wood 
ashes, or bone flour, rubbing it with the hands until the oil is 
well distributed, then sprinkle this over the vines, and repeat as 
often as required. It is also worth while to try this trick of 
repelling the marauders by placing little heaps of ashes, saturated 
with kerosene, turpentine, or carbolic acid, or pieces of corn-cobs, 
soaked in coal tar, among the vines to be protected. Should the 
insects find the vines in spite of all precautions, we yet have a 
remedy to apply, and this consists in spraying the vines with a 
weak solution of Paris green at the rate of 15 gallons of water 
to one ounce of poison. Apply in a fine spray, so that the 
poisonous liquid will reach the upper and lower surfaces of every 
leaf, and the stems also. If a spraying apparatus is not at hand, 
a small quantity of poison may be mixed with the plaster or bone 
dust, and applied dry. 

Cut Worms {Agrotis). — A large number of species of cut 
worms make themselves highly obnoxious to the gardener by 
the impudence with which they attack and cut down almost 
every kind of newly-set plants. They are mostly clumsy and 
greasy-looking caterpillars of some dull shade of color (grayish, 
brown, greenish), remain in their hiding places on bright days, 
and come to the surface at night or in cloudy weather, to seek 

Insects and Other Foes.— 117 

what green stuff they can devour. The illustration presents both 
worm and moth of one of the species. 

Cut Worm — Moth and Larva. 

Fortunately these worms have many natural enemies, 
among them the robin, thrushes, quail, wren and other birds, 
toads, etc., which together keep their numbers down quite well. 
Fall plowing serves to bring many of the worms to the surface, 
and to expose them to " bird's-eye view " and perhaps to 
destruction by frost. 

The fresh effects of their night's work can best be noticed 
bright and early in the morning, and they can then be found near 
the place of mischief, hunted up and killed. Before a piece of 
plowed ground is planted, we can often dispose of the majority 
of the worms by placing pieces of sod, sprinkled with a 
poisonous solution, at regular intervals over the ground. The 
remedy is simple, and may be repeated, thus making the way 
clear for setting plants. Beans are sometimes planted for bait, 
and in advance of the real crop, whatever that may be. The 
field is looked over on several mornings after the beans are up 
and the worms hunted up where plants are seen cut off. The 
regular crop is planted after most of the worms are destroyed. 
A practice often resorted to, is to encircle 
each plant to be set out, with a piece of 
paper, which should reach down into the soil, 
as the worm cannot crawl under it, and extend 
several inches above the surface, so it cannot 
crawl over it. 

The picture shows how this is done, and 
how the plan works. I often use plant pro- 
tectors somewhat resembling bottomless flower 
pots, which I had made for the purpose, as a 
mechanical obstacle to the cut worm's progress. 

Flea Beetle [Ha/tica). In this we have 
another, and often a very troublesome enemy. 
On soil where cabbage, radishes or turnips were grown the year 
before, or in the vicinity thereof, these little jumping things 
appear often in such numbers, that it is difficult to make headway 
against them. Change of location is, therefore, to be recom- 

Cut Worm and Pro- 
tected Plant. 

ii8— How to Make the Garden Pay. 

mended as the chief preventive measure. Ordinarily we can 
succeed in preventing serious damage to our young plants of the 
Brassica family, by dusting them, when first appearing above 
ground, with plaster, air-slacked lime, sifted wood ashes, soot, 
tobacco dust, or in fact any dust-like material. When the beetles 
appear in very large numbers, and consequently are very hungry, 
mere grit will not repel them, and a little admixture of Paris 
green — one part to a hundred parts of plaster — to such appli- 
cations will be necessary. The insect is hardy and resistant 
enough not to appear to be inconvenienced by even the best of 
buhach in full strength, nor by strong vapors of naphtaline. 
Little chicks will catch these insects in great quantities, and so 
will toads when they happen to come across an infested patch. 

Of late these insects have appeared in vast numbers in our 
potato fields, and often entirely ruin the foliage, greatly reducing 
the crop of tubers. The only remedy that thus far has seemed 
to give relief, is spraying the vines freely with a strong decoction 
of tobacco stems or dust. Very likely, also, the free use of 
dry tobacco dust may drive these beetles away. 
Grubs — White. See May Beetle. 
Maggot — Cabbage, Onion, etc. See Onion Fly. 
May Beetle. {Lachnosterna) In the perfect or beetle 
state, this does not usually damage the gardener's crops very 
seriously; but its larva, the well known 
and much feared " white grub " is often 
very destructive to the roots of straw- 
berries, corn and other 
garden plants, especially 
when grown on sod land 
recently brought under 
cultivation. Both beetle 
and larva are shown in 
May Beetle and Grub. illustration. Fortunately 

these fat grubs have many 
natural enemies, especially brown thrushes, robins, crows, and a 
number of other birds; also moles, pigs, skunks, etc. Fall plow- 
ing and continued cultivation will soon rid the field of their 
undesirable presence. It is also recommended to make some 
artificial breeding place, by covering piles of fresh cow manure 
with fine earth during latter part of May or June. Many beetles 
will select these for a place to deposit their eggs, and the heaps 
may be turned over and spread out exposing the young larvae to 
sure destruction by frost, birds and other natural enemies. 

Onion Fly. {Anthomyia.) More generally known as radish 
or cabbage fly. In general appearance it resembles a small 
house fly. It is the parent of the maggot, which troubles the 
roots of cabbages, radishes, onions, turnips, etc., and makes itself 

Insects and Other Foes.— iig 

so exceedingly obnoxious to the gardener. Plenty of lime in the 
soil, or its free use about the plants, or ashes from the burnt rub- 
bish heap, tend to keep them away. Wood ashes moistened 
with kerosene oil and scattered around the plants are said to be 
especially effective in repelling the fly. Change of location is a 
reasonably safe and simple preventive, and although not an abso- 
lute one, should always be employed where practicable. In some 
years it is almost impossible to raise early radishes and cabbages 
free from the disgusting worms, and again the next season on 
same soil, and all over the whole vicinity, the trouble from this 
source will be so slight as not to be worth mentioning. The 
insect seems to prefer radishes to cabbages, and either of these to 
onions, so that the latter, if some cabbages or radishes are planted 
in the same field with them, will generally escape attack, as all the 
maggots will concentrate on the cabbage and radish plants. 
These must be pulled up and destroyed. Where onions are 
affected, as may be seen by their tops turning yellow, they should 
also be gathered and destroyed. 

During last spring it has been discovered that lime-water is 
a reasonably sure remedy, where plants are just beginning to 
suffer. Slack a peck of caustic lime in 20 gallons of water, pre- 
ferably diluted liquid manure, stir 
long and thoroughly, and apply to 
the plantation at the rate of a pint 
to each cabbage plant, or a quantity 
sufficient to soak the ground closely 
to the roots, so that every maggot 
there at work will be reached by 
the caustic liquid, the mere contact 
of which brings sure death to all 
soft-bodied worms. The occasional 
application of lime-water to plants 
in seed bed, and also to those in 
open field, at least during their 
earlier stages, deserves to be gener- 
ally adopted as a precautionary 

Parsley Worm. — This is the 
larva of the Asterias butterfly 
{Papilio asterias), and feeds on the 
leaves of parsley, parsnip, celery, 
carrot, dill, and allied plants. It is 
a disagreeable fellow, with a most 
disgusting odor, and the best way 
to treat it is to pick off the leaf-stalk on which it is found, throw 
it on the ground, and put your foot heavily upon it. Butterfly, 
caterpillar and chrysalis are shown in accompanying illustration. 

Parsley Worm, Butterfly and 

120 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Pea Weevil. — This is the bean weevil's larger brother, and 
must be treated in same way. For directions see Bean Weevil. 

Potato Beetle. {Doryphora decemlineata) — This has 
become far too common to need description. Change of location 
for the patch can again be recommended as a means to mitigate if 
not entirely avert its fearful ravages. Paris green will have to be 
used in nearly every case, however, if serious damage is to be 
avoided. Hand-picking is seldom reliable, except where the 
beetles are not usually very numerous. The remedy can be 
applied either in dry or in liquid form. The beetles, hungry after 
a long fast, generally appear as soon as the potatoes are coming 
up, and the first application of poison — preferably in a dry form — 
should promptly be made, to dispose of this old stock, and pre- 
vent not only the destruction of the first tender foliage and con- 
sequent weakening of the plants, but also the propagation of the 
destructive pest. 

The preparation of the poison is quite simple. Pure Paris 
green is mixed with at least lOO times its weight of plaster, flour, 
or air-slacked lime — the first named preferred. Make the 
mixture thorough, and if convenient, prepare it a few days in 
advance. In the absence of better means of application, a simple 
tin-can, with handle and perforated bottom, will answer the 
purpose, especially when the plants are yet small. Give each 
plant, as soon as up, a dash of the dry poisonous mixture, and 
thus protect it from harm. Later on, when the first brood of 
eggs hatch, the young larvae or slugs concentrate in the tender 
centres of the stalks, and another dash of the poison should be 
applied without delay, for if neglected more than a few days, the 
slugs will scatter all over the plants, and make fighting them 
more inconvenient, necessitating the distribution of the poison- 
ous material over the entire surface of the plant. Repeat the 
dose as often as required. Various new devices for putting 
poison in dry form on potatoes, by hand or horse power, have 
now been introduced, and the grower must select those that suit 
his case. 

The recent improvements in spraying machines, spraying 
devices, and spraying materials have made the application of 
Paris green in liquid form safer, more convenient, and generally 
preferable to that in powder form. It saves us the inhalation of 
the poisonous dust. The liquid can be applied at any time, 
whether the vines are wet with dew or not. No scorching effects 
have to be feared, and the fungicide, if properly prepared, sticks 
to the foliage closer than a brother. An effective application 
could not well be made by the old method of using a garden- 
sprinkler, or any similar "sprinkling" device, without more or 
less injury to the foliage, in consequence of the uneven distribu- 
tion over the plant. The liquid would gather here and there in 

Insects and Other Foes. — lit 

drops, especially on the lower end of leaves, and evaporating, 
leave the poison often too concentrated for the good of the 
plants. We now avoid this danger by the application of the 
liquid in the form of a mere mist with our modern sprayers and 
modern spray nozzles, and by the addition of a little lime to the 
Paris green water. 

A good knapsack sprayer (now to be had for about ten dol- 
lars) fitted with a good, improved Vermorel spray nozzle, will 
answer for spraying smaller patches, up to a limited number of 
acres. For larger areas, and if it can be afforded even for an 
acre or two, I greatly prefer the barrow sprayer here illustrated. 
It is especially designed for spraying potatoes and similar crops, 
and works to perfection. When the soil is rough or stony, and 
the task of pushing the barrow and loaded tank rather above 
the strength of the operator at the handles, a horse or boy may 

Barrow Sprayer. 

be hitched on far enough ahead to be out of reach of the sprays, 
and with little effort will pull the machine along. Two rows are 
sprayed at a time, but if bugs are very plentiful, I would prefer 
to go between every two rows, and thus spray every row twice, 
in opposite directions, in order to make the job all the more 
thorough and effective. An automatic agitator, which, like the 
pump, is geared to the wheel, keeps the liquid in the tank con- 
stantly stirred and prevents the Paris green from settling to the 

Unfortunately, it must be said that the Paris green now on 
sale in general grocery and hardware stores, although put up 
and recommended for the very purpose of being used for the 
potato beetle pest, is by no means of uniform strength, and 
some of it decidedly weak. The proportions which we formerly 
used with telling effect, namely, one pound of Paris green to 

122 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

150 gallons of water, now seem to give little inconvenience to 
beetles and slugs. I have been gradually increasing the propor- 
tion of the poison, and at present use one pound to only 50 gal- 
lons of water. But in order to make this entirely safe, and to 
head off every chance of injury to the foliage, I either combine 
the Bordeaux mixture (spoken of in next chapter) with the Paris 
green, thus fighting blights as well as insects by one application, 
or at least add milk of lime freshly made by slacking two or 
three pounds of burnt lime, to the 50 gallons of Paris green 
water. Always mix the Paris green with a little water to a paste 
before you add it to the spraying liquid. 

Potato beetles are very destructive to egg plants, especially 
when first set out, and then again late in the season, after pota- 
toes have matured, and the beetles find no more food except the 
egg plants, of which they are very fond. The young plants, when 
first set out, then still tender and checked in their growth, would 
fall easy victims to the beetles. They should be closely watched, 
and the beetles picked off by hand two or three times a day, un- 
til the supply seems to be exhausted or engaged elsewhere. 
Afterwards the larvae that may hatch from the few eggs de- 
posited on the plants notwithstanding all our efforts, can easily 
be kept off by Paris green application. A similar treatment is 
advisable for potato seedlings, or choice early potatoes of any 
kind. I have seen beetles come on in such numbers, after the 
potato season in New Jersey, that no matter how many might 
die from the effects of the poison put on egg plants, their places 
were at once filled by others, and it was impossible to save the 
plants from entire annihilation. 

Radish Fly and Maggot. — I might rest contented by 
simply referring to my remarks under the heading of Onion 

Fly. Let me say, how- 
ever, that entomologists 
classify the radish fly and 
maggot as antJwmyia 
brassiccs, and give us 
three species of onion fly 
or maggot, namely, the 
imported onion fly {an- 
thomyia ceparuni), the 
native onion fly {Ortalis 
arcuatd), and the black 
onion fly {Ortalis flexd). 
Cabbage and Onion Fly in Its The common cabbage 

Different Stages. and onion flies, A bras- 

siccE and A. ceparum, resemble one another very closely 
and the same means which will check or dispose of one, 

Insects and Other Foes. — 123 

will also check or dispose of the other. The results of recent 
experiments seem to indicate that heavy dressings of kainit, 
muriate of potash, or possibly of nitrate of soda, and other 
fertilizers have a tendency to drive these pests from our 
fields, and possibly cut worms and other creeping and crawling 
things also. I usually make annual dressings of this kind to my 
garden soils, and I find that my crops suffer less every succeed- 
ing year from the attacks of maggots, cut worms, etc. I have yet 
to mention the collars of tarred paper devised for the protection 
of cabbage and cauliflower plants against maggot attacks. These 
collars may be round, square, or six-cornered. They should 
have a hole in the centre for the stem of the plant. A slit from 
outside to centre allows the collar to be easily slipped around 
the plant at the top of the ground. Good results in preventing 
maggot attacks have been reported as secured by the use of 
these collars. 

Snails. — One effective method of dealing with slugs and 
snails, where troublesome, especially in greenhouses and frames, 
is to set traps by scattering pieces of orange-peel over the ground. 
The snails are so fond of this delicacy that they will remain 
clinging to the peel rather than go back to their hiding places at 
break of day. Examine the traps every morning, and destroy 
the marauders. 

Sometmies these disgusting, slimy creatures appear in 
countless numbers, attacking peas, beans, corn, and other crops, 
and almost utterly denuding the lower parts of the foliage. They 
keep in hiding during the day, and begin their work of devasta- 
tion after sundown. I can get rid of them very easily. The 
knapsack sprayer is charged with water in which a handful or 
two of common salt, or of muriate of potash, or kainit is dis- 
solved. Lime-water will give the same results. Shortly after 
dusk I begin the dance, giving the attacked plants a thorough 
spraying. If necessary, this may be repeated in a day or two. 
Every slug touched by the spray will be dissolved, and nothing 
but " grease spots" will be left in the morning. 

Squash Vine Borer. {Algeria aicnrbitce?) — Our first aim 
should be to repel the moth, and prevent her from depositing 
her eggs on the plants. Perhaps this may be successfully ac- 
complished by placing corn-cobs smeared with coal tar, turpen- 
tine, kerosene, or carbolic acid near the roots of the plants. If 
we have not been successful in keeping the moth off, we should 
hunt up and destroy the larvae (borers) when they first begin to 
tunnel through the main stock near the surface of the soil. They 
give the preference to pumpkins, squashes, and similar members 
of the gourd family, but also attack melon and cucumber vines, 
riddling the stem near the ground, and often cutting off all com- 

124 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

munication between top and root. Discover their location and 
dig them out with the point of a sharp knife. With squash and 
other plants which readily strike root from the joints, it is the 

easiest thing in the 
world to practically 
prevent all injury. All 
you have to do is to 
cover the first joints 
firmly with fresh soil 
as soon as the vines 
begin to run. The 
be made entirely inde- 

Layered Squash Vine. 


plants, as shown in picture, can 
pendent of their original roots. 

Squash Bug, Black. {Anasntristis) — In July the patches of 
dark brown eggs may be found on the underside of the leaves 
of pumpkins, squashes, etc., while the bugs are hidden under 
rubbish, clods of soil, stones, etc., near the plants. Few things 
seem to be repulsive enough for them to keep or drive them off 
the plants, but plaster flavored with kerosene or carbolic acid 
may be tried. It may at least tend to lessen their numbers. 
Trapping is yet the only sure remedy. Place pieces of shingles, 
small stones, or rubbish of some sort about the hills, and examine 
them for bugs every morning, dispatching them by shaking 
into a dish containing some kerosene, or mashing them with 
home-made tweezers consisting of a simple piece of band iron, 

Tweezers for killing bugs. 

and bent as here shown. The bug is repulsive and has a most 
disagreeable odor, but should be fought with persistency. 

Wire Worm. [Jttlns.) — These are the offsprings of various 
snapping beetles or elaters, hard, smooth-skinned, white or yel- 
lowish, worm-like creatures, feeding on potatoes, carrots, the 
roots of herbaceous plants, etc., and often doing considerable 
damage to these crops. As beetles, they live on the tender leaves 
of various plants. The name " wire-worm" is often wrongfully 
applied to the generally larger and darker-colored centipede or 
thousand-legged worm. Trapping or baiting is about the only 
method of fighting them which promises any success whatever. 
Sliced potatoes or other vegetables are buried beneath the ground 
here and there over the area to be freed from the pest, and each 
place marked with a stick, for convenience of examination. Look 
these baits over carefully every morning, and gather and destroy 
the worms. 

Insects and Other Foes. — 125 

Zebra Caterpillar {Mamestra pictd). — The parent of this 
worm is the handsome moth shown at a in accompanying illus- 
tration. The spherical eggs are laid in clusters on cabbage, 
cauliflower, and other plants early in the summer. The larvae 
when young are blackish, but soon change to light green. The 
young worms cluster together upon the leaves and are then 
easily disposed of by hand-picking. If left undisturbed, they 
afterwards scatter over the plants, and the best way to destroy 
them at this stage is by spraying with kerosene emulsion, kero- 
sene and water in mechanical mixture, hot water, or by the other 
means recommended for the green cabbage worm. A full-grown 
larva is shown at b. It is marked by broad longitudinal vel- 

vety-black stripes on the back, and brilliant yellow stripes upon 
each side, connected by fine, transverse zebra-like lines. When 
disturbed the worm curls up and drops to the ground. 

Harlequin Cabbage Bug {Miirgantia histrionica). — This 
enemy is found only in the Southern States, from Texas along 
the seaboard as far north as Delaware. The full-grown insect, 
which is gaudily colored, chiefly in black and orange-yellow, 
lives through the winter hidden under leaves and rubbish. In 
the spring, just as soon as it finds any of its food plants, it begins 
to deposit eggs. The larvae hatch out in a few days, and at once 
begin to pierce the leaves and suck the life-sap from the plants, 
soon killing them. They are timid, and on anybody's approach 
try to hide. The illustration shows the insect in its various 

stages of development, in life-size. Clean culture and the de- 
struction of all rubbish by fire, during fall or winter, are impor- 
tant means of fighting this pest. Hand-picking into pans con- 
taining water and kerosene is often resorted to. Wild mustard 

126 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

is a favorite food- plant of the bugs, and may be sown in patches or 
between the rows to be planted with cabbages later. The bugs 
congregating on the mustard may then be destroyed by spraying 
with pure kerosene. 

Tomato Worm {Phlegethontius celeiis). — A beautiful sphinx 
moth is responsible for the existence of the large green worm so 
often found on tomato and potato plants. This worm, picture 
of which is shown at a, is a voracious feeder, and devours the 
leaves of the plants at a rapid rate. Whenever you see the 
leaves stripped, and notice the peculiar castings on the ground, 
you will find the worm close by. Pick off the leaf on which it 
is feeding, throw it on the ground,and put your foot heavily upon 
it, mashing the worm. When plowing, in fall or spring, we 

often find large pupse, such as shown at b. They represent the 
next stage in the development of this insect, and should also be 
destroyed. The worm or caterpillar is subject to the attacks of 
a parasite, a small four-winged black fly, which deposits its o.^^ 
within the worm. The maggots which hatch out of these eggs 
feed upon the juices of the body, and finally kill the worm. Cat- 
erpillars thus infested may be known by the little egg-shaped 
cocoons of white silk which the larvae spin upon the backs of 
their hosts, and should not be destroyed. If left undisturbed, 
the little flies will soon issue from the cocoons and continue the 
work of destroying Dur enemies. It is said that the moths maybe 
poisoned by smearing shingles or pieces of board with molasses, 
mixed with a little poisoned water and a small quantity of 
whisky or beer, and nailing them from one to two feet high to 
little stakes driven scatteringly over the potato and tomato 

Insects and Other Foes. — 127 

Tobacco Worm {Phlegethonthis Carolina). — This is a very- 
near relative of the tomato worm, and resembles it closely in ap- 
pearance and habits. The moth delights in sipping the sweet 
nectar from the flowers of the Jamestown weed {Datura sta- 
motiiuvi), and this weed is sometimes planted purposely in 
tobacco fields as a catch plant. A little sweetened whisky and 
water poisoned with arsenic is then introduced into the flowers 
that invite the visits of the sphinx moth. 

Blister Beetles. — Several species of beetles belonging to 
the same family as the " Spanish fly " so familiar to the drug 
trade, are known in various localities as "potato beetles," "old- 
fashioned potato beetles," etc., and frequently do considerable 
damage to potato fields. The most common among them are 
the ash-gray blister beetle {Lytta cinered), shown at a, the black 
blister beetles {Lytta miirina and Lytta atrata), shown at b; the 
striped blister beetle {Epicaiita vittata), shown at c, and the 
margined blister beetle {Lytta marginata), besides a number of 

others. Some or all of these species live in their larval stage 
exclusively or chiefly upon the eggs of grasshoppers, and are 
therefore of immense benefit to us on this account. Usually 
blister beetles appear in large numbers in the season following 
that of an abundance of grasshoppers. In consideration of their 
services as grasshopper-destroyers, we would prefer to deal 
leniently with them unless they do much damage by appearing 
in large numbers. Then men or boys may be sent through the 
field, who, working with the wind, drive the beetles before them 
by short flights into windrows of hay or straw previously pre- 
pared on the leeward side ot the field. These windrows are then 
set afire and the beetles destroyed with them. 

Potato Stalk Weevil {Trichobaris trinotatd). — This in- 
fests potato fields in various sections of the United States. The 
female beetle (a snout-beetle) places a single q^% in a slit about 
an eighth of an inch long, made in the stalk near the ground. 
The whitish grub, which sdon hatches out, tunnels into the heart 
of the stalk, usually in a downward direction, causing withering 

128 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

and premature death of the vine. The affected vines should be 
promptly pulled up and burned, and all vines of an infested 
field after harvest had better be gathered up and burned. 

Potato Stalk Borer {Gortyna nitela). — This is the larva 
of a brown moth, and attacks a number of plants, especially pota- 
toes, tomatoes, corn, dahlias, rhubarb, spinach, also the twigs of 
trees and bush fruits. Destroy the larvae wherever found. The 
insect is propagated largely upon weeds, and clean culture should 
be given to all crops subject to its attacks. 

Twelve-spotted Diabrotica, or Cucumber Beetle {Dia- 
brotica 12-punctatd) — The slender white larva of this insect at- 
tacks the roots of the corn plant in the more Southern States, 
and is there known as the Southern corn-root worm. The adult 
beetle feeds upon the leaves of melons, cucumbers, squashes, and 
a great number of other plants. Paris green, applied as for the 
potato beetle and brood, is probably the surest protection to 
such plants against the enemy. 

Boreal Ladybird {Epilachne borealis). — This seems to be 
the black sheep of the ladybird family, and the only one of its 
members which feeds on vegetable crops, especially on pumpkin 
and squash leaves. In some localities along the Atlantic coast 
it has already become a serious pest. I made its acquaintance 
in New Jersey years ago. The beetles average nearly three- 
eighths of an inch in length, are almost as broad as long, and 
nearly convex. In color they are bright yellow, or yellowish 
brown, with four black spots on the thorax and seven on each 
wing cover. The eggs are deposited in patches on the under- 
side of the leaf, and easily recognized by their bright yellow 
color. The larvae are yellow with black branching spines. The 
beetles are easily found eating in broad daylight on the upper 
leaf surface, and spraying with Paris green water can be recom- 
mended. Destroying the eggs and larvae early in the season 
should not be neglected. 

Rhubarb Curculio {Lixus concavus). — The parent beetle 
is of a dull, grayish-brown color, and usually covered with a 
yellowish powder. They often gnaw and tunnel holes in the 
stalks of rhubarb, doing much injury. Its young are raised 
chiefly on the stalks of yellow and other docks. Keep your 
fields clean of dock, also pick off the beetles by hand when found 
on rhubarb, and destroy them. 

Grasshoppers. — The three most destructive and most 
widely distributed species are the Rocky Mountain locust or 
Western grasshopper {Melanoplus spretus), the bird grasshopper 
or American locust (^Acridmin Americanuin), and the red-legged 
grasshopper {Melanoplus femur rubrmti). In some years the 

Insects and Other Foes. — 129 

Rocky Mountain locust becomes a real plague in the West, 
stripping whole sections of every vestige of green in short order. 
Here at the East we sometimes suffer great annoyance by the 
hordes of the red-legged grasshopper, but seldom considerable 
real injury. Their natural enemies, especially blister beetles, 
birds, and various mammals, prevent their excessive multiplica- 
tion. In the garden we can keep them down pretty well by 
giving chickens, ducks, hens, and turkeys a chance to fatten on 
them. If this method is not practicable, or the grasshoppers are 
too plentiful for the poultry set at them, we may possibly reduce 
their numbers by driving them out in short flights. Several 
persons, each provided with a tree-branch or switch, foliage left 
on at the end, walk up and down through the garden, begin- 
ning at one side, and with swinging switches gradually scare and 
crowd the locusts towards the other side, and finally out and off 
some distance. This may be repeated several times a day until 
the period of danger seems to be past. Possibly a windrow or 
windrows of old straw or rakings might be placed along outside 
the garden, the grasshoppers driven in and unto them and 
burned. One ol the most practical methods of protecting crops 
from destruction by excessive numbers ot hoppers is by baiting 
them with poisoned bran. Make a mixture of 100 pounds of 
bran, three pounds of Paris green, two quarts ol old molasses, 
adding a little water to make the mass stick well together. The 
hoppers seem to prefer this mixture to green food. Put little 
heaps of the poisoned bran all over the area to be protected, or 
simply strew it between the rows of potatoes, corn, cabbage, 
beans, etc., etc. Cut worms may possibly be poisoned by the 
same means. 

Other Foes. — Moles, although living entirely on worms and 
insects, and never destroying crops directly by eating, often, par- 
ticularly in sandy and mucky soils, become a source of much 
annoyance to the gardener by tunneling under the plant beds, 
lifting out, and killing many young plants, indirectly by expo- 
sure and drying up. Good traps may now be had at very reason- 
able prices of almost every hardware dealer. When persistently 
kept set according to directions which accompany each of these 
traps, they will soon reduce the numbers of the burrowing pests. 

Rats, Mice, etc. — When troubling hot-beds, hot-houses, etc., 
are also easily enough trapped or poisoned. Cheese crumbs are 
a favorite bait for them ; but there is hardly anything that will 
more surely entice the rodents than Sunflower seed. If a steel 
trap is used to catch rats, a large piece of very thin muslin should 
be covered over the trap when set, strewn with cheese crumbs, 
sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, etc., and perseveringly kept set. 
This will clear the premises of rats after awhile. Woodchucks 
are frequently very troublesome to beans, and occasionally 

130 — Hov/ to Make the Garden Pay. 

to squash and pumpkin vines, corn, etc. One of the surest 
ways of getting rid of them, is to find the burrows, insert a one- 
quarter or one-half pound charge of dynamite with a long fuse, 
stop up every opening, then fire the end of the fuse outside, and 
leave the animal to its fate. A mixture of tar, sulphur and salt- 
petre, burned inside the burrow, with all the openings closed, will 
also hardly ever fail to produce the desired effect. 


Kerosene for Insects. — Once more I wish to call special 
attention to the virtues of kerosene as an insecticide. Its mere 
contact is sure death to most insects, among them to many 
which do not readily yield to other treatments. Almost all slugs, 
maggots, worms, lice on plants and animals, and many beetles 
and bugs and their eggs are readily killed if we can reach them 
with kerosene. All we have to do is to apply it in such form or 
dilution that it will do no direct damage to the plants or trees. 
The Division of Entomology, United States Department of Ag- 
riculture, recommends the following formula for emulsifying 
kerosene : 

Per cent. 

Kerosene oil 2 gallons. 67 

Common soap or whale oil soap 2 pound. 1 

Water I gallon, j ^^ 

Dissolve the soap over a brisk fire in boiling water, and 
when in solution remove from the fire and add the oil. Churn 
the mixture for a few minutes by means of a force-pump and 
spray nozzle, or if these are not at hand, beat with a paddle until 
a cream-like emulsion is obtained. Care must be taken that the 
oil is thoroughly emulsified. If free oil is present it will rise to 
the top of the liquid after dilution and injure the foliage. If well 
made, the emulsion thickens on cooling into a jelly-like mass, 
which adheres, without oiliness, to the surface of glass. In mak- 
ing kerosene emulsion use rain-water if possible, or, if the well- 
water is hard, add an ounce of lye or a little baking (bicarbonate 
of) soda to the water. For scale insects dilute one part of the 
emulsion with nine parts of cold water ; for many other insects, 
one part of emulsion to fifteen parts of water, and for soft insects, 
like plant-lice, from twenty to twenty-five parts of water may be 
used to one of the emulsion. Milk is considered even preferable 
to rain-water. 

Another method of applying kerosene is in a mechanical mix- 
ture with water. Professor E. S. Goff, of the Wisconsin Experi- 
ment Station, first hit upon this idea, and this has led to the con- 
struction of an attachment to knapsack sprayers by the Missis- 
sippi Station which does away with all the trouble of making an 
emulsion, at the same time with every danger of injury to plants 

Insects and Other Foes. — 131 

connected with the application of an improperly prepared emulsion. 
The accompanying illustration shows sprayer with attachment. 
The latter consists of a separate tank filled with the kerosene and 
attached to the main tank, but 
readily detachable. Any pro- 
portion of kerosene and water 
can be pumped from the nozzle 
by simply turning the stopcocks. 
The kerosene and water are so 
thoroughly mixed in the act of 
pumping that the kerosene is as 
harmless to foliage as in an 
emulsion of the same strength. 
This attachment can also 
be used for many purposes other 
than the mechanical mixture of 
kerosene and water. In many 
cases it may be best to dilute 
fungicide only when applied to 
the foliage in the act of pumping. 
For this purpose the attachment 
will also prove useful. Of course 
when copper or other corrosive 
compounds are used in this 
manner, the small tank should 
be made of brass instead of tin. 

Pump with Kerosene Attachment. 

Gypsine. — The new insecticide gypsine, so called because 
first used for the gypsy moth in Massachusetts, is an arsenate of 
lead, and claimed to be fully as effective as Paris green, and su- 
perior to it in many respects. It has the advantage of being 
readily seen on the leaves, so that one can tell at a glance which 
leaves have and which have not been sprayed. Being lighter 
than Paris green it does not settle so quickly, and as a result can 
be distributed more evenly over the foliage. It does no harm to 
the foliage, even if used in much greater strength than the form- 
ula directs, so long as the right proportion of the two ingredi- 
ents is maintained. There should be an excess of acetate of lead. 
The insecticide is easily prepared by dissolving eleven ounces of 
acetate of lead and four ounces of arsenate of soda in 150 gal- 
lons of water. These substances quickly dissolve and form the 
arsenate of lead. The addition of two quarts of glucose or 
molasses will tend to glue the poison more firmly to the foliage. 
The cost of making this mixture is slight. 

Welcome Help — It cannot be denied that we have a great 
many good friends and helpers among the creatures that walk, 
creep, and fly. The average gardener, however, is often entirely 
unaware of how much of his exemption from insects or of his 

132 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

easy success in fighting them is due to the assistance of friendly 
creatures, and altogether he is often too thoughtless and unwise 
in their treatment. He strikes right and left, without mercy or 
discrimination. He shoots the birds because they eat a few 
cherries. He kills every snake or toad that comes in his way, 
either from inborn prejudice or because he supposes these crea- 
tures to be ugly, entirely forgetting that " handsome is that 
handsome does." He traps the skunk that hunts and feeds on 
grubs, etc., because he wants to sell his skin. He scares away or 
poisons grub-eating crows, traps and shoots owls and hawks that 
live mostly on mice and insects, and lets city sports hunt, drive 
away, and kill or maim the quail and partridges that keep his 
cornfields free from cut worms and root-borers. With equal 
eagerness he destroys injurious and beneficial insects. 

First of all, save and protect the birds. Almost all of them 
are insect-eaters, and many among them, even English sparrows, 
are at one time or other helping to clear the farmer's fields ana 
gardens of insects. The young of the English sparrow are 
raised almost entirely on insect food. So are the young of robin 
" Redbreast." Grown birds feast on grasshoppers, cicadas. May 
beetles, etc., whenever they have a chance, preferring this diet t& 
other food. Crows, owls, and many hawks usually do us more 
good than harm. Quails, like crows, are great grub-eaters. 
They need protection, not persecution. 

All reptiles, from the alligator down to the smallest lizard, 
toad, or snake, are the gardener's friends, tried and true, as they 
wage an unceasing war against his enemies. As the alligator 
keeps rabbits and coons in check, so the smaller reptiles prevent 
the over-rapid increase of many species of noxious insects. No 
reptile, however, can be of greater service to the gardener than 
the much-despised, homely toad. Place one or more specimens 
in a hotbed or cold frame, and see the insects disappear. Every 
crawling thing that comes within sight and reach of the toad, 
may its smell be ever so disgusting, its flavor ever so rank, its 
shell ever so hard, falls a prey to the toad's voracious appetite. 
The toad seems to be always ready for business. Don't kill 
the toad. Its value as an insect-eater is more generally 
recognized in England and France than here, for the homely 
animal has become a regular article of trade in the markets of 
London and Paris. The demand for the article by English 
gardeners, in fact, exceeds the home supply, and dealers have 
begun to look to this country for additional stock. In small 
gardens we might often employ toads as guards around 
hills of choice melons, squashes, etc., by providing them with a 
suitable guard house or hiding place, under a piece of board, a 
stone, or some rubbish right among the plants. 

Insects and Other Foes. — 133 

Don't extirpate the skunk. Its perfume is not pleasant, and 
its skin is valuable. All true ; but a live skunk in a hop-field or 
garden is worth more, for its good work in hunting and devour- 
ing grubs, than two dead ones any day, even if they are coal 
black and their skin worth $2 apiece. 

Learn to know your friends among insects. The common 
lady, bug lives largely on plant lice, eggs of potato bugs, etc. 
The ferocious ground beetle hunts and devours canker worms, 
army worms, and especially cut worms. Four-winged dragon 
flies feed upon mosquitoes, etc. The soldier bug and the grand 
labia seem to consider the potato bug larva a dainty dish, and 
destroy great numbers of them. Species of spider, known famil- 
iarly as " grand-daddy-long-legs," also make themselves useful 
by feasting on noxious insects. Blister beetles serve to prevent 
excessive multiplication of grasshoppers, etc. All these useful 
insects deserve protection. 



" An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure." 

ECENT investigations have acquainted us pretty 
well with the true nature, modes of propagation, 
etc., of most of the fungi which attack and 
damage our garden crops, and cause the various 
rots, blights, and mildews. To find a sure 
cure or sure prevention has been the great prob- 
lem ; unfortunately it must be confessed that in 
this respect we as yet know far less than is de- 
sirable, or required to give us complete control 
over these diseases. The latter destroy the tissues ; and tissues 
once destroyed, cannot be rebuilt. A cut or burn on a person's 
flesh will heal up, and skin will grow again and spread over the 
burnt surface from a near starting point; but a leaf burnt up with 
scab, or a berry touched by rot, is a leaf or a berry gone beyond 
the possibility of recovery. The term "cure," therefore, has no 
application in the treatment of fungous diseases. But we may be 
able to kill the fungus spores, and thus prevent the spread of 
the diseases. All our efforts must be exerted in this direction. 
Here again, as in the case of insects, we must look to change of 
location — planting at the greatest possible distance from any 
ground where the same vegetable was grown before, as to the 
first feasible preventive measure to be adopted. Even this, as in 
the analogous case of insects, is not an absolute protection, and 
unfortunately our senses are not acute enough to tell us from 
what source to expect the infection, and when to expect the 

Heat and moisture favor the development and spread of 
most of these troublesome plant maladies. Consequently pru- 
dence would dictate the use of precautionary measures on hot 
days after warm rains, or during damp and sultry weather. We 
should be quick about it, too. While we have means to kill the 
germs and prevent their starting into life, nothing has as yet been 
found that will affect the growth of the thread-like mycelium 

Fungous Diseases of Garden Plants. — 135 

(as the roots of fungi are called) after it has once entered the tis- 
sues of the attacked leaf, stalk, or berry. In short, the only way 
of successfully fighting fungi which attack foliage, consists of 
covering the yet unattacked leaf or stalk with a coat which the 
germinating spore is powerless to penetrate, or which kills every 
spore which tries to get a foothold upon it. 

To provide such a coat of mail is the purpose of spraying 
with fungicides. The safety of the foliage is insured only so 
long as all its parts are thus protected. This also explains the 
need of repetitional treatments, especially immediately after heavy 
or long-continued rains, which are liable to wash the protective 
armor off, and leave the foliage more or less exposed. Young 
leaves, usually and fortunately, are less subject to the attacks of 
fungous diseases than older ones ; but in time the new growth of 
young leaves becomes old, and will also require treatment. 
Hence we must not only spray early, but also repeatedly, and 
the oftener, the more favorable the season appears to be to the 
development of plant diseases. 

Spore-Killing Mixtures. — A great number of different 
solutions and mixtures have been tried and recommended for 
their fungicidal (spore-killing) properties ; but there are only a 
very few deserving general consideration. 

Bordeaux Mixture. — For the purpose of supplying the 
protective covering spoken of, nothing has as yet been found 
superior or even equal to the copper and lime compound called 
"Bordeaux mixture," or "copper mixture ofGironde." The 
adhesive nature of the lime tends to glue the copper firmly to the 
foliage. Consequently the mixture will stick longer than any 
other fungicide yet suggested, and even through moderate rains. 
Professor Galloway, of the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, recommends the following method of preparation : " In a 
barrel that will hold forty-five gallons, dissolve six pounds of 
copper sulphate (blue vitriol, bluestone), using eight or ten gal- 
lons of water, or as much as may be necessary for the purpose. 
In a tub or half barrel slake four pounds of fresh lime. When 
completely slaked, add enough water to make a creamy white- 
wash. Pour this slowly into the barrel containing the copper 
sulphate solution, using a coarse gunny sack stretched over the 
head of the barrel for a strainer. Finally fill the barrel with 
water, stir thoroughly, and the mixture is ready for use." 

I find it more convenient, however, to make the mixture in 
a slightly different manner. First get the required ingredients 
and receptacles, viz. : the copper sulphate (or bluestone) ; fresh 
lime ; a vial containing a solution of yellow prussiate of potash ; a 
barrel, vat or tank large enough to hold the required quantity of 

136 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

the mixture ; a tub or keg in which to slake the lime ; some pieces 
of coarse sacking, and finally a dipper. For every fifty gallons 
ofBordeaux mixture to be made, use six pounds of copper sul- 
phate. This may be in the ordinary form of coarse crystals, and 
will dissolve quite readily if you suspend it, in a basket or coarse 
sack, into the water with which the barrel or vat is partially 
filled. Slake a quantity of lime, and by adding water prepare a 
creamy whitewash. Then gradually strain this whitewash into 
the solution of copper sulphate. Occasionally stir the whole 
mass together, and test it by adding a drop of the yellow prus- 
siate of potash solution. So long as the latter causes a brownish 
stain in the bluish mixture, more lime must be added. When 
the proportions are right, no discoloration will be noticeable after 
the application of the test liquid. Then add the quantity of 
water required to give the right proportions, so that there will 
be fifty gallons of the mixture for every six pounds of copper 

It is permissible to make a stock solution of copper sulphate, 
and perhaps also to slake at one time a large enough quantity ^ 
of lime to last for a number of sprayings ; but these materials 
should be always mixed freshly for every application. I prefer 
to prepare new solutions and mix them freshly every time when 
I want to spray with Bordeaux mixture. Always keep the liquid 
well stirred during the operation of spraying. 

Bordeaux Mixture with Arsenites. — The great advan- 
tage which Bordeaux mixture has over most other fungicides is 
that it can be safely combined with Paris green (or perhaps Lon- 
don purple), thus giving us a chance to kill two birds with 
one stone. In the garden, this compound mixture will be found 
especially useful in fighting diseases and insects which attack 
the potato. The proportions usually recommended are four 
ounces of Paris green to fifty gallons of Bordeaux mixture. I 
prefer to use a much larger proportion of Paris green, up to one 
pound to fifty gallons. Be sure that the compound mixture is 
kept well stirred during the application. 

Potassium Sulphide. — For some of the plant diseases I 
have occasionally used a simple solution of potassium sulphide 
(liver of sulphur). The proportions are one-half ounce dis- 
solved in one gallon of hot water. Allow it to get cold before 
spraying. This solution has been found to be especially valuable 
for checking gooseberry mildew. 

Bichloride of Mercury. — A simple solution of bichloride 
of mercury (corrosive sublimate, a powerful poison, one part in 
one thousand parts of water), the well-known and famous disin- 
fectant, is of great service in the treatment of seed potatoes for 

Fungous Diseases of Garden Plants. — 137 

the prevention of scab in the resulting crop. To prepare the 
solution, get at the druggist's two ounces of pulverized corrosive 
sublimate, empty this into two gallons of hot water, and let it 
stand until it is all dissolved. Into a barrel put thirteen gallons 
of water, and into this pour the two-gallon solution. After 
some hours, during which time it should be repeatedly and 
thoroughly stirred, it will be ready for use. Metallic vessels 
should not be used to hold the solution. 


The Knapsack Sprayer. — As a spraying device for gener- 
al garden purposes, the " knapsack " style has no equal. It is 
not only a great convenience, but in 
my estimation an absolute necessity 
for every gardener of some preten- 
sions. The illustration shows it in its 
general arrangement. The tank should 
be of copper. The kerosene attach- 
ment, spoken of in preceding chapter, 
will come handy, although it is not a 
strictly necessary requisite. As to 
nozzles, I prefer the improved Ver- 
morel to all others. Certain further 
improvements on the knapsack sprayer, 
as for instance in the location of the 
pump-handle, are yet desirable, and no 
doubt will come in time. 

Knapsack Sprayer. 

The Barrow Sprayer. — This has 
already been mentioned and illustrated 
in the chapter on " Insect Foes." It is just the implement for 
people who grow potatoes, egg-plants, and similar low-growing 
garden crops by the acre. 

Other Spraying Devices. — Many of the cheap hand and 
bucket pumps which you find advertised in the agricultural pa- 
pers, will answer in an emergency, but their operation is less 
convenient and less satisfactory every way. The knapsack is the 
garden sprayer par excellence. 

Preventive Treatments. — First of all, the prudent gardener 
will take precautionary measures against infection. Strict rota- 
tion stands foremost. He will remove his endangered crops to 
new fields, and as far remote as possible from infected ground. 
In some cases he may be able to kill the winter spores by direct 
applications of strong copperas solutions to dormant wood and 
surrounding soil (as in the instance of grapevines, etc.), by wa- 
tering the soil with weaker solutions, or by sowing powdered 

138 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

copperas or perhaps flour of sulphur upon ground supposed to 
be infected with disease germs. Keeping the premises free from 
weeds and rubbish, and burning wastes and refuse, such as pota- 
to tops, old tomato vines, dead weeds, leaves, etc., with all the 
spores that have found a lodging place on these materials, will 
close another avenue by which infection so frequently is given a 
chance to enter. 

Another important precautionary measure is the selection 
of resistant varieties, if any such are known, and the fortification 
of all plants against the attacks of diseases by good culture and 
judicious feeding. Strong growing plants are less subject to 
some diseases than are plants with weakened vitality. Young 
plants usually have greater power of resistance than older ones. 
The following notes may serve as a guide in the recognition and 
in the treatment of the special diseases : 

Diseases of the Bean. — Most common among these, and 
often very annoying and destructive, is the ^* pod spot," or 
anthracnose, which appears as small reddish-brown spots on 
young pods of snap-beans, especially of the wax varieties. The 
spots gradually increase in size, their centres become blackened, 
then changing to dirty gray or light brown. The affected pods, 
of course, are always worthless. The disease can be carried over 
from year to year by the seed. It also attacks cucurbitaceous 
plants. Beans and melons (or cucumbers, etc.) should be ex- 
cluded from direct rotation. Reject infected seed, or disinfect it 
carefully by washing in the corrosive sublimate solution, or in 
Bordeaux mixture. The young plants may also be sprayed a 
{q.w^ times with the latter mixture. The bean anthracnose has 
usually been known under the name " bean rust," but the true 
'^ bean rusf is a different disease, attacking both surfaces of the 
leaf, and appearing in small round dark-colored spots. Spray- 
ing repeatedly with the Bordeaux mixture may prevent its at- 

The *^ bean blight,''* which appears on all the above-ground 
parts of the plants in small pimples, often having a dull red 
border, and which apparently is a bacterial disease ; and the 
"lima bean w/Z/^/^zc/," which attacks and ruins the pods, resem- 
bling the downy mildew of the potato, do not seem to have as 
yet a general or even wide distribution. The preventive meas- 
ures suggested for the former are the burning of the diseased 
plants, the selection of healthy seed and crop rotation, while 
spraying with Bordeaux mixture or other fungicides is supposed 
to give good results for the other. 

Diseases of the Beet, — The "beet rust'" is little known 
outside of the sugar-beet fields of California. The attacked 
plants become dwarfed and discolored. The only treatment thus 

Fungous Diseases of Garden Plants. — 13^ 

far recommended is to spray the seed beets with some fungicide 
(Bordeaux mixture), and thus secure seed that is free from infec- 
tion. The '^ beet leaf-spot disease^' is more generally known, 
and attacks the leaves of all the ordinary varieties of cultivated 
beets, mangolds included, appearing in small pale-brown spots, 
which gradually increase in size and become darker in color. 
The disease runs its course somewhat similar to the bean an- 
thracnose. Spraying the young plants with the ordinary fungi- 
cides is suggested as a preventive. Rotation of crops and the 
destruction of waste leaves at gathering time, also seem de- 

Diseases of the Cabbage Family. — Our cultivated plants of 
the genus Brassica (cabbages, cauliflower, turnips, etc.) are, as a 
rule, robust and to a remarkable extent exempt from disease. 
Only a single one, so far as I am aware, the " club root" (club 
foot, clump foot), has often become a source of real annoyance 
and loss to the gardener. It attacks the roots of members of 
the cabbage family, causing swellings and malformations, and 
ending in the dwarfing or death of the attacked plants. Crops 
on limestone soil are usually safe from attacks, which fact sug- 
gests the free use of lime in seed-beds and cabbage fields. Ap- 
plications of muriate of potash, kainit, possibly of nitrate of 
soda and phosphatic fertilizers, to cabbage ground, I believe also 
counteract the tendency to club root. If we use uninfected 
plants, and grow any mem- 
ber of this tribe only once 
in three or four years on 
the same piece of ground, 
we will have nothing to 
fear from the disease. 

Diseases of Celery. 
— Celery is subject to quite 
a number of fungous dis- 
eases, among them two 
leaf-blights, which are not 
dissimilar, and quite com- 
mon and prevalent. The 
" celery blight',' sometimes 

erroneously called eel- _ , ^ n . ^ . ■> 11 t.i- 1.. 

^ V , Celery Leaflet Attacked by Blight. 

ery rust, has become a ■' it, 

regular and much-dreaded visitor in our celery patches. A leaflet 

attacked by this disease is here illustrated. The presence of the 

blight may be first noticed in small, irregular, yellowish-green 

spots upon the leaves. These spots soon enlarge and become 

darker in color. Finally the whole leaf is covered with great 

blotches, and withers away. The self-blanching varieties seem to be 

140 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

especially subject to the attacks of this blight Hot and dry weather 
favor its development. By providing partial shade and plenty 
of water, I think we can do much more to keep it in check than 
by spraying with our common fungicides, although such treat- 
ment is recommended, and may be of use. 

The other form of '^celery leaf blight'^ attacks the leaf, the 
stalk, and even the seed. The accompanying illustration repre- 
sents an affected leaflet. The disease is easily recognized by the 

numerous small black 
dots which project slight- 
ly above the cuticle of 
the plant, and may be 
seen with the naked eye, 
or more plainly with a 
lens, in the brown spots 
and blotches on the leaf 
and other affected parts 
of the plant. These black 
dots are the spores of the 
fungus. The infection is 
probably carried over by 
them to the seed-bed. 
Safe precautions are the 
rejection of diseased seed, 
or its disinfection by 
washing in diluted Bor- 
Leaflet Attacked by Celery Leaf Blight. ^^^^^ mixture, in simple 

solution of copper-sulphate, permanganate of potash, or in 
similar germicides. Spray plants in the field with Bordeaux 
mixture. Less prevalent and less dangerous, even where it 
appears, is the "celery leaf spot" and the " celery rust.'' 

ThQ^ soft rot of celery" is a bacterial disease which espe- 
cially attacks plants when kept continually wet or damp, and 
which often causes serious damage. Plants that are kept either 
entirely dry or entirely under pure water will not be affected. 
The heart of the plants is most subject to attack, but the leaves 
are also affected by it. The illustration on next page shows a 
plant badly struck with this soft rot. 

Diseases of Cucurbits. — In recent years we have lost 
many of our melon, squash, and cucumber vines by a " bacterial 
blight." Suddenly in the heat of the day some of the plants, 
scatteringly all over the patch, show signs of wilting. At night, 
or during damp, cloudy weather, they stiffen up again and ap- 
pear all right, only to repeat the wilting, in an intensified degree, 
the next hot and dry day, going from bad to worse until the 
short run of the disease ends in the death of the plant. One 

Fungous Diseases of Garden Plants. — 141 

vine after another falls a victim to this blight, and sometimes 
whole patches are entirely ruined. A specially devised rotation 
which excludes potatoes, tomatoes, egg-plants, and other crops 
subject to the attacks of the same disease, 
is recommended as the most feasible 
method of preventing infection. Fungi- 
cides do not seem to possess much virtue 
in this direction. The ^'cucumber jiiildew*' 
which attacks the leaves of cucumbers, 
melons, etc., much in the same manner as 
the downy mildew affects grape leaves, 
and the ''melon leaf spot]' which causes 
light-colored spots in the leaf, and finally 
holes and openings, and a rather ragged 
appearance of the foliage, may be fought 
probably with more success than the bac- 
terial blight by spraying with Bordeaux 
mixture or other strong fungicides. 

Diseases Affecting Lettuce. — 
"Mildezu " is often very troublesome and 
destructive on lettuce grown under glass. 
In the first place we should aim to surround 
the crop in greenhouse or hot-bed with 
the same conditions which nature pro- 
vides in early spring to outdoor lettuce. 
The temperature should not be much 

above 40 degrees at night, nor much Soft Rot of Celery, 
above 70 degrees during the day. Let- 
tuce needs plenty of moisture, but water from overhead should 
be withheld on cloudy days. Always water in the morning of 
bright days. 

A sure and easily applied remedy is the one suggested by 
the Massachusetts Experiment Station (Prof Maynard), and con- 
sists in keeping a kettle or basin of sulphur (brimstone) heated 
to nearly the boiling point, in the forcing house for three or four 
hours twice or three times a week. Enough sulphur must be 
evaporated to fill the room with vapor so that it will be visible, 
and give a perceptible odor of sulphur. Great caution in the use 
of sulphur is necessary to avoid its taking fire, for the fumes of 
burning sulphur will quickly destroy all plant life, and a few 
minutes of burning might result in the loss of the whole crop in 
the building. From the testimony of Prof Thos. B. Meehan we 
have no reason to doubt that a paint of sulphur and linseed oil, 
put on the hot water or steam pipes in the greenhouse, will 
effectively prevent the appearance of lettuce and other mildews. 
On the whole, however, there is no better or surer method 

142 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

of preventing not only mildew but also the " soft rot',' which so 
frequently attacks the hearts of forced lettuces when freely wat- 
ered from overhead, than the new scheme of applying water by 
subirrigation, as explained in Chapter XVII. 

Diseases of the Onion. — For the ''onion inildeui,'' -which 
appears upon the tops as a grayish mold, followed by more or 
less wilting of the affected leaves and the premature collapse of 
the plant, strict rotation, the destruction by fire of all refuse tops, 
and spraying with fungicides, where practicable, are recom- 
mended as precautionary measures. Hot and dry weather favors 
the development of the disease. By starting plants under glass 
in winter and transplanting them to the open ground early in 
spring, we can usually get the crop pretty much out of the way 
before the period of danger. 

The ^' onion .rwzw/," which has become quite destructive in 
some onion-growing sections of the East, lives in the soil, and 
from there is transmitted to young seedling plants. It is easily 
recognized by the appearance of the black, sooty powder (the 
spores of the fungus). Badly affected plants always die, either 
by drying up or rotting. Planting on new and as yet uninfected 
land is the surest method of avoiding injury by onion smut. 
The new onion culture also offers a way of escape. Healthy 
seedlings grown in soil free from smut are not liable to take the 
disease after being planted in open ground. It may be possible 
to kill the smut in infected soil by watering with weak solutions 
of copperas, permanganate of potash, or other fungicides, or to 
protect the seedlings from infection by mixing flour of sulphur 
and air-slaked lime in equal parts, and sowing with the seed. 

The *' onion spot" disease causes black specks and spots on 
white varieties of onions after they are housed, especially in a 
warm and moist room. Onions showing signs of this disease 
should at once be sprinkled with air-slaked lime, thoroughly 
cured, and when perfectly dry, stored in dry bins in a cool and 
dry store-room. 

Diseases of the Potato. — The most malignant of all dis- 
eases affecting the potato, is the '' dozvny mildew" also called 
"late blight." Fortunately it is not prevalent to any great ex- 
tent, except in. an occasional season when the atmospheric con- 
ditions seem to be especially favorable to its development. 
Usually it makes its appearance rather late in the season, conse- 
quently early varieties always escape. But its attacks are fre- 
quently sudden and fatal, the affected plants being killed right 
down to the ground within a few days. The affected tubers rot- 
producing the characteristic rank, rotten-potato smell. The dis- 
ease is easily recognized by the mildew-like growth on the lower 

Fungous Diseases of Garden Plants. — 143 

leaf surface. All authorities are agreed that spraying repeatedly 
with Bordeaux mixture will prevent the disease, or at least 
greatly mitigate its attacks. 

Much more to be dreaded, because more regular in its visits, 
more prevalent, and apparently less understood, is the " /m/"- 
j/f?/" disease, ''early blightl' ox '' Macrosporinm disease." It at- 
tacks the leaf and stem, but never 
the tuber. The accompanying illus- 
tration will give an idea of its general 
appearance. The attacks may begin 
at any time after the plants are a 
few inches high, but usually the first 
signs of it are noticed at the ap- 
proach of real hot weather in July. 
Grayish-brown spots appear on the 
older leaves, and the affected parts 
soon become hard and brittle. The 
disease progresses quite slowly; the 
spots become gradually larger ; the 
edges of the leaflets curl up, and 
after a time the larger part of the 
leaf surface may be brown, with- 
ered, and brittle. In a month, more 
or less according to the weather, all 
the leaves may have succumbed, and the stalks alone stand — 
yellowish-green — leafless for awhile, to perish shortly after from 
starvation. The tubers are checked in growth, and remain un- 
dersized. Cool and wet weather usually puts a stop to the further 
progress of the disease. I have not been able to check it, in a 
perceptible degree, by even persistent spraying with fungicides. 
The " bacterial blight,'' which is characterized by the sudden 
wilting and the premature death of the affected plants, and causes 
the young tubers to decay or their flesh to become discolored, 
has already been mentioned as a disease of cucumber, melon, and 
other vines. It also attacks tomato and egg-plants. Its ravages 
have been more serious in Southern latitudes than at the North. 
Planting on new and uninfected land is the only precaution that 
can be recommended. 

The "potato scab," a disease w'ith which every grower is 
familiar, can be prevented by the use of clean seed and clean 
soil. The fungus lives in the humus of the soil, as well as on 
the tuber. Therefore land which has produced scabby potatoes 
in previous years, or has been fertilized with manure from stock 
fed with scabby potatoes, should not be used for potato-growing. 
The use of commercial (concentrated) fertilizers in place of stable 
manure can be recommended as a safe precaution. If the soil 
is free from the scab fungus, clean potatoes may be grown even 

Potato Leaf Spotted with 
Early Blight. 

144 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

from scabby seed by soaking the latter in a weak solution of 
corrosive sublimate. It is advisable to disinfect all seed pota- 
toes in this manner. Prepare the solution as already directed 
(page 136), wash the seed potatoes, then put as many as you may 
wish to treat at one time into a coarse sack or basket, and lower 
this into the solution until the potatoes are entirely submerged. 
Leave them thus ninety minutes, then take them out, dry, cut, 
and plant as usual. The same solution may be used over and 
over again. But the greatest care should be exercised in its 
use, for it is a powerful poison. All treated potatoes should be 

Diseases Affecting Seedlings. — The disease known as 
" damping off" often causes much annoyance and loss to the 
gardener, as it destroys a large proportion of the young seed- 
lings in flats and beds under glass. The point of attack 
usually is the root near the surface of the ground. The trouble 
then extends to the stem ; the plant falls over and soon decays. 
Onion growers who practice the " new onion culture," often 
complain of serious loss of their seedlings, caused by this fun- 
gus. I believe that the soil can be disinfected, and the roots 
thus protected from attack. The most feasible plan is to water 
the soil with a solution of permanganate of potash, say an 
ounce to one hundred gallons of water, or of copper sulphate — 
say an ounce to fifteen gallons, or with diluted Bordeaux mix- 
ture, previous to sowing the seed, or if required perhaps after 
the plants are up. I believe in the thorough disinfection of all 
soils in which seedling plants are to be raised, and also 
in spraying the young plants freely and frequently with 
fungicides. It is also stated that soil may be disinfected 
by giving it the conditions (heat and moisture) favorable 
to the germination of the spores, and then, a few days later, ex- 
posing it thoroughly to a very dry, hot atmosphere so as to kill 
the sprouted spores. Baking soil in a hot oven will also be 
liable to free it from infection. Still another method of prevent- 
ing this damping off is to sprinkle flour of sulphur over the sur- 
face, and then cover it with an inch of hot sand. Possibly a 
small quantity of sulphur mixed with the soil may also have a 
good effect in preventing this disease. 

Diseases of Spinach. — The two maladies which attack 
the leaves of spinach and often destroy whole crops, are '^spinach 
mildew'' and ''spinach anthracnoseV Spraying is out of the 
question, for obvious reasons, and all that can be done is to try 
to prevent infection by proper modes of culture. The refuse 
leaves of every crop should be collected and burned, and the 
location or soil of the spinach bed changed every year. Raking 
a mixture of equal parts of air-slaked lime and sulphur into the 

Fungous Diseases of Garden Plants. — 145 

soil, as suggested by Dr. Halsted, may be tried. A spinach leaf 
spotted with mildew, is shown in accompanying illustration (re- 
produced from Gardening). Other 
diseases of the crop, the leaf 
blight, white smut, etc., may be 
treated in same way. 

Diseases of Sweet Corn. — 
" Corn sjnut" is so widely dis- 
tributed, and so generally known 
to every soil tiller that a descrip- 
tion here will not be required. 
The fungus can live in the soil 
from year to year. Infection 
should be prevented by the early 
and complete destruction of all 
smutty plants, and the use of new 
and uninfected soil. There are 
still other diseases of the corn 
plant, but they seldom cause much 
anxiety or loss to the gardener. 


Spinach Leaf Spotted with 

Diseases of the Sweet Potato. — Several kinds of rot 
attack the sweet potato. The ^' black rot'' has been found quite 
prevalent and destructive in the Atlantic coast States, frequently 
destroying twenty-five per cent, of the crop. Dark, somewhat 
greenish spots, varying from a quarter inch to four inches in 
diameter, develop on the tubers, sometimes covering the greater 
part of the surface, and extending some distance into the tissue. 
The injury takes place mostly after the potatoes are stored. To 
prevent it, use only perfectly healthy seed or plants, destroy all 
infected vines and refuse roots by burning, and practice strict 
rotation. Commercial fertilizers will be found safer for this crop, 
in this respect, than large quantities of stable manure. The 
proper treatment of the tubers in storage is as yet a matter for 

Diseases of the Tomato. — The ''tomato rot" is a common 
and often destructive disease. A small blackish spot appears at 
the blossom end of the half-grown fruit, increasing in size with 
the growing tomato, and rendering it entirely worthless. The 
older (less improved) varieties, like Trophy, the small cherry and 
plum sorts, etc., are seldom affected by this disease. Training 
the plants, thus exposing them to air and sun, and spraying with 
fungicides seem to lessen the tendency to rot. 

The '' winter blight" is a malady of greenhouse tomatoes. 
When first attacked, the leaves become dwarfed and somewhat 
faded, with indistinct yellowish spots on tlie surface. The spots 

146 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

grow larger ; the plants dwindle, and the stems become small and 
hard. Affected plants usually linger along, a constant source of 
disappointment. All affected plants should at once be destroyed, 
and the soil of the greenhouse changed every fall. 

The " bacterial tomato blight'' has already been spoken of as 
affecting cucurbits, potatoes, egg-plants, etc. See page 140. 




" Good seed brings a glad harvest." 

OOD seed is one of the essential conditions of suc- 
cess in growing garden stuff, and to secure it is 
well worth considerable trouble and effort. Com- 
pared with the results, particularly with the great 
difference in the outcome of one kind of seed and 
of another, the greater expense of a reliable article 
is not worth taking into consideration. A few 
cents' difference in cost of seed may make many 
dollars* difference in the returns. When a whole crop and its 
quality is at stake, there is no wisdom in running the slightest 
risk for the sake of a small saving in the expense. Cheap seed 
is not necessarily poor ; but poor seed is always a costly invest- 
ment. The fact is that seed of really first-class quality cannot be 
grown profitably at very low figures, and the only judicious 
course to follow is to buy of a strictly reliable source, and be 
willing to pay a reasonable price. Would you take a medicine 
that happens to be on hand, merely for the sake of saving it ? It 
is a no more foolish proceeding than to use seeds because you 
happen to have them, or can get them at little or no expense. 
Never plant a seed of the superior character and quality of vhich 
you are not reasonably certain. Little difficulty will be exper- 
ienced ifany one ie anxious to purchase reliable garden seeds, since 
there are many firms of established reputation whose goods can 
be depended upon for quality and purity. All the larger repu- 
table houses send out no seed except that of the purity and 
reliability of which they are tolerably sure, and only after testing 
and approving of its vitality. 

I cannot warn too emphatically against putting reliance on 
the seeds sold on commission by grocers and hardware dealers. 
It is obvious that in buying such seeds you will have to pay for 
the services of the middleman, while a direct deal with the 
seedsman will probably insure some saving in the expense. But 
this is only a minor benefit derived from this direct deal. When 
only one-third of the packets contained in the commission boxes 
are sold, it is plain that the dealer cannot afford to throw the 
two-thirds left over away, but, as a matter of self-preservation, 


148 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

must put the stale stuff on sale again and again until sold. Con- 
sequently, you are never sure whether the seeds you buy from such 
sources are one or five years old, and this also accounts for the 
frequency of the complaints about " seed that will not grow." 
While it is true that we run little risk of obtaining stale seeds 
when dealing directly with our reputable large firms, complaints 
about the lack of vitality in seeds are by no means uncommon; 
but I am quite sure that more generally the responsibility rests 
with the party who sows the seed, rather than with the seed itself, 
or the man who sold it. 

Principles of Germination. — Much stress has recently been 
laid upon the importance of using the feet in firming the soil 
over the newly-sown seed. I am inclined to deem the use of 
the head in seed sowing of still greater consequence. Any one 
who has a thorough understanding of the principles involved, 
and follows the dictates of common-sense in their practical 
application, will have no difficulty in getting live seed to ger- 
minate, whether he makes use of his feet in sowing the seed and 
firming the soil, or not. Yet in a large number of cases the 
practice is decidedly commendable, and will often insure success 
where the unskilled would otherwise fail. What are these 

Moisture, a certain degree of heat (varying with different 
seeds), access of air, and absence of light — these are the chief 
requirements. How can we best supply them ? 

The warmth generated by the sun rays is our chief reliance 
for the needed high temperature in open-air culture, without 
artificial assistance; and only in culture under glass do we resort 
to various devices to save, augment or supplement this heat, 
either by the prevention of loss through radiation from the soil, 
by sash covering alone, or in combination with additional arti- 
ficial heat from fermenting manures, flues, or pipes. 

Constant but moderate supply of moisture is another chief 
point, and to insure it, the seed should be bedded in mellow 
soil, and this packed around it just firm enough to bring it in 
actual contact with it, and facilitate and make sure of capillary 
action. If left loose over and around the seed, the capillary 
movement of the soil water would here come to a stop, the 
pulverized soil dry out in a sunshiny day and, depriving the seed 
of the needed moisture, prevent its germination, or kill the sprout 
if this has already started into life. Excess of moisture should 
also be avoided. 

On the other hand, the soil must not be compact enough 
above the seed to hinder the upward passage of the young sprout. 
This is a prolific cause of failure with seeds. While having 
considerable force, yet the tiny plants only too often choke and 
die because unable to penetrate a hardened crust of soil. This 

Seeds and Seed Sowing. — 149 

consideration makes it necessary that the ground be well pre- 
pared, and thoroughly mellowed before seed is sown, and that 
the latter be not placed deeper than would correspond with its 
vital force. Large seeds, of course, have greater life force, and 
for this reason can be planted deeper than small seeds, from 
which comparatively weakly sprouts are issuing. 

Seeds will not sprout in the absence of air, and if planted 
very deep, may remain dormant in the soil for years, but when 
brought nearer the surface, and thereby exposed to the oxidizing 
influence of the air, will at once start into life. This explains 
why only the weed seeds near the surface grow, while those 
lying deeper wait until plow or other implements bring them up 
within the life-giving influence of air and warmth. 

The rule usually given is to plant all seeds as deep as their 
own diameter, but it is a rule more or less deviated from. Most 
of the common garden seeds are planted about one inch deep, 
except such as celery, small herb seeds, etc., that are left very 
near the surface. Peas may be put from 2 to 4 inches deep, 
potatoes trom 3 to 4 inches, corn from 2 to 3 inches, etc. 

Planting in Hard Soil. — It is comparatively easy to make 
seeds germinate in sand, sandy loam, muck, or soil rich in vege- 
table mold. But when the ground is clayey, and it must be 
feared that it will pack so tight and close, or bake so hard, that 
the tiny plants will not be able to break through, the shrewd 
gardener can yet succeed by means of the more liberal use of 
seed. What a single plant is unable to accomplish, may be but 
play for the combined efforts of a number of them. The safest 
way when dealing with soil in this unfavorable condition, is to 
sow the seed very thickly ; and while this involves a greater 
expense for seed, it insures a full stand, and chances for a full 
crop without adding other disadvantages, as thinning is needed 
in either case and requires about the same amount of labor 
whether you have three plants to the inch or six. 

The dried out soil in and after mid-season sometimes proves 
quite an obstacle to the ready germination of seed sown at that 
time ; but the grower who takes the precaution to sow immedi- 
ately after the ground is prepared for it, to deposit the seed 
somewhat deeper than generally done in early spring sowing, and 
to firm the soil very carefully after sowing, will usually have no 
difficulty to make good seed come up speedily. Ahvays sow in 
freshly stirred ground — this is a most excellent rule, and deserves 
to be strictly followed in all cases, and for spring, summer, or 
autumn sowing. It will seldom fail to insure success, as long as 
there is life in the seed, and the least moisture in the soil. 

Sowing Seed with Garden Drill. — When the ground is 
prepared so thoroughly that the drill works to best advantage, it is 
usually also in best condition for the germination of seeds. Let 

150 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

the whole surface be mellow and even. This is easily accom- 
plished in a clean loam, sand or muck. Often the only tools 
required are plow and smoothing harrow. In most cases the 
roller can be used alternately with the harrow to good advantage, 
and the surface thus made perfect ; but on less friable soil, and if 
no Meeker disk harrow is at hand, the finishing touch must be 
given with a good steel rake. On clayey and very lumpy 
ground the preparation will require more labor, if not a greater 
variety of tools. The Disk or Cutaway harrow can be used to 
break up the lumps, and to bring the surface in proper shape for 
the smoothing harrow. This may be followed with a Meeker 
(small disk) harrow, and the latter, if properly used, leaves the 
ground as smooth as if raked over by hand. 

Straight rows make the garden attractive, hence it is always 
preferable to mark off the rows of the desired width, or at least 
make a perfectly straight mark, or draw a line for the first row, 

and then use the 
marker attached to 
the drill, always 
trying to correct 
any deviation from 
the straight line. 
The small roller 
back of the seed 
coverers firms the 
soil, when properly 
prepared, suffi- 
ciently to make the 
use of the feet for 
this purpose en- 
tirely superfluous. 

Sowing BY Hand. 
— For the home 
garden, and where 
only small quanti- 
ties of any one 
variety are planted, 

„ . ^ , , „ , „ . , t:.. . as in test plats for 

Sowine Seed by Hand, Covering and Firming. . , , , ^ r 

^ J ' ^ *> mstance, the use of 

the drill is hardly desirable, and hand sowing is far preferable. 

A little practice will enable any one of average skill to make a 

clean job of it. The rows are marked out with the garden 

marker, and the operator, taking the seed paper in left hand, 

walks along the row and drops the seed evenly from the right 

hand held in the position shown in picture. The little finger 

and its neighbor form a sort of receptacle for a quantity of seed 

which gradually works down, and is evenly dropped by the 

Seeds and Seed Sowing. — 151 

other three fingers, through a rubbing motion of the thumb 
against the next two fingers. A person can easily learn to sow 
in this way nearly as evenly and uniformly as is done by the use 
of the drill. 

The covering is done by simply drawing a steel rake length- 
wise over each row, and the firming either by the use of the feet, 
or by patting with the back of the rake. My favorite practice is 
to rake in the seed of the first row, then while plying the rake 
over the second row, to walk on the first row, thus firming it, 
next, while covering the third row, to walk on the second, etc. 
Covering and firming all at one time, can also be done without 
rake, and by the use of the feet alone. 

Some of the very fine seeds, like celery, need particularly 
careful handling. The drill marks are made very shallow, the 
seed sown rather thickly, and the soil merely firmed by the use 
of the feet, or back of rake. Special devices are sometimes used 
for very small seeds, such as covering the soil after seed is sown 
and lightly covered, with a pane of glass or piece of cloth, etc., 
and this left on until the young plants appear above ground. 

Vitality of Seeds. — In a general way I am by no means 
opposed to the use of old seeds, when such are at hand, and a 
thorough test proves that a large per cent, of them will grow 
readily. This latter is the chief point of importance. Much 
theoretical matter has recently been written upon the different 
behavior of plants from new and old seed, as for instance, that new 
seed tends to produce foliage, and old seed, fruit and seed, etc. 
This difference in practice, however, is too small to deserve more 
than passing notice. As a rule, new seeds germinate more promptly 
than old seeds do, and this is one advantage at least in favor of 
the former. I have not been able to discover that the new cab- 
bage seeds produce larger heads than seed of the same variety, 
grown by the same person the year before ; nor that old melon 
seed gives ripe melons a day in advance of new seed of the 
same variety. The different kinds of seed vary greatly in the 
time they retain their vitality, and much also depends on the 
condition in which they are gathered and stored. Onion seed, 
for instance, is not considered reliable the second season ; yet I 
have known a sample kept over until second season in a tight 
paper bag in the garret, to contain 85 per cent, live, vigorous seed. 
Properly ripened and gathered seed, preserved under average 
favorable conditions, will retain its vitality as follows : 

Anise 3 years. Borage 8 years. 

Artichoke, Globe 6 " Borecole or Kale 5 

Asparagus 5 " Broccoli 5 

Balm 4 " Brussels Sprouts 5 

Basil 8 " Cabbage S 

Bean 6 " Caraway 3 

Beet ... 6 " Cardoon 7 

152 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Vitality of Seeds. — Continued. 

Carrot 4 to 5 years. 

Cauliflower 5 " 

Celery 8 " 

Chervil 2 to 3 " 

Chicory 8 " 

Coreander 6 " 

Corn 2 " 

Corn Salad 4 " 

Cresses 5 " 

Cucumbers 10 " 

Dandelion 2 " 

Dill 3 •• 

Egg Plant 6 " 

Endive 10 " 

Fennel 4 '' 

Hyssop 3 " 

Kohl Rabi 5 '• 

Lavender . . 5 '* 

Leek 3 " 

Lettuce 5 " 

Sweet Marjoram 3 " 

Martynia i to 2 " 

Melon 5 " 

Mustard 4 

Nasturtium 5 

Okra 5 

Onion i to 2 

Parsley 3 

Parsnip i to 2 

Peas 3 

Peanut i 

Pepper 4 

Radish 5 

Rhubarb 3 

Rosemary 4 

Rue 2 

Sage 3 

Salsify 2 

Summer Savory 3 

Scorzonera 2 

Sea Kale 1 

Spinach 5 

Squash 4 to 5 

Thyme 3 

Tomato 4 

Turnip 5 


Some of these seeds, like melon, pumpkin, etc., often grow 
readily even after having passed the stated limit of years ; but all 
are liable to fail much sooner if indifferently kept. Such seeds 
as onions, parsnips, &^^ plant, for instance, should always be 
regarded with suspicion except when strictly fresh. 

In the matter of quantity of seed to be required for a certain 
length of drill, it is usually safer to follow common sense than 
any of the directions found in books, papers and catalogues. The 
aim must be to insure a full stand in the drill. Fairly heavy 
seeding will be the means to this end ; but a sufficiency may mean 
more or less, according to conditions of soil and seed itself. The 
gardener's own good judgment should be the best safeguard 
against his going to either extreme. 



*' At our gates are all manner of pleasant fruits, new and old." 

•(AN'S mind was not intended to rest content 
with any thing short of perfection — hence his 
ardent and never-ceasing desire to better all 
his surroundings and conditions. Not idle 
curiosity merely, but the almost divine longing 
to do away with imperfections wherever we 
find them, is what makes us take such an 
interest in promising novelties, and look so 
kindly upon every effort toward the improvement of fruits and 
vegetables, and what renders the " testing of new things " so 
attractive and charming. It is true that the great majority of 
novelties introduced with high claims of superior merits develop 
such shortcomings, after thorough test, that they are quickly 
thrown aside again, and soon forgotten. But the acquisition of 
a single worthy new thing often pays a royal compensation for 
all the disappointments caused by a large number of novelties 
that prove without value. I will cite as one instance, that of the 
" Prizetaker " onion, introduced by Mr. Wm. Henry Maule, of 
Philadelphia, in 1888. The little package of seed I got then 
enabled me to raise about one-half bushel or more of the most 
beautiful bulbs that it had ever been my pleasure to see growing, 
and the satisfaction I got out of their possession, and out of the 
opportunities to show the growing crop to visitors, would have 
made up very largely for many failures. I think I would not 
have missed the chance of growing the Prizetaker in 1888, and of 
planting more largely in 1889, for a number of times the cost of all 
the novelties I planted that season. It was a similar thing with 
the Emerald Gem Melon, Dwarf Champion Tomato, etc. 

Some of these novelties mark more or less decided steps in 
advance. Let us look back upon the tomato varieties of 30 or 
even 25 years ago — small, poor, seedy, irregular, late. Then 
came novelty upon novelty in quick succession, each better than 
its predecessor — General Grant, Canada Victor, Trophy, Paragon, 
Acme, Perfection, Potato Leaf, Dwarf Champion, Lorillard, etc., 
until now we have reached a state of perfection in tomatoes that 
leaves room for distrust in our ability to originate anything 
better than we at present possess. 


154 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Verily there is pleasure in testing novelties, and the fact that 
some turn out good, and others not, only adds interest and spice 
to the undertaking. We have the satisfaction, also, to know 
that nobody has better things in vegetables than we have, and 
that we get the very best just as soon as anybody else has it. 
It gives us the proud consciousness of belonging to the better- 
situated and progressive minority. 

For the market gardener quite often there is money in test- 
ing novelties. If a new radish comes out that is a day or two 
earlier than any we had before, or a new spinach that will stand 
the summer heat a few days longer than the older sorts, he may 
by another season be enabled to turn such knowledge to best 
account financially. The home gardener, of course, gets only 
his satisfaction and pleasure for his pay, and the depth of his 
purse must determine to what extent he can afford to invest in 
novelties. People who find it extremely difficult to make both 
ends meet, and are forced to practice strictest economy, should 
not attempt to test novelties except on a small scale, and in a 
cautious manner. 



" Gardener's, like woman's, work is never done." 

N various occasions in this work I have already- 
alluded to the necessity of maintaining a strict 
system of cropping, changing every year, if 
possible, or with some crops, like onions, at least at 
intervals of a reasonable number of years. Rota- 
tion is useful in the prevention of fungus diseases 
of plants, and in rendering it more difficult for insects 
to discover our patches of just the vegetables they 
live on, thus in a measure insuring the safety of our crops. For 
the latter reason we should not plant vegetables in succession 
which are subject to the attack of the same insect or insects, like 
radishes, turnips, cabbages, cauliflower, kohl-rabi and onions. 
All these are attacked both by the flea beetle and the maggot. 
Egg plants cannot be safely planted where potatoes were grown 
the year before, etc. 

Close Cropping. — A system of close cropping, advisable even 
in the home garden for the sake of keeping it in best order and 
most attractive all through the season, and the weeds in subjec- 
tion in a very convenient manner, is absolutely necessary for the 
market gardener who must make the most of his opportunities. 
High-priced lands cannot be left to lay idle even a small part of the 
season. The early peas, and lettuce, and radishes, and spinach, 
and early potatoes and other first early crops can be followed by 
cucumbers, melons, celery, spinach, summer and winter radishes, 
late cabbage, sweet corn, turnips, tomatoes, peppers, sweet pota- 
toes, or whatever crop having yet time to come to maturity may 
be thought to pay best. New Jersey gardeners often plant a late 
crop of common (Irish) potatoes after strawberries. In fact, the 
ground can, and should, be kept producing some useful crop from 
early spring until winter, and then it may be made to carry 
spinach or kale, further south, onions, lettuce, cabbages, etc., either 
in actual growing condition, or dormant until spring. 

A rotation of crops is also demanded in the interest of strictest 
economy in feeding them. Different crops need different propor- 
tions of the food elements, and the same crop grown to the 
exclusion of others is liable to exhaust the soil of just the 


156 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

element which it prefers to others ; in other words, to disturb 
the proper balance of soil fertility. A judicious system of rota- 
tion prevents all this. The home gardener should also pay 
attention to this point, and change the location of each particular 
crop as far as the limited extent of the area will permit, or still 
better, use a new piece of ground for the garden, if practicable, 
every few years. 

The best scheme which I could devise or recommend, is to 
have a garden of double the size required, using one-half of it 
for vegetables, and the other half for clover, changing parts 
every second or third year. The frequent reference to strict 
rotation as one of the means of preventing fungous diseases 
(see .Chapter XIX) further emphasizes its importance. 



" A stroke in time saves nine." 

[LOSE cropping with thorough culture as practiced 
by every good market gardener, and worthy of 
imitation by every home gardener, gives very 
Httle chance to weed growth ; and where weed 
seeds are not carelessly scattered over the land, in 
manure or by other agencies, soon renders the 
originally tedious and disagreeable task of weed 
destruction mere child's play. The weeds grow 
less with every year of thorough cropping and cultivation. On 
the other hand, they increase in number, and become more and 
more troublesome with every year of neglectful culture, and with 
every year of using manures that are full of foul seeds. Such 
manure is a bad investment at any time, and for any crop, but 
almost ruinous to some crops, especially onions and strawberries. 
Rather than use weedy manures I would prefer to operate 
exclusively with concentrated fertilizers, supplemented by clover 
manuring, thus avoiding all this serious risk. The old and 
somewhat stale saying, " One year of seeding makes nine years 
of weeding," is in no way an exaggeration of the truth. 

Weed destruction is not the sole, nor even the principal 
object of cultivation ; but weed growth may often be considered 
almost a blessing to the more shiftless manager as it reminds him 
of the necessity to stir the surface, and imperatively demands, at 
the peril of the whole crop, that this be done. 

Where cultivation is given as it should be, namely, as a mere 
stimulant, not a destroyer of plant growth, and for the purpose of 
making the surface soil answer for a mulch, and admitting air 
freely to the roots of plants, this constant stirring will not allow 
any weed seeds to do more than just germinate and die. To 
kill all weeds at this early stage, really before any signs of them 
can be detected above ground except perhaps to an unsually 
sharp eye and close observer, is the " one stitch in time that saves 

Some weeds I refuse to regard as a blessing under any cir- 
cumstances. One of them is the Canada thistle. This curse of 
the farmer of which it is next to impossible for him to rid his 
fields and farm crops, after a neighborhood has once become 


158 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

infested, is easily eradicated in the garden by constant cultivation, 
and if necessary by the use of hoe and knife, preventing all 
growth of the weed above ground for a single season. No thistle 
root — nor any other perennial root — can live long without a 
chance to breathe. Deprive it of foliage (its lungs), and it must 
die from asphyxiation. Just for this reason, the larger biennials 
and perennials, the thistles, the docks, asclepias, etc., give the 
gardener much less trouble than a number of annuals. Among 

the latter, we have the 
purslane as one of the 
most troublesome ; and 
in July and August, the 
gardener frequently has 
hard work to make head- 
way against the immense 
power of recuperation and 
multiplication of these 
weeds. Sometimes there 
IS only one sure way — to 
gather up every plant in 
baskets or a wheel-barrow, 
and remove them from the 
garden, or dig holes here 
and there over the patch, 
fill up with the weeds, and cover with soil. Chickweed is another 
troublesome thing, and it should be treated in the same way. 
Wild mustard is abundant in some fields; but it can easily be 
eradicated by pulling up every plant for a few years, allowing 
not one to ripen and scatter its seed. 

It is a most fortunate thing for the gardener that weeds do 
not take an early start in spring. Any crop sown in the cool 
weather of March, April or early May has therefore a good 
chance to outgrow the weeds. This is one of the reasons, also, 
that speak in favor of very early sowing of onions, carrots, 
parsley, parsnips, celery and similar vegetables, which appear 
somewhat feeble at first. The wheel-hoe will take care of the 
weeds between the rows of all such crops, and it is only necessary 
to pull out the weeds in the rows by hand or slash them out 

Lang's Hand-weeder in use. 

Lang's Hand-weeder. Hazeltine's Hand-weeder. 

with a hand-weeder, such as Lang's, Hazeltine's or Noye's, or 
with tools similarly constructed. 

To learn to use any of them to best advantage requires a 
little practice, same as the proper use of almost any implement 
in garden or field. As a substitute for the patented concerns, I 

Weeds and How to Manage Them. — 159 

have often used (or given to my weeders) common iron spoons, 
broken case knives properly ground to an edge on both sides and 
bent in the shape of a curve, etc. In fact, any small sharp-edged 
tool can be utilized as a hand-weeder, and in very mellow soil the 
fingers alone will do very well. The process of hand-weeding, of 
course, has to be repeated as often as weeds re-appear, and if the 
first weeding was thoroughly done, the subsequent ones do not 
require so very much time and pains-taking labor. But every 
weed must be removed ; they are no blessing in any sense, and 
only deprive the crop of moisture (which feature is their worst) 
and of food. 

Many of the annual weeds become very persistent in their 
efforts toward seed ripening in latter part of summer and early 
fall. They should not be allowed much rest ; for if you give 
them an inch they will be sure to take an ell. 



"crowded — CRIPPLED ! " 

[HE liberal use of seed gives us the desirable full 
stand ; but also the less desirable feature of a 
great surplus of plants. Every plant, not required 
for making the crop, is practically a weed, as it 
deprives those that are to remain of moisture, 
food and room. To remove the superfluous, 
useless eaters and drinkers at an early period of 
development is just as essential as the early 
removal of weeds. Uniformity ofvegetables-radishes, beets, onions, 
etc., — and an even development cannot well be obtained except 
by giving each plant in the row a uniform and reasonably large 
amount of space. The annexed figures illustrate the contrast 
between a section of rows where the crop (onions) was thinned at 
an early stage of growth, and one where thinning is neglected. 
The market gardener whose aim is in the direction of an early 
crop — of beets, radishes, etc., which he can gather all at once, 
clearing the rows as \ 
he goes along, and thus 
having them ready for 
a successive crop — has 
no other way but thin 
early and thoroughly. 
The home gardener 
may do this work grad- 
ually with best results. 
So for instance in case 
of table beets. Instead 
of thinning all at once 
to the generally recom- 
mended distance of 4 
to 6 inches apart, the 
plants may at first be 
left 2 or 3 inches apart ; and when the roots have grown of some 
size, and begin to crowd each other in the row, every other one 
be removed, giving the choicest young and tender table beets, 
greens, etc. A similar course can be adopted with lettuce, and 

Onions properly thinned. 

Thinning and Transplanting. — i6i 

people who obtain their supply of vegetables in the open market 
have no idea what luxury the small and tender hearts of half-grown 
lettuce afford. Try it once by thinning drilled lettuce to three 
or four inches apart, and when they have nicely begun to head, 
pulling up every other plant, and preparing just the young 
hearts for the table. These are some of the pleasures in the 
garden that mere money cannot buy. 

In a general way I have yet to add that the proper distances 
among thinned plants, when these are yet very small, appear 
comparatively large ; and sometimes people have not the nerve 
to slash down and throw away thousands of nice plants which 
as yet, appear to have an abundance of room. But this has to 
be done. Whatever distance is decided upon as the best for the 
particular crop, and in any particular case, should be strictly 
adhered to, and no 
foolish sentimentality 
stand in the way of 
making the distances 
large enough. It is 
much safer to err in 
favor of giving too 
much space, than in 
favor of too little. 

Transplanting. — 
I am not a particular 
friend of transplanting, 
and avoid it wherever 
I can. In theory, transplanting, which is a sort of root pruning, 
induces early fruit production in tomatoes, t%g plants, etc., early 
headmg in lettuce, cauliflower, cabbage, and root development, 
such as is indispensable in good plants for setting outdoors. For 
this reason, gardeners practice, and writers advocate, repeated 
shifting, repotting or transplanting of all sorts of vegetable plants, 
in particular, also, of tomato, ^g^ plant, peppers, cabbage, celery, 
etc. In practice, transplanting, with its unavoidable root 
mutilation, is a stab at the plant's vitality, and acts as a more or 
less serious check to its growth, thus invariably dwarfing it in 
some measure. Sometimes, if the operation was done under 
favorable circumstances — in a moist atmosphere, and absence of 
direct sunlight — it is certainly followed by earlier fruit production 
or earlier heading. At the same time it also and invariably 
results in reduced size of plant or head, and reduced aggregate 
yield of fruit. Should less favorable conditions be ruling at the 
time of the transplanting operation, however, the atmosphere be 
dry and the sun bright, the plant will receive a set-back which 
cripples and retards it for a long time, so that the untransplanted 
plant will come even sooner to maturity. 

Onions left unthinned. 

Celery plants thinned to two 
inches apart. 

162— How to Make the Garden Pay. 

The great advantage that transplanted plants have over 
untransplanted ones, is the greater amount of space which people 
generally allow to the former. Seedlings are grown thickly in 
the row, and left thickly. In transplanting, the space is given to 

each plant that properly belongs 
to it. Let this be done with 
the seedlings, by early thinning 
I to the proper distance ; or, let 
the seed be planted in a pot or 
can large enough, leaving only a 
single plant to grow ; and we 
can thus produce plants with a 
well-developed root system, and 
fully the equal to transplanted 
plants in every respect. This 
comparison, of course, refers to 
plants started from seed at the 
same time. Much higher rates are 
always asked for " transplanted " 
cabbage and celery plants, than 
for common seedlings. The 
former, it is true, are usually fine plants, with large roots and 
stocky tops, and well worth their price. I obtain just as good 
plants by growing seedlings thinly in drills. All seems to 
depend chiefly on the amount of space given to each plant, as 
may be seen in illustrations of celery plants. Well grown, untrans- 
planted plants appear to 
be as hardy and as liable 
to take hold of the soil 
in their new quarters, as JOig 
those that have been 
transplanted once or 
oftener, and they cer- 
tainly can be grown 
much more cheaply 
and more conveniently. 
Strong, stocky seedling 
plants are good enough 
in any case, and prefer- 
able to poorly -grown 
transplanted plants. In 
determining the fruiting 
time of tomatoes, pep- 
pers, eg^ plants, etc., rapid growth of the seedling, favored by 
proper allowance of space, however, is not the only, and perhaps 
not even the chief factor. Age of the plant is certainly of equal, 
if not superior, influence. For this reason, the plants must be 

Celery plants irregularly thinned. 

Thinning and Transplanting. — 163 

started early, and as the production of seedlings is more difficult, 
and requires so much longer time than that of cabbage plants, 
they must properly be started in " flats " or hot-bed, thickly 
together, and planted out at an early age, giving the space 
required for the production of good plants. Even in this opera- 
tion it is always safest to select the most favorable conditions — 
moist atmosphere and least root disturbance — and thus to limit 
the unavoidable check to plant growth to the smallest amount 

Conditions of Success in Transplanting. — In a wet season, 
or during a wet spell, setting out plants in the open ground is an 
easy enough operation, and anybody, no matter how unskilled, 
can succeed without effort. During a prolonged spell of heat 
and drought — and we are apt to have such at the season for setting 
celery and late cabbages — the gardener often finds his skill and 
experience put to a severe test by the task. A supply of first- 
class plants, i. e., such as were grown with proper allowance of 
space to each plant, and consequently possess a fully-developed 
root system and a short, stocky top, makes success reasonably 
certain even under otherwise unfavorable conditions, especially 
if bome soil be left adhering to the roots in lifting and shifting. 
The most essential requirement, however, in any case is that the 
soil be moist, not wet or sticky, but so that it will easily crumble 
between the hands. If the soil be dry, it must be freshened and 
moistened by artificial watering, or failure will be the sure result. 
Planting in dry soil is usually fatal, even if water be applied 
afterwards. Always plant in freshly-stirred soil ^ is as good a rule 
as the similar one relating to seed sowing. 

Puddling. — Simply dipping the roots of plants in water just 
before setting them, is fully as effective as the famous manipula- 
tion known as " puddling" (dipping in thin mud), and it is much 
cleaner, more convenient, and generally preferable. I, myself, 
have no use for " puddling," neither for vegetable, nor small fruit 
plants and trees ; but dipping the roots in clear water, just before 
setting the plants, is a precaution which I, or any other gardener, 
can not afford to neglect. 

Firming the Roots. — Another indispensable requisite in 
successful transplanting is the thorough firming of the soil around 
the roots. It should be packed so tightly and closely that parts 
of the plant would sooner tear off than allow the plant to be 
pulled up by them. It is advisable, however, to draw a little 
loose soil as a kind of protection and mulch up over the firmed 
soil and around the plant, and in very dry weather the latter may be 
well-nigh covered up with loose soil to prevent rapid evaporation. 

Shortening Tops and Roots. — Another sensible precaution 
in dry weather is the trimming or shortening in of the tops of 
cabbage, celery and other plants when getting them ready for 

164 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

setting out. It is done in the most convenient manner by taking 
a bundle of plants in the left hand, and removing about half of 
the tops by a twisting motion of the right hand. Celery plants 
with excessively long roots should have the tips cut off with a 
sharp knife. Plants treated in this way, after being planted out, 
appear as here illustrated. 

Cabbage. Beet. 

Plants properly trimmed. 


Time of Day. — Cloudy weather permits of setting out plants 
safely and with equally satisfactory success at any time of day or 
night ; but when the sun shines hot and bright, and the soil is 
somewhat dry, the proverbial " after 4 p. m." is the right and 
proper time, and better than earlier in the day. If a little shade 
can be provided for newly-set plants, it is certainly worth some 

trouble to do so — soiled 
and discarded berry boxes, 
broken pots, etc., answer a 
good purpose, and leaves of 
large weeds, burdock, for 
instance, will be much 
better than nothing. Good 
celery plants are quite 

Plant Protectors and Celery Bleachers. J"/,! '° survive the fiercest 
' heat, on first bemg trans- 

planted, if shaded for some days with a line of boards resting 
upon blocks or little stakes, and held there a few inches 
above ground. Bottomless plant pots (5 inch) which I had made 
for the purpose of bleaching celery, make first-class plant pro- 
tectors, and plants thus covered for a few days, as appearing in 
picture, generally pass safely over the critical period. Tomatoes, 

Thinning and Transplanting. — 165 

egg plants and sweet potatoes, all of which rather enjoy heat, 
and are somewhat indifferent to drought, require less care in 
the selection of cloudy weather, or moist soil when planting 
out, and may often be set safely when cabbage and celery plants 
could not be transferred to the open ground without suffering 
considerable loss. 

Spindling Plants. — Even the most ill-looking, spindling, 
almost rootless plants of tomatoes, cabbages, cauliflowers, etc., can 
be transplanted with entire success under average conditions of 
soil and season. All that is needed is to insert the plants into 
the ground up to their very hearts. Overgrown tomato plants 
may be laid down in slanting position, care being taken to bring 
the moist earth in firm contact with the soil where underground. 

Planting Spindling Cabbage Plants. 

Cabbages may be set either straight down or slanting, according 
to depth of surface soil and length of stalk. In either case roots 
will form all along the stems, and the heads will grow closely 
above the ground, instead of being held high up as if on stilts. 

Transplanting Devices. — A number of transplanting 
machines, both for hand use and for horse power, have recently 
been put on the market. The most elaborate of these are rather 
expensive, but are said to do the work well, and not only set the 
plants, but water them, and apply fertilizers at the same time. 





" Saving is Earning." 

N most localities of the United States the gardener 
rarely passes through a season without encountering 
one or more longer or shorter periods of dry weather. 
Sometimes these periods assume the aspects of a 
serious drought, and the average crops of vegetables 
and fruits are often greatly reduced by these period- 
ically repeated occurrences. Irrigation is the 
expedient most naturally thought of for meeting 
such emergencies; but as we have seen in the chapter treating on 
that subject, artificial applications of water — irrigation or sprink- 
ling, etc. — are useful only under rare conditions, and mere 
sprinkling can never supplant the rains from the skies, in fact, 
is often more hurtful than of benefit. But we are not left without 
means of passing safely over any period of drought of reasona- 
ble duration. 

Precautions against Drought. — During the colder part of 
the season, when the evaporation from the soil is slow, and the sup- 
ply of moisture from the clouds abundant, the movement of the soil 
water is chiefly downward, while during the summer evaporation 
is usually much faster than rainfall, and necessarily the soil water 
in the main moves upwards. In other words, the soil forms a 
sort of reservoir that is filled every winter, and gives off its sup- 
ply for the use of vegetation (and by evaporation) during the 
growing season. If this reservoir is shallow, as in case of soils 
resting upon an impervious clay stratum, the surplus is carried off 
by surface wash, or in the drains, and the supply is liable to give 
out when most needed ; but if deep, as in the case of a naturally 
porous subsoil, or one loosened by subsoiling, the available water 
supply is large, and not liable to become soon exhausted. It is 
true that capillary action is also going on in the clay hard-pan, 
but it is far too slow to satisfy the combined demands of surface 
evaporation, and absorption by plant roots in a dry time. Hence 
our first aim must be to secure depth of reservoir. It is essential 

Means of Protection against Drought and Frost. — 167 

to supply the conditions which favor a free movement of the soil 
water up and down, and especially capillary action between 
surface soil and subsoil, namely, perfect drainage, and subsoiling 
wherever this action is stopped by an impervious character of the 

Having once secured these conditions as a foundation, the 
task before us is rendered comparatively easy, and we can now 
pay attention to the mechanical structure of the surface layer. 
Some soils absorb more moisture, and part with it more reluc- 
tantly, than others. The following table will make this plain : 

Each 100 lbs. of clear Sand is able to absorb and retain 25 lbs. of water. 

Limestone and Sand " " " 29 " " 

Sandy Loam " " " 40 " " 

Clay and Limestone Soil " " " 45 '' " 

Clay Loam Soil " " " 50 " " 

Clear Clay Soil " " " 70 " " 

Rich Garden Soil " " " 85 " " 

Peat Soil " " " 175 " " 

Soils, therefore, suffer most from dry weather in the order 
given. Peat never suffers from an ordinary drought, but gorging 
itself with moisture, which fills all its pores, is much more liable 
to suffer for want of air. The addition of sand, limestone soil, 
and even clay, will correct it in this direction. The absorptive 
and retentive character of sand can be improved by the addition 
of clay, peat, or more naturally, as in the legitimate way of crop 
feeding, by the incorporation of coarse manure, or plowing under 
of green crops. The beneficial agent in the latter cases is vege- 
table mold. Soils filled with humus absorb and hold water well ; 
a rich soil consequently stands drought better than a poor one. 
Judicious selection of soil, or improvement of its composition by 
the addition of clay, manure, peat, etc., are among the most 
effective precautionary measures against drought. 

Applications of wood ashes, (carbonates of potash and lime) 
also serve to make soils more retentive, and to counteract the evil 
consequences of a prolonged drought. Some of our best garden- 
ers use them very largely, at the rate of lOO bushels or more per 
acre, as much w'th this object in view, as fox their fertilizing 
qualities. I believe that nitrate of soda, and the potash salts also, 
serve to attract moisture, and to retain it for the use of the crops. 
Suppose we have paid proper attention to all the points before 
mentioned. We then find ourselves in first-class shape at the 
beginning of the season. The subterranean reservoir is well 
filled, and all we will have to do, to defy even a protracted 
drought, is to use the supply economically, and prevent its undue 

Our aim now is, and should be. to retard evaporation from the 
surface, and reduce it to the smallest possible amount. This 
might be done by a mulch of hay, straw or other litter; but the 

i68 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

most convenient material at hand for the purpose is the soil 
itself. We simply pulverize the surface, for an inch or two in 
depth, by stirring it freely with cultivator, harrow, hoe, or what- 
ever implement of tillage we may find most convenient and most 
effective. This covering of pulverized soil we must try to keep 
on top all through the season. The capillary action from below 
stops when it meets this loose material with its large interstices; 
and moisture cannot pass through and beyond it except by the 
method of slow evaporation ; so that our supply is held for the 
use of plants below the stirred portion of the soil. 

Hard rains, of course, again pack the soil tightly, and when 
this happens, capillary action is at once resumed, and moisture 
brought up by it clear to the surface. Therefore it is of the 
greatest urgency that we begin work again with the cultivator and 
hoe, as soon after each rain as practicable, to replace the import- 
ant mulch of loose soil. When this point is properly attended 
to, and with the fundamental conditions spoken of in our favor, 
we will have little to fear from any drouth of average dura- 
tion ; and even an unusually severe one will not be likely to 
cripple us. Our yields may be reduced, but thoroughness and 
promptness in cultivation on judiciously selected and wisely 
managed land will not admit entire failure on account of drought. 

Precautions ag.'VINST Frost. — Quite frequently spring begins 
with a long mild spell, lulling .the gardener into a sense of 
security, and inducing him to plant all sorts of tender things in 
the open ground. Suddenly a cold rain sets in, and on clearing, 
is followed by a night frost or two that make a clean sweep 
among all unprotected tender vegetation. In an early warm 
spring the gardener must take some risk, for there is no gain 
without. So we may plant some sweet corn, and set a few 
tomato plants, but never more of the latter than we will be able 
to protect by covering, or replace, should a late frost occur. If 
the plants were well-grown and properly hardened, they will 
often pass through the ordeal of a cold spell or a very light 
frost without suffering injury, where plants not so hardened 
would succumb at once. 

The main crop of tender plants, however, should not be 
transferred to the open ground until the soil has become 
thoroughly warm, and all danger of late frost is past. This for 
the latitude of Philadelphia will be about May 15th, and further 
north not until June 1st. Tender plants up to that time are 
generally much better off in a protected place, frame or green^ 
house, where with proper allowance of space they continue to 
grow uninterruptedly, than when exposed to the comparative 
hardships of cool soil and occasional chilly days and nights of 
early spring, conditions which will not permit much growth, and 
more generally keep the plants at almost a perfect standstill, 

Means of Protection against Drought and Frost. — i6g 

retarding them to such a degree that the plants set at a more 
congenial time often overtake the coddled things set two or three 
weeks earlier. 

Should an unusually early and warm spring induce you to 
plant more largely before the usual time, one precaution must 
never be lost sight of, namely, to hold a supply of good plants 
in reserve for the very possible emergency of a mishap to those 
set out first. Here is just where so many growers come to grief 
annually, and almost every year we see people, after having lost 
their plants by a late frost, anxiously hunting the country over 
in June, for a new supply, and finally being compelled to take up 
with a poor lot of late-grown plants, or go without. 

Devices of Protection. — Some afternoon in early spring the 
weather reports announce the rapid approach of a cold wave, 
and all the indications point to a coming freeze. Then comes 
the anxious inquiry : How can we save our nice tomato plants, 
our sweet corn, potatoes and beans, all of which were growing 
so finely ? It will not do to stand by with folded arms, complain- 
ing of the weather, and bad luck. Our only safety lies in cover- 
ing the plants. This may be done by sheets of cloth or paper, 
litter, or by boxes, large flower pots, etc. The number of boxes 
and pots on hand in average gardens may not go very far, and I 
would advise to make use of common manilla paper bags (the 
two or three pound sacks of grocers) for placing over tomato, 
and egg plants, etc. Smaller sizes will answer for pepper and 
smaller plants generally. Round off the corners at the open 
end slightly, and fasten the bag to the ground by a little wooden 
pin thrust through each of the two flaps and into the ground, or 
by a small chunk of soil or a stone placed upon each flap, as 
may be seen in the accompanying figure. 

Devices of Protecting Plants. 

Another mode of giving protection to tomato plants in an 
emergency, and one which I have seen practised with excellent 
success on a larger scale, consists of covering the bent-over plant 
with earth. Sweet corn can also be treated in same way, although 
it is much less liable to suffer serious damage, even if left unpro- 
tected. The soil must be carefully removed next morning, 

170 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

and the plants again straightened up. Early potatoes can be 
protected by simply hilling up, entirely hiding the plants from 

When you have marsh hay, or coarse litter of any kind on 
hand, a much better material for covering strawberry patches, 
and exposed vegetation of a tender nature generally, need not be 
looked for. Spread the litter thinly over the rows, and remove 
again next morning. It may be left as a mulch between the 
rows, or gathered up and drawn off for other uses if desired. 

Smoke has often been mentioned as a safeguard against 
frost, and writers often give the advice to burn rubbish heaps, or 
heaps of a mixture of coal tar and moist sawdust, placed at 
intervals over the area to be protected. But this is another case 
where theory is better than practice, and I do not recommend it 
either for spring or fall. 

Covering with hay, straw, paper, muslin, etc., is about the 
only feasible plan of protecting crops against the first early fall 
frosts. The home gardener can often save a few tomato and 
pepper plants, melon and cucumber vines, etc., by such means, 
and thus prolong his season of.fresh fruits of these tender garden 
plants for several weeks, for a warm spell usually follows closely 
upon the first, and (often only) early fall frost. A few tomato and 
pepper plants may also be lifted with all the soil that will adhere 
to the roots, and placed in tubs or boxes in the cellar, or under a 
shed ; or they may be simply pulled up and hung up somewhere 
out of the reach of frost. They will then ripen all the larger 
fruit that is on them, and give a full supply some time after all 
the plants left in the open ground arc killed by frost. 

The crops of winter squashes, late melons, and all others 
which even the slightest touch of frost would render worthless 
for keeping, should of course be gathered and stored in a safe 
place before such mishap can befall them. Full-grown green 
melons, if properly stored, may be kept for some time, and yet 
come to full maturity. 




" The laborer is worthy of his hire." 

HE finer quality of garden work, with its many- 
somewhat deHcate operations, calls for greater 
mechanical skill, wider experience and riper intel- 
ligence than required for the performance of the 
simpler and more primitive manipulations of aver- 
age farm management. 

Really first-class help is scarce even on the 
farm. If we watch the average plowman in the field, 
or the hired man as he wields the hoe, we will soon find that there 
is a wonderful difference in the quality of such work, and that the 
man who does a perfect job, like a true friend, is a rara avis 
indeed. More than in any other respect is it a truism of the labor 
market, that the " best is always the cheapest." The simplest 
manipulations in the garden are more than doubled in value and 
lasting benefit when directed by a fair amount of intelligence. 
One thorough hoeing, for instance, will keep the ground in better 
condition and free from weed -growth for a longer time than two 
or three of the average kind of so-called hoeing. The former 
(thorough hoeing) may require more " elbow grease," but very 
little more time. The same with other operations. 

Years ago I had my onion-weeding done by young boys, 
picked up wherever they could be found willing to work for 50 
cents a day. The poor quality of the work done by the great 
majority of them, the unceasing and close supervision and dis- 
cipline they required.the damage caused by the careless destruction 
of many of the finest plants, the general inclination to slight the 
work,and the frequency of hand-weeding rendered necessary thereby 
— all these drawbacks made boy-labor at 50 cents a day come pretty 
high. Grown persons might have been employed at the same 
time at ;$i.oo a day, and they would probably have done the work 
25 per cent, faster and 50 per cent, better, and that without 
damage to the crop, consequently at a large saving of expense, of 
supervision and of considerable annoyance. Verily, the good 
laborer is worthy of his hire : but the poor one certainly is not. 


X72 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

The gardener everywhere has to face this difficulty of get- 
ting inteUigent labor — labor which alone is worth having, and 
worth paying for. It is well worth the trouble — perhaps an ab- 
solute necessity — for the market gardener to educate his work- 
hands, and then try to keep those permanently that suit his 
requirements. In the first place he must plan to have work 
all through the year, summer and winter, and to engage his men 
by the year, and year after year. We can better afford to give a 
good price to thoroughly skilled workmen, than to employ care- 
less and unintelligent raw hands at a one-third rate. 

To make our good hands still more contented to stay, and 
willing scholars, good books and treatises on gardening, and the 
better class of horticultural periodicals should be freely provided 
for them, and the employer should not neglect to acquaint them 
with his plans of operation, and the reasons for the adoption 
of the various courses in garden management. 

Everything, in short, must be done to make them feel as if 
it were their own work they are engaged in, and to make them 
do it with an object in view other than the mere passing away 
the time, and getting their pay for " time." If this latter is the 
only consideration for which their work is given, it will most 
surely be of inferior quality, and not worth its price. 




'• Doing the right thing at the right time — that is success." 

T would be a futile attempt to give specified chrono- 
logical directions strictly applicable to all the gardens 
over the different sections of the United States with 
their varied climatic and atmospheric conditions. In 
the following chronological schedule of garden opera- 
tions, the latitude and general climate of Philadelphia 
(Southern Pennsylvania, South Jersey, etc.), is taken 
as a basis. The growing season of the greater part of 
New York and the New England States, etc., is several weeks 
shorter at each end, with a month or two more of hot-house and 
cold frame management, comparative leisure and opportunity 
for planning, studying books, papers, catalogues, etc., during the 
winter. Gardeners must govern themselves accordingly, and 
make every effort to do the right thing just at the right time. 


Attend to cold frames, hot-beds and greenhouses, giving all 
the fresh air possible during pleasant hours of the day, closing 
again as a change of temperature occurs. Some days the sashes 
may have to be opened and closed severa 1 times. Cold-frame 
wintered plants need all the light that can be given, unless the 
plants are frozen, when they may remain covered with shutters 
or snow for two weeks without injury. 

Market celery or any other vegetable that you may have on 
hand from last year's crop. 

Draw manure to the compost heap, and compost to the 
fields. Order fertilizers. 

During a thaw secure soil for your beds, protecting well 
with litter or coarse manure, to have it ready for use in making 

Plan the season's work, aiming to have the ground occupied 
all the time, embracing crops that are most profitable, yet do not 
encroach upon each other. 


174 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Order seed catalogues of leading dealers, and study them 
carefully; then make your selection of seeds, providing for all 
possible wants, and send in your order without unnecessary 

Select and engage the required hired help. Now you have 
choice — later you will have to take what others have refused. 


Attend to frames, and greenhouses, as in January. Venti- 
late freely in fine weather. 

Test the vitality of seeds on hand, and order a new supply if 

Inspect all implements, harnesses, wagons. Repair where 

First of month sow cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce in well 
protected cold frame or hot-bed for earliest planting, if no win- 
tered plants are on hand. 

Latter part of month sow tomatoes, egg-plant and pepper in 
a strong hot-bed, or in greenhouse. 

Continue drawing manure. Fork over the compost heaps. 

Last of month, if season is favorable, begin setting wintered 
plants of cabbage and lettuce in open ground. 


Attend to frames, greenhouses, etc., as in February. 

Cart and spread manure on the fields to be planted. Plow, 

Sow seeds of radish, lettuce, onion, spinach, early beets, 
turnips, carrots, celery, hardy peas, parsley. 

Dig around the rhubarb plants, and apply fine compost, 
liquid manure, or nitrate of soda. 

Pulverize the asparagus patch, hilling up the rows. Apply 
nitrate of soda at the rate of 20J to 300 lbs. per acre. 

Continue setting cold frame plants of cabbage, cauliflower, 

Plant onion sets and first early potatoes. 

Prick out tomato seedlings in flats or on greenhouse benches 
three or four inches apart each way. 


First of month sow seed of all hardy vegetables — radishes 
beets, carrots, peas, spinach, celery ; the last of the month the 
first planting of the tender kinds, beans, sweet com, etc., can be 

Sow onion seed for sets. 

Thin all the drilled crops planted last month, 

Cultivate freely between rows. 

Monthly Memoranda. — 175 

Continue "spotting" (transplanting) tomato seedlings. 

Apply nitrate of soda to the early crops. 

Sow peppers in hot-bed. 

Whitewash sashes of greenhouses, etc., to protect plants 
from excess of light and heat. Begin hardening off the earliest 
tomato plants. 

Market earliest crops — spinach, bunch, onions, radishes, 


For succession sow radishes, beets, peas ; also cabbages and 
cauliflowers for late crop. By middle of month sow mangels for 
stock, carrots and salsify for main crop. 

After first week of month sow seed of beans, cucumbers, 
melons, corn and lima beans. 

After middle of month set tomatoes, peppers and sweet 
potatoes in open ground. 

Plant common potatoes. 

Mellow the soil around plants set last month, to keep them 
growing vigorously. 

Keep celery bed well cultivated and free from weeds. 

Market early crops — onions from sets, lettuce, radishes, 
spinach, beets, cabbages, earliest peas. 


Plant peppers, tomatoes, egg-plants, sweet and white potatoes, 
winter beets, late cauliflowers and cabbages. 

Clear ground of early spring crops — onions, radishes, lettuce, 
spinach, etc. — and prepare it for second crops. 

Keep celery plants growing vigorously by frequent cultiva- 
tion. Thin plants as needed. 

Thin carrots, beets, onions from seed, parsnips, salsify. 

Stir the surface of soil frequently among all crops. 

Poison the potato beetles and slugs. 

Plant cucumbers for pickles. 

Set celery plants for early crop. 

Market radishes, lettuce, onions, celery, cabbage and other 
vegetable plants, peas, string-beans, cauliflower, etc 


Finish marketing early crops, clearing and preparing the 
land for succeeding crops. 

Plant out late cauliflowers, cabbages, peppers. 

Plant tomatoes on the discarded strawberry patch. 

Set celery for main and late crops. 

Sow seed of winter radish, early beet for winter, ruta-bagas, 
turnips ; last oi month kale, spinach. 

176 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Harvest onion sets. 
Market early potatoes. 

Keep the ground among all crops well stirred to guard 
against drought. 


Early this month finish setting celery. 

Sow for late crop spinach, radish, turnip, kale. 

Keep ground well cultivated and hoed. 

Pull the late weeds before they mature and shed their 

Hoe cabbages frequently, also apply pyrethrum (buhach) 
wherever worms are troublesome. 

Dig and market potatoes. Market cucumbers, melons, 
tomatoes, peppers, etc. 


Stimulate growth of celery by cultivation, hoeing and appli- 
cations of nitrate of soda. 

Handle celery for early use. 

By middle of month sow seed of spinach, and kale for 

By twentieth of month sow in drills, cabbage and cauliflower 
for plants to be wintered in cold frames. 

Harvest onions, and sell them at the earliest possible date. 

Clean up the hot-beds and cold frames, and get them ready 
for use. 

Watch turnips and drive off flea beetles by application of 
proper remedies. 

Market tomatoes, peppers, lima-beans, egg-plants, melons, 
cucumbers, pickles, etc. 


Market the second crops planted in July : radishes, cabbages, 
endives, string-beans, beets, carrots, cauliflowers, sweet corn, 

Handle late celery, earth up gradually. 

During middle of month sow lettuce for plants to go in cold 

Before frost pick green and half-ripe tomatoes, peppers, etc. 

House squash. Harvest sweet potatoes before vines are 
injured by frost. 

Harvest root crops and store in cool, moist cellar, or pit. 

Set cabbage plants in cold frames, leaving beds open until 
hard freezing or snowy weather. 

Monthly Memoranda. — 177 


Finish gathering and storing late crops. 

Set cabbage and cauliflower plants in cold frame, and harden 
them by exposure. 

Mulch spinach for spring lightly. 

Protect parsley from snow and extreme cold by a board cap 
or inverted trough. 

Celery not well protected is to be gathered early and 
trenched in, or stored in root cellar. 

Market the bleached celery. 

Harvest and store root crops. Gather salsify and leeks for 
winter use, and store like celery. 

Top dress rhubarb with manure, bone meal, muriate of 

Clear up the garden generally, and get ready for spring 

Draw manure to compost heap or to the field. 


Look to frames and forcing houses. 

Keep cold frame plants dormant. Too much protection is 
worse than exposure. 

Mulch spinach. Draw soil lightly over the tops of salsify. 

Market celery, cabbage, onions, beets, hot-house lettuce. 

Draw material for the compost heaps from city or town. 

Look over the credits and debits of each crop. Figure 
which are the profitable and which are the unprofitable ones, and 
study the causes of failure wherever it occurred, to learn how 
to avoid it in future. 

Part II. 

Growing Special Crops. 




" Care brings crops." 

N the following pages I have attempted to describe the 
best methods of growing the various vegetables, as 
practised by myself and good gardeners generally. 
Of varieties, I can only mention the leading or typi- 
cal ones, and of the newer sorts those that have 
passed examination creditably, or at least give 
promise of value. Concerning untried novelties, I 
must refer the reader to the annual catalogues of our 
progressive seedsmen. 


Pimpinella Anistim. German, yi;^z>. French, -4 w.f. Spanish, 
A7iis. — Anise is one of the half-hardy " sweet herbs," and almost 
as easily grown as a weed. Sow seed in April or May where it 
is to remain, in warm and well drained soil, drills to be 12 or 15 
inches apart. It is but little grown in American gardens. 

The seed has a delicate flavor and perfume, and is prized 
for its medical properties. Germans use it quite commonly for 
flavoring apple-sauce. . 


Cynara Scolynms. German, Artichoke. French, Artichaut. 
Spanish, Alcacliofa. — The Globe Artichoke is propagated from 
seed, division of roots, or from suckers. In order to obtain a 
stock of plants, seed may be sown early in hot-beds, and plants 
transferred to open ground in May, setting in rows three feet 
apart, with two feet distance between plants. The rich black 
soil of river bottoms, moist but well-drained, answers the 
requirements of this crop best. A bed once established will 
remain in bearing for a number of years, but needs protection in 


Cultural Directions. — i8i 

the northern states ; and for this reason leaves or coarse manure 
should be applied between the plants from three to six inches 
deep, according to the usual severity of the winters. 

The part used, generally in the raw state, is the base of the 
scales of the flower. Sometimes they are boiled and served 
as a salad. The term " Artichoke Salad," however, is more 
frequently applied to the side shoots, which are loosely tied and 
bleached somewhat after the fashion of endive. The vegetable 
is rarely found in American home gardens. 

European seedsmen catalogue a number of varieties. The 
Green, or Green Globe, is probably as good as any other, and 
the one offered by American seedsmen. 





Helianihus Tuberosus. German, Erdapfel. French, Topin- 
anibour. Spanish, Namara. — The Jerusalem artichoke or Tuber- 
ous-rooted sunflower is easily grown from the 
tuber, and where the latter has once taken 
possession of a field, is hard to eradicate. 
Poor, gravelly soil, too dry for most any other 
crop, suits this artichoke very well, and will 
soon be filled with tubers. Plant in open 
ground in April or May, in rows three feet 
apart, placing the seed tubers 12 or 15 inches 
apart in the rows. They require no especial 
attention until dug, and are not affected by 
frost if left in the ground. The varieties only differ in the color 
of their tubers, and are' named accordingly, Red-skinned, White- 
skinned, etc. 

Uses. — The tubers, like potatoes, can serve as food for man 
or'beast. Sometimes they are eaten in the raw state, as pickles 
or salad; sometimes they are boiled like potatoes ; but however 

served, they can by no means be con- 

J^^JJ^^JER^^^ficMTKs' sidered a great delicacy for the average 

American taste. Flesh sweet and 

watery. Hogs are very fond of the 

tuber. I think that on a piece of land 

having little value otherwise, the crop 

would be quite a profitable one for 

turning into pork, especially since we 

can leave the job of harvesting entirely 

to the pigs themselves. Hog snouts 

are also the most convenient tool with 

which to rid a piece of land of the 

Jerusalem artichoke, when this becomes a nuisance, which it is 

liable to do. 

1^2 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 


Asparagus Officinalis. German, Spargel, French, Asperge. 
Spanish, Asparrago. — Asparagus not only gives us a most 
excellent, wholesome and palatable vegetable, but also a great 
quantity from a comparatively small area, and this at a time 
when other fresh succulent vegetables are scarce, and the average 
person's appetite sharp for just that kind of food after a long 
period of " much meat and little vegetable." No wonder the 
demand for the crop, in spite of heavy annual plantings, and 
a steadily increasing area, has until now been larger than the 
supply. Very little of it has thus far found its way to the 
canning establishments, and it seems that these would be glad to 
work up quantities of it, if a steady supply at reasonable rates 
were available. The crop, in short, is, and probably will continue 
to be, a paying one, both for the home gardener, whose little patch 
supplies his table bountifully from April or May to July, for 
eight or ten weeks, and for the market gardener near town or city 
whose crop nets him from ;^200 to ;^400 per acre, and under very 
favorable circumstances even more, and all this with comparatively 
little labor and expense, and year after year when a bed or patch 
has once been established, and reached bearing age. Yet many 
home growers, especially among the farmers, have not yet learned 
to appreciate this crop as they should for their own and their 
family's good, and thus far fail to grasp the opportunities that it 

Growing the Plants. — In order to grow a supply of first- 
class plants, it is only necessary to sow seed thinly m drills one foot 
apart, giving to each plant about two or three inches space in the 
row. Of course, the soil should be well enriched, and thoroughly 
prepared, and after sowing, well stirred between the plants by 
means of hand wheel-hoe, hoe, rake, hand-weeder, etc. Weeds 
must not be tolerated. In this way on rich, moist, mucky or sandy 
soil I have often grown plants as large, and fully as good, as the 
average two-year-old plants purchased of nurserymen. A surplus 
of good plants can in most cases be disposed of to neighbors or 
towns-people at a good price, say from 40 to 100 cents per 100 

Starting the Bed. — The price depends largely on earliness 
and especially on size and general appearance. The earliest 
" grass " brings the highest price, and market quotations taper off 
gradually as the season advances. Large first-class stuff always 
brings almost double what is paid for an inferior article. These 
considerations should guide us in the selection of soil and site, 
manuring, planting, etc. No factor that might have a tendency 
to promote earliness, and size and quality of the " grass," can be 

Cultural Directions. — 183 

safely ignored. On the other hand we give the cold shoulder to 
the old style of digging deep trenches, and filling the whole soil 
with manure to a considerable depth as formerly practiced — as a 
waste of labor and manure. Neither do we consider it necessary 
to apply a great deal of manure when first setting the plants in 
the permanent bed. 

In the selection of soil and site, however, we will be apt to 
exercise the greatest care. Our first choice will be a deep, warm, 


Asparagus Grown Above Cruund. 

sandy loam, preferably slightly sloping to south or southeast, 
our next choice a light clay loam. Porous subsoil is almost a 
necessity, and the use of subsoil plow will be a great advantage 
where this condition is not perfect. Prepare the ground thorougly 
by plowing, harrowing, rolling. 

The two ways of growing the crop, both for market and 
home use, are illustrated in the accompanying figures. In the 
first, the plants are set shallow, perhaps three or four inches 
deep, and the stalks broken or cut off near the surface of ground, 

Asparagus Grown for City Markets. 

when six or eight inches high. This gives us green " grass," 
always tender, but of a somewhat pronounced flavor. It is a 
favorite way with the home grower, and in some particular 

For most larger markets, especially that of New York city, 
the stalks are grown under ground, as above illustrated, and 
thus naturally blanched. It is true that the lower end of each 
stalk is apt to be somewhat tough, and need^ peeling and perhaps 
shortening, but the flavor is decidedly milder, and of a more 
refined character than that of the stronger-flavored green stalks. 

184 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

The market gardener, of course, has to comply with the 
demands of his available market ; the home grower may consult 
his own individual taste and preference. I will only add that the 
bleached " grass," when poorly grown in hard, starved soil, is 
poor indeed ; but under good culture, in warm, mellow soil, it is 
a superior article. 

The preparation of the ground, setting the plants, and after- 
culture, are much the same for both methods, except that the plants 
are placed only three or four inches deep in one case, against 
six or eight inches deep in the other. 

Distance of Plants. — The size and consequent market value 
of the stalks is influenced more by the amount of space allotted 
to each plant, than by any other single circumstance, and for this 
reason I consider wide planting the only sensible and safe course 
for the market grower. Some of our most successful gardeners 
make the rows six feet apart, with three or four feet distance 
between the plants. Even then the roots completely fill the soil, 
and interlock between the wide rows. Planting at this distance 
admits of cultivation both ways. The least distance that should 
be given in a bed expected to yield fine large stalks for many 
years is five feet by two, requiring between 4000 and 5000 plants 
to the acre ; and nothing can be gained by planting closer. 
Fifty plants thus set in good soil will furnish an abundant supply 
of " grass " for a large family. 

Planting. — Plow out furrows in well-prepared soil, at least 
five feet apart, and 10 or 12 inches deep, or if less, at least as 
deep as depth of surface soil will allow. Then scatter a few 

inches of rich, well-rotted 

^-^ compost into the furrows, 

oPouNo.vmL ,t ,; ?^^^W fill in about as much soil, 

r'TMlW^v mixing this well with the 

manure, and set the plants, 

good, strong, one-year-old 

to be preferred, at least 

two feet apart, each upon 

a little mound of soil and 

Planting Asparagus in Furrow. with roots nicely and 

evenly spread, in the man- 
ner shown in picture, and at such a depth that the crowns will 
be about 7 inches below the ground level. Then cover with two 
inches of soil, and another dressing of fine rich compost. As the 
plants grow, and in the due process of cultivation by horse, the 
furrows are gradually filled up level with the surface. 

After Culture. — The bed should be kept well cultivated, 
and free from weeds. The first season same hoed crop, like 
potatoes, cabbages, radishes, turnips, etc., might be grown 
between the rows, but in that case the application of the fertilizer 

Cultural Directions. — 185 

required to make up for the removed plant food must not 
be neglected. In the fall, and every fall afterwards, the tops 
are to be cut before they shed their seed, taken off the field, 
or piled up and burned. The young plants, that spring up 
from seed carelessly left to drop, are sometimes worse than 
weeds. Winter protection by covering with coarse litter or 
otherwise is not needed except at the extreme north. The 
stalks should all be left to grow the next (second) season, 
and same thorough cultivation and general treatment given 
as in the first. In the spring apply a top dressing of good 

With careful planting in the way described, and strong 
plants to begin with, the bed will yield a fair crop the third 
season, and a full one every year afterwards. The wise grower 
will cut sparingly the first cropping season, and always and 
every season stop cutting at the first indication of weakness of 
the plants. Long-continued cutting is a great strain on the 
roots, and some rest is 
absolutely needed to keep 
them in health and strength. 
Some kind of manure is 
to be given every spring, 
according to the needs of 
the soil. Compost may be 
alternated with commercial 
fertilizers. A good practice 
followed by growers in 
New Jersey and elsewhere, 
is to open a furrow with a 
one-horse plow between each two rows, fill this with compost, and 
turn the soil back upon it. Excessive manuring will hardly ever 
be required. Salt may be beneficial in some cases, but generally 
has little or no effect. Being a salt-water plant, asparagus can 
stand almost any quantity of salt without injury, but it does not 
show any partiality for it. All manures should be applied in 
the spring, and an annual top-dressing of nitrate of soda, at the 
time that the first shoots begin to start (in March or April), and 
at the rate of 200 or 300 pounds per acre, is one of the surest- 
paying investments. 

When the time of cutting the stalks draws nigh, the rows 
are nicely rounded off, as was shown on page 143, and the crop is 
gathered every morning. Cutting has to be done with a careful 
hand in order to avoid injury to the tops of other stalks that have 
not yet reached the surface. 

Marketing. — Reject all the ill- shaped and under- sized stalks, 
and using one of the modern asparagus bunchers now on sale 
in every hardware store, make neat, firm bunches, which should 

Home-made Asparagus Buncher. 

i86 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

be about eight or nine inches long, and four or five in diameter, 
holding two or three pounds of " grass ". Rubber bands are 
now coming in use in place of raffia or other tying materials ; 
they save time and make a neat, salable package. The butt ends 
of each bundle are squared by a smooth, clean cut. People 
who have only a comparatively small area in asparagus, may, if 
they prefer, bunch their stalks by means of a home-made 
buncher, such as, for instance, is illustrated on page 185. It 
needs no further description. 

If the product is to be shipped to market, the bunches, to 
insure their arrival in market in best condition, are packed in 
some soft material, and pressed firmly and tightly into the package 
to prevent injury by jarring or shaking about. Knives for cutting 

Asparagus Knife. 

the crop are kept on sale by hardware dealers, seedsmen, etc. 
One of the various shapes is illustrated above. In an emergency 
a common sharp kitchen knife will answer. 

Superior Method for Amateurs. — The home grower who 
is after extra quality, can well afford to take a little extra pains in 
the preparation of his bed. Instead of filling the furrows with 
soil simply, he may prepare a very light, very porous compost 
of fresh horse droppings, muck, wood, or chip dirt, chaff, fine 
sawdust, rotten forest leaves, etc. This material lies very loosely 
over the crowns of the plants, and is warmed through very 
easily by the sun rays, at the same time affording a good protec- 
tion from cold. Instead of cutting the stalks with a knife, the 
hand can be easily pushed down along them into the loose soil, 
and the stalks snapped off at the base with a pressure of the 
finger. Asparagus grown in this way is very superior, and it 
may even be profitable when thus grown on a larger scale for 
market. I have been well pleased with the results of one trial. 


Conover's Colossal is the variety now generally grown 
by both market and home growers. Philadelphia Mammoth, 
recently introduced as an extra large and prolific sort. Palmetto, 
and a few other newer varieties, have not been generally tested. 
but deserve further trial. 


Melissa Officinalis. German, Citroncjt Melissc; French, 
Melisse Citronelle; Spanish, Toronjil Citronella. — Although a 
perennial, balm is usually cultivated as an annual. Sow seed in 
finely prepared soil, in April or May, having drills one foot apart, 

Cultural Directions. — 187 

and thin or transplant to six or eight inches. It can also be 
grown by division of the root. In that case plant in spring one 
foot apart each way. All the green parts of the plant have 
a most agreeable aromatic odor, especially " 
when bruised. The leaves are used for seasoning. 


Ocymum Basiucitm. German, Basilietikraut; 
French, Basilic; Spanish, Albaca. — Select light, 
warm, rich soil, and sow in May, in drills one 
foot apart, thinning or transplanting to 6 or 8 
inches apart. The leaves have an agreeable 
perfume and flavor and are used for seasoning. 


Sweet Basil. 

Phascolus. German, Bohne ; French, Haricot; Spanish, 
Jiidia. — Horticulturally we divide the varieties of this important 
vegetable in two great sections — the Bush and the Pole varieties. 
In the former we include all those usually grown as a field crop 
for dry shelled beans, as also the various green-podded snaps, 
and the yellow-podded wax beans. A more practical classifica- 
tion could hardly be adopted, since the cultivation of all the 
varieties of each section is pretty m.uch the same. 


The modest requirements of the crop are proverbial, and so 
it is nothing uncommon to hear farmers speak of land " too poor 
to raise white beans." Yet the fact which this suggests, is true 
only in a very limited sense. Their cultivation is decidedly easy 
and simple, and a crop can be grown on soils of most widely- 
differing character; but a crop worth growing cannot be produced 
on soils exhausted of available mineral elements of plant food, 
especially of potash. Wood ashes and other potash fertilizers 
are generally of especial benefit to this crop. 

All beans are somewhat tender, and should not be planted 
until danger of late spring frosts is past, or until the time farmers 
usually plant corn. For a field crop, on a large scale, seed is 
best sown with a one or two-horse drill ; but it can also be done 
with the garden drill. I prefer to lay off the land in furrows, three 
feet or so apart, made with a common field marker, and to follow 
with the drill in these marks. This deposits the seed just 
about right, two or three inches deep, and if any of the beans 
remain uncovered in the rows, I follow, cover and firm them 
with the feet. In the garden I simply open furrows, either with 
a hand plow, or with the hoe, or in any other convenient way, 
scatter the seed an inch or two apart in the furrow, and 

i88 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

immediately cover the soil" in over the seed with the feet, firming 
the soil as I go, in one operation. For the first crop we may select 
land just cleared fi"om early radishes or spinach, and for successive 
crops, any ground as it becomes vacant, continuing the planting 
every two weeks until July or August. The width of rows may 
be varied between one and one-half and three feet, according to 
the gardener's convenience and the fertility of the soil. For it 
is a very general rule, applicable to all crops, that for best results 
we must plant the closer the poorer the ground, and the wider 
the richer it is. 

After-culture consists in simply keeping the ground well 
stirred, either with horse or hand cultivator, and free from weeds 
and in drawing up the soil slightly to the rows when the plants 
have attained some size. An old precept warns against hoeing 
or working among beans when the leaves are wet with rain or dew, 
as rendering them liable to become affected with rust under this 

treatment. The statement is 
periodically passed around in 
the agricultural press. Profes- 
sional writers, who are not 
always practical gardeners, love 
to repeat it. I am not afraid to 
hoe my bean vines any time that 
it is convenient for me to do so ; 
and I have never yet noticed 
the bad results prophesied. 

Harvesting Dry Shelled 
Beans. — The field varieties, or 
any of the garden sorts grown 
for seed on a large scale, are 
harvested as soon as ripe, best 
Round Pod Valentine. ^y means of one of the modern 

devices constructed for the purpose, and operated by one or two 
horses, or the plants are pulled up by hand, laid in rows on the 
ground, and when sufficiently cured, put in small stooks, or 
taken to the barn and in due time thrashed out and cleaned. 
Beans intended for market must be picked over by hand — a some- 
what tedious operation, which, however, can be performed during 
the winter and winter evenings at leisure, and by cheap labor. 

Along the coast, near the principal shipping places, from Vir- 
ginia to Florida, string or snap beans are quite extensively grown 
for northern markets ; and there they generally pay quite well. 


Early Round Pod Valentine resembles the older Early 
Red Valentine in every way, but is somewhat earlier. In this we 
have probably the best variety for market garden purposes. 

Cultural Directions. — 189 

Early Valentine. The pods are fleshy, tender, succulent, 
and remain on the vines in condition for table use longer than 
those of most other varieties. Seeds speckled. 

Yellow Six Weeks. — Very early, with straight flat pods. 

Early Mohawk. A hardy, early sort, and of old-established 
reputation. Color of seeds, a kind of drab, spotted with purple. 

Refugee. (Thousand-to-one.) — Somewhat later than the 
preceding two, but very productive; pods tender; seed speckled. 
Largely grown for pickling. 

Nonpareil Green Pod. — About the very last bean to 
mature ; a wonderfully vigorous grower ; vines being always full 
of numbers of long dark green pods. 

Best of All. A medium early, thritty and productive 
variety. Pods are long, stringless and of good quality. 

The leading sorts grown in field culture as dry shelled beans 
are White Marrowfat, Navy or Pea Bean, Prolific Tree 
Bean, Red and White Kidney 
Bean. The newly introduced 
Burlingame Mediums is 
claimed to be the earliest, 
hardiest and most productive 
field bean in America. The 
wax sorts, with their tender, 
delicate yellowish pods, are 
especially suited for culture in 
the home garden. The list of 
varieties has been swelled very 
largely by recent introductions. 

We may choose among a large ^^^^^^,^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ 

number and hardly make a miss. 

Black "Wax is one of the older standard sorts, with tender, 
waxy, yellow pods. Seed black. 

White Wax differs from the preceding chiefly in color of 
the seed, which is white. 

Yosemite. — No other dwarf bush bean approaches Yosemite 
in size; the pods being often eight to ten inches long, and as thick as 
a man's finger. The pods are nearly all solid meat, and stringless, 
always cooking tender and delicious. It is enormously prolific. 

New Prolific German \Vax. — A decided improvement on 
the old German Butter Wax, and more than twice as prolific. 
The very handsome, golden yellow pods, entirely stringless, are 
borne in immense quantities on every plant. 

Golden Wax, one of the newer introductions, is early, 
prolific, and altogether reliable both for market and home use. 

Maule's Butter Wax. — A very early wax bean of superior 
quality ; full of solid meat, as a pithy or hollow pod can seldom 
be found 

igo — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Perfection or Flageolet W^ax resembles the preceding, but 
is characterized by remarkable vigor of plant and productiveness. 

Ivory Pod Wax. A moderate grower only, but producing 
tender, exquisitely delicate, white, waxy pods in great profusion, 
and during a longer period than most other bush sorts. 
Especially valuable for the home garden. 


The running or pole varieties are still tenderer than the 
bush sorts, and should not be planted until the weather has 
become thoroughly settled, and the ground warm in spring. 
Seed, when planted in cold, wet ground, is much more liable to 
rot than to germinate. All, especially that king of beans, the 
Lima, need high culture, and succeed best in rich, sandy 
loam, but can be grown in any rich, warm soil. The Limas 
are one of those crops that find ready sale in almost any 
larger market, and in suitable localities are grown with fair profit. 

The usual way of proceeding is to set poles four feet 
apart each way. These poles, as used by most growers, are 
from eight to ten feet high, which I think is from two to four 
feet more than is really necessary, or even of advantage. The 
height of pole should correspond with the length of the season 
in any given locality, five or six feet being fully sufficient, and 
better than more, for the short northern season. At the south 
they might be a foot or two longer, as this will have a tendency 
to lengthen the bearing period. 

The hills, previous to setting the poles, should be made 
rich and porous, by mixing a shovelful or two of well-rotted 
compost with the soil. Five or six seeds are then to be planted 
in a circle around each pole. Press each one firmly into the 
soil, nearly or fully two inches deep. All our old precepts 
agree in recommending to place the seed eye downward. Prof 
Halstead, upsetting this old theory, proves that the seeds should 
always be planted flat on their side. In practice, however, it 
seems to make little, if any difference, and in drill planting I 
simply scatter the seed in the furrow and cover them up with 
feet or hoe. 

Thorough cultivation and frequent hoeing will make the 
young plants grow rapidly and vigorously, and soon the vines 
will require tying to the poles. The pods are gathered as the 
seeds in them get large, and shelled for market or the table. 
In some localities the beans are sold in the pod. The ripe beans 
also find a willing market at from ;^4.oo upwards per bushel, 
and the crop is generally a profitable one in either case. 

In my own practice I prefer to grow the Limas and 
other running sorts on a trellis instead of poles. The 
illustration on next page shows a small section of what 

Cultural Directions. — igi 

I am tempted to call a model trellis for this purpose. 
Heavy posts are set firmly and deeply into the ground 
at the ends of each row, and smaller or stout stakes at intervals 
of 1 8 or 20 feet between them. The upper end of posts and 
stakes is sawed off square at a height of five feet, and in line, so 
that a perfectly straight wire (10 or 12 size) can be run from end to 
end over the tops, where it is held by simple wire staples, but 
firmly fastened to the end posts, which, for safety's sake, should 
be firmly braced. A lighter wire or twine is run from post to 
post at a height of about 6 inches from the ground, and common 
white cotton yarn wound zig-zag around the two wires (or the 
wire and twine). Usually I have a row of Limas, etc., in this 
shape on one side of my kitchen garden, running its entire 
length, and fully four feet away from other vegetables, in order 
to give a fair chance for thorough horse work. I also aim to set 
the posts straight and uniform, to stretch the wires reasonably 
tight, and to adjust the yarn regularly; and I can assure you that 
this trellis is not only useful, but when vine-clad, also quite an 

Trellis for Lima Beans. 

ornament to the garden. With such a trellis the vines require 
very little attention in the way of fastening to the strings. The 
latter are so temptingly near, that the runners take hold without 
much coaxing. 

One of the most important advantages of this trellis style 
over the pole method, I find is the opportunity which it affords 
us to plant the Limas in a continuous row. Here I use 
plenty of seed, for I am anxious to secure a full stand, and prefer 
pulling up plants rather than have vacant spots that spoil the 
looks of the whole, and materially diminish the yield. Should a 
bare space occur after all, it is easy enough to fill it with plants 
taken up from where they stand pretty thickly. Lima beans 
transplant quite readily, especially if lifted after a rain. Care- 
fully take up a clump of soil with a few plants on it, on a spade 
or trowel, and set where needed to fill a gap. 

The royal Lima requires a pretty long season. Many 
gardeners pinch the ends of the runners after they have made 
five or six feet of growth, for the purpose of hastening the crop. 
This treatment is not needed, especially with short poles or the 

192 — How to Make the Garden Pay, 

five-foot trellis, since the forced downward course of the vines, 
after they have reached the highest point of the comparatively 
low support, gives us practically the same effect as pinching back. 
The great fault of the Limas in the northern states is their 
lateness. We often only get a small part of the crop to reach 
table size, not to mention the difficulty of getting them to mature 
on the vines. To make the crop earlier by a week or two, the 
seed can be planted in a cold frame or hot-bed, either in pots or 
on pieces of inverted sod, about two or three weeks before it 
could be safely planted in the open ground. At the proper time, 
the sods, or the plants turned out of the pots, are then set 4 feet 
each way for poles, or 2 feet in the row if for trellis. 
Three or four good plants are left to grow in each hill in the 
former case, and two plants only in the latter. When seed is 
planted in drills, as described for my trellis method, the plants, of 
course have to be properly thinned, one to every 9 or 12 inches. 


I have tested about a dozen different varieties of the Lima 
bean, but found next to no difference in time of giving earliest 

Large Lima — This is the old standard sort, reliable and 
productive. Salem Improved is introduced as a selected and 
superior strain of this. 

Extra Early, Early Jersey, or Extra Early Jersey. — 
Proves to be slightly earlier than the Large Lima, and is claimed 
to be the earliest of this class. Pods are quite long, and well 
filled. I have picked pods containing seven and eight seeds each 
in New Jersey. 

Dreer's Lima gives quite short, but closely-filled pods. 
The seeds are rounder and plumper than those of any other Lima, 
and of superior quality. A fine variety for the home grower, and 
profitable for the market gardener who sells the shelled bean, or 
for the consumer who buys in the pod. 

King of the Garden. — Pods of enormous size, beans 
large. The reverse of Dreer's — profitable to sell in the pod, 
and to buy shelled. 

Red and Speckled Lima are newer introductions of 
strong and vigorous growth, about as early as the earliest, and 
decidedly prolific. Seed of fine, rich flavor, but objectionable 
in color, and consequently not wanted for market. 

Small Lima or Sieva. — I cannot see that this makes up in 
earliness for what it lacks in size, productiveness and flavor. So 
I have no use for it in my garden. 

Henderson's Bush Lima might be included in this list. 
It appears to be a dwarf sport of the Small Lima or Sieva, 
resembling it in every respect except habit of growth. Its bush 

Cultural Directions, — 193 

form, great product- 
iveness and extreme 
earliness are its chief 
points of merits. The 
Large Lima is now 
also reduced to bush 
form in Burpee's 
Large Bush Lima, 
and Dreer's Lima in 
the Kumerle Lima. 

Of other pole vari- 
eties, I will mention 
White Creaseback, a 
green-podded pole 
string bean, claimed to 
be the earliest of that 

German Wax, Golden Wax and Golden Cluster are 
yellovz-podded running sorts for both string and shell beans. 

Lazy Wives. 

194 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Lazy Wives. — Pods are wonderfully broad, thick, fleshy, 
and above all entirely stringless, retaining their stringless and 
tender qualities until they are almost ripe. The vines cling 
remarkably well to the poles. Pods are rather flattish, oval 
shape, and when fully grown are from four to six inches long. 

Horticultural, Speckled Cranberry or Quail Track, much 
esteemed for the home garden. Seeds oval, speckled. 

Improved Dutch Runner has many of the characteristics 
of the Lima in growth, and is very- productive. Beans clear 
white and of largest size. Next to the Lima, the best for market. 

Scarlet Runner. — A strong grower; flowers of beautiful 
scarlet, and produced in great abundance. Probably more 
ornamental, than useful for the table. 


Beta Vulgaris. German, Rothe R'iibe ; French, Betterave. 
Beets for early bunching are a leading crop of the market 
garden, and generally quite a profitable one. I have already in 
a former chapter alluded to their cultivation under glass, in cold 
frames, and cold houses. In open air they are grown in a 
similar way, only more space is usually given, 
and no radishes are grown between them as 
a secondary crop. Rich warm soil (sandy 
loam) is the chief requisite. It is well- 
manured with rotted compost, and prepared 
as for other small vegetables, that is to say, 
plowed well, harrowed well, and made thor- 
oughly smooth, if necessary with steel rake. 
In early spring when soil conditions and 
weather will permit, the seed is sown in drills 
from 12 to 1 8 inches apart, and clean and 
thorough cultivation given from the start. 
The crop is especially grateful for one or more 
applications of nitrate of soda, and can be 
largely increased or made earlier by this 
means. The market gardener's aim is to get 
a uniform lot of roots, bunch them for market 
while small (two to three inches in diameter), 
clear the land at the earliest possible date, and 
replant to some other crop. From this stand- 
point he must thin to a uniform distance of 
three or four inches soon after the plants 
have made a few leaves ; and since he does not intend to let the 
plants grow to large size in the bed, he can make the rows as 
close as he may desire, I2 inches distance between them being 
ample. In the kitchen garden we usually have the rows 1 5 or 

Cultural Directions. — 195 

18 inches apart, since we prefer to use up the crop gradually, 
perhaps thinning at first for greens, then beginning to pull the 
roots when yet small, and continue using them as we desire for 
the table, thinning all the time, 
and perhaps leaving the last of 
the crop to attain quite a res- =!^ 
pectablesize. For a succession, 
seed can be sown every two ^J 
weeks until midsummer, if 
desired. A supply for winter 
use may be stored in boxes, 
barrels or heaps in the cellar, 
but should always be kept cov- 
ered with sand, soil, sods, etc., 
to prevent evaporation, and 
consequent wilting, and shriv- 
elling of the roots. The pitting 
method, as hereafter described 

for mangel wurzels, can hardly be 
improved upon for keeping beets 
fresh, crisp, and in best table condi- 
tion generally, until spring. 


Extra Early Egyptian, Early 

Egyptian or Egyptian Turnip. — 

This and the Eclipse are now almost 

the only kinds grown for early 

market in many localities. Tops 

small. Roots of a uniform deep 

T^„^„ . TJi^ ^ -r blood color, and of rapid growth. 

Improved Blood Turnip. r^ ^ c r ■ r fc> 

^ Best for forcmg. 

Eclipse.^This is now preferred to the Egyptian by many 
gardeners. Flesh much lighter in color. About as early, and 
decidedly a good variety. 

Bastian's Early Turnip, 

Philadelphia Lentz Early Turnip, 

Blood Turnip, 

Improved Blood Turnip, 

196 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Early Bassano, 
Edmand's Turnip, etc. 

All these belong to the class of " Blood Turnip Beets," and 
are good early or intermediate sorts for the home garden every- 
where, and for market in many places. All are so reliable, it 
would not be easy to choose the best among them. 

New Market Gardeners, is very symmetrical, with small 
tap-root, and but few fibrous roots. One sowing only is 
necessary to produce early beets for market and main crop for 

winter use. Color outside is deep 
red ; inside layers of blood red 
and light red alternately. 

Half Long Blood is in shape 
what the name indicates. Good 
for second early, late fall or winter. 
(Long or) Improved Long 
Blood still remains a standard 
late and winter variety, excellent 
for the kitchen garden. Color of 
root a dark crimson. 

Swiss Chard forms no edible 
root, and is cultivated mainly for 
its leaves, which make very fair 
greens, like spinach. The coarse 
midribs of the leaves are some- 
times served like asparagus, and 
by some pronounced a good sub- 
stitute for it. There are also 
varieties having variegated and quite ornamental foliage, and we 
sometimes meet them in flower gardens and borders. 

BEET.— Mangel-Wurzel and Sugar. 

Root crops for stock (horses, cattle, sheep, swine), chief 
among them the mangels, sugar beets and carrots, are not yet 
appreciated as a farm crop by our people as they deserve to be. 
I have grown such crops for many years, to a greater or smaller 
extent, and can assure my friends that they are exceedingly 
profitable. Such immense amounts of succulent food for winter 
and spring feeding, in the shape of mangels, can be produced on 
comparatively small areas, when well managed, that I am con- 
vinced any farmer who keeps stock, but makes no use of the 
silo method, will never again omit planting mangels, carrots or 
both, after having once made a thorough trial in the right way. 
This latter is the important point; for if mismanaged, the first 
trial is apt to result in utter disgust. Begin cautiously ; plant a 
small area, and never more than you are sure you can give 

Cultural Directions. — 1^7 

prompt attention when needed. This will show the novice 
how to proceed, and insure his success, even on an enlarged 

Planting Mangels. — The safest way, especially for the 
beginner or when cultivating a somewhat large area, is to plant 
wide enough for easy cultivation by horse power — say in drills 
three feet apart. Select any piece of good, clean farm land, but 
giving a young clover sod the prefer- 
ence. Cart on plenty of good fine 
manure ; 40 loads to the acre is not 
too much, and even more will pay. 
This is plowed in ; or composted 
poultry manure, in smaller quantity, 
may be applied after plowing, and 
harrowed in. Get the land in good 
condition for sowing the seed, by the 
use of roller, smoothing harrow, or, if 
you have it, of the small disk (Meeker) 
harrow. The surface should be smooth 
and fine. A good way of sowing seed 
is with a grain drill, with part of the 
discharge tubes thrown out of gear, so 
that those in operation will leave the 
drills somewhere near three feet apart. 

Or the field may be marked off in shallow furrows, of distance 
mentioned, with a common field marker, and seed sown with 
the garden drill, following in the marks and sowing about four 
pounds of seed to the acre. If you have no drill, you can 
simply drop a pinch of seed (three or four) every 12 inches 
apart in furrows made same as for planting corn, preferably 
one and a half inches deep. Then cover with the hoe or foot, 
and firm by stepping upon it, or pressing soil upon it with the 

igS — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

back of hoe. A few radish seeds might also be scattered along 
the rows with the beet seed. The radishes will better indicate 
the rows, so that we can begin to cultivate a few days after sow- 
ing. The radishes may be pulled up when of table or market- 
able size. 

Cultivation. — Prompt action is the all important point. 
Weeds should never be allowed to crowd. Cultivate with a 
narrow-bladed horse-hoe or cultivator;" hoe as often as needed, 
and while the plants are young, run the hand wheel-hoS astraddle 
the rows, to keep them as near as possible free from weeds with- 
out much hand hoeing or hand 
weeding. Thinning should be 
attended to before the plants 
begin to crowd one another. 
Most of this work can be done 
with a hoe, and since we desire 
but one good plant to lo or 12 
inches of drill, we can easily 
strike out the plants and weeds 
growing on the spaces between. 
Of course there may be a num- 
ber of plants left on each clump 
near the plant we wish to save, 
especially where the seed was 
sowed like corn (in pinches). 
We then have to pull up the 
surplus plants by hand. 

Gathering and Storing. — 
Thorough cultivation and timely 
attention on good and well- 
manured land is pretty apt to 
bring a crop that will astonish 
the novice, as a yield of 40, 60, 
and even more tons to the acre 
is not uncommon under favor- 
able circumstances. Before frost, 
in autumn, the beets are pulled by hand and thrown in heaps to be 
topped (/. e., foliage cut off with a sickle or corn cutter) and drawn 
to the cellar or pit. The best storage place, undoubtedly, is a reg- 
ular root cellar in the basement of the barn. A separate root or 
potato cellar, such as a dug-out in a hill-side, or the root cellar 
described for the winter storage of celery, also makes a very good 
place for beets, carrots, etc., to be fed out during winter and spring. 
If we have neither of these conveniences, we must store what we 
want to use during winter in the cellar we have at our command, 
although it is not a wise nor safe practice to store many vegetables 
and fruits under the rooms in which we live, and rear a family. 

Cultural Directions. — 199 

No difificulty will be experienced in carrying root crops over 
until spring in pits outdoors, in same way as farmers frequently 
winter apples and potatoes. Select a dry spot or one for which 
drainage can easily be provided, and dig an excavation about a 
foot or 18 inches deep, 6 feet wide, and of the length required to 
hold the quantity of roots to be wintered over. They are placed 
in a conical heap, as shown in illustration on page 160, covered 
with six, eight, ten or twelve inches of straw, 
according to the severity of the winters in the 
particular locality, and with a foot of soil 
upon the straw. A whisk of straw or a sec- 
tion of common tile drain, reaching from the 
straw covering through the soil to the outside, 
should be adjusted in the centre of every eight 
or ten foot section to provide the required 
ventilation. If such a pit is opened before the 
cold weather has entirely passed, the roots 
remaining in it need careful covering to guard 
against freezing. 



Liong Red. — This with its various strains 
and improvements, Prize Long Red, Jumbo, 
etc., is the variety for rich, deep soil, where it 
grows to enormous size. 

Yellow Tankard, Golden Tankard. — A 
beautiful, solid and prolific variety. Flesh rich, 
deep yellow all through. 

Yellow Globe and its various strains, 
Champion Yellow Globe, Kinver Globe, 
etc., are preferable for shallower soil, and 
reliable for all. Roundish in shape, beautiful, 
solid, and altogether desirable. When young 
they make very fine table beets; by many 
people even preferred to the Blood varieties. 

Giant Yellov/ Intermediate. — This new 
variety has a magnificent root, which is easily 
lifted from the ground. Produces very large 
crops, and has proven itself to be a most 
excellent keeper. Has a fine neck, large 
leaves with green stems, and very smooth skin ; flesh firm and 

Gatepost. — One of the very finest mangels. The roots are 
heavy, handsome and clean, with single tap-root. Very rich 
and nutritious. With good cultivation crops at the rate of 2 500 
bushels per acre have been grown. 

200 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Imperial Sugar, like all other sugar beet varieties, does 
not yield quite as handsomely as the mangels, but makes up in 
richness what it lacks in yield. Especially profitable for cows. 

Pit fur Wintering Potatoes, Rooc Crops, etc. 

BORECOLE (See Kale). 

B or ago Officinalis. German, Borrelsc/i ; French, Bow^rac/ie ; 
Spanish, Boraja. — This annual, whicfi is of free-flowering habit 
and grows to a .height of a foot or i8 inches, is rarely found in 
American gardens. It can be grown as easily as a weed, by 
sowing the seed in any corner or waste place in spring or 
summer. Some uses, not known to me, are made of it in 
cookery, and also in medical science. 


Brassica Olcracea {Botrytis). — German, Spar-gel Kohl ; 
French, Chou-fleiir d'Hivcr; S^dimsh, Br oaili.— In broccoli we 
have little more than a cauliflower under another name. It thrives 
under the same conditions of culture, namely, 
moist, fertile soil and cool atmosphere, and is 
always grown for fall and winter use. Seed is 
sown in seed bed in May, or later further 
south ; and plants may be set in July (August 
or September in southern latitudes) in well- 
manured and well-prepared soil, 23^ to 3 feet 
hy 1)4 feet apart. Cultivate and hoe fre- 
quently. Heat and drought are the great 
enemies of the crop, and often prove fatal. A good crop, like 
that of the cauliflower, however, hardly ever fails to be very 


Cultural Directions. — 201 


White Cape and Purple Cape are the varieties generally 
grown in America. More than forty different forms or varieties 
of broccoli are known to English gardeners. 


Brassica Oleracca. — German, By'ussdcr Sprosscn Kohl ; 
French, Chou dc Brtixcllcs. — The '' head" of this cabbage variety 
consists of a few loose, crumpled leaves borne on a tall stalk, and 
no culinary use is made of it. The stalk itself, however, is 
surrounded and often completely covered by the " sprouts," 
which are miniature cabbage heads, seldom much larger than a 
walnut, and of choicest quality, not inferior to cauli- 
flower. While it is as easily grown as a cabbage, it is 
seldom found in American gardens. There seems to 
be a good demand for it in city markets, and the crop 
can be made as remunerative as cauliflower. Sow 
seed in April or May, and in July set the plants about 
two feet apart in soil prepared as for late cabbages, 
giving about the same cultivation. The sprouts will 
be ready for use in autumn, and until severe freezing. 
Where, as in the south, the plants endure the winters Brussels 
in open ground uninjured, a supply of sprouts can be Sprouts, 
had until spring. In gathering, they should not be broken off, 
but cut off the stems with a sharp knife, leaving as much of the 
spur as possibl-e, in order to induce the formation of successive 


Dwarf Brussels Sprouts. — This is the variety generally 
catalogued by American seedsmen. It is of low, compact growth, 
and produces the little heads closely all around the stalk. 

Tall Improved. — The stem of this is much taller, and the 
heads grow more scatteringly around it. 


Brassica Olcracea. German, Kopfkohl ; French, Chou; 
Spanish, Col Rcpollo. 

Growing for Early Market. — Early cabbages are one of 
the foremost crops of the market garden, and usually yield a fair 
profit. The plants are started in September, and wintered over 
as directed in chapter on " cold frames," or grown in hot-houses or 
hot-beds during the second half of winter. When grown in the 
latter way, great pains should be taken to have the plants 
thoroughly hardened off, for they are to be set as soon as the 
ground can be put in working order, and in all probability will 
have to endure considerable cold and uncomfortable weather. 

202 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Selection of soil for the crop is also of utmost importance. 
Nothing can be better than a rich calcareous or sandy loam, 
naturally drained, and manured with at least 40 tons of good com- 
post to the acre, or in the place of it a proportionate quantity 
of wood ashes (a most excellent fertilizer for cabbages, by the 
way), complete concentrated (commercial) fertilizers, etc. Fall 
plowing, throwing up the soil in ridges to better expose it to 
freezing and thawing, always tends to improve the mechanical 
condition of the soil, and to get it in planting condition much 
earlier in spring than could be expected otherwise. Mark off 
rows from 2 to 2^ feet apart, and set the plants 16 or 18 inches 

apart in the rows, and down 
into the ground to the heart. 
Cultivate and hoe frequently 
to keep the ground mellow, 
moist, and free from weeds. 
Occasional dressings of 
nitrate of soda, at 
the rate of 250 to 
300 pounds in the 
aggregate, will sel- 
dom fail to pay 
exceedingly well. It 
is not necessary, 
either, as is often 
recommended, that 
these applications 
should be made dur- 
ing or just before 
a rain. When the 
ground is reasonably 
moist, the effect is 
sure, and all the 
more lasting ; even 
if it should not rain 
Look out for the maggot, 

Wintering Cabbages. 

for a week or longer after applying it 

and if necessary resort to the remedies found in the chapter on 

" insects." 

This is the market gardener's method. The home gardener 
is less anxious to get cabbages for the table in May or June. 
If he is content to wait until nearly July for a really superior 
article, he may adopt my method of sowing early in the spring 
(March or April) in open ground, in drills 2 or 2 5^ feet apart, 
and thinning to 15 or 18 inches in the drills, leaving the best 
plants. For a second early crop the market gardener can also 
sow seed in April, and transplant in May to the permanent patch, 
or thin to the proper distance apart. 

Cultural Directions. — 203 

Late Cabbages. — These are much more a farm than a market 
garden crop, and as a farm crop are often quite profitable. A 
•possible surplus, as well as the waste and all the unmarketable 
part of the crop can generally be put to good use in the cattle 
yard. Sow seed during May in seed bed, and transplant during 
June in well-prepared and liberally-manured soil, making rows 

Wintering Cabbages in Pit. 

three feet apart, and plants from i^ to 3 feet apart in the row, 
according to vigor of variety, and strength of ground ; or sow 
thinly during June in drills three feet apart, and afterwards thin 
to the proper distance. In either case thorough cultivation 
and frequent hoeing are conditions of best success. The inter- 
mediate varieties, such as Winningstadt, Fottler's, etc., will 
often give good heads for winter, at least in a moist season, 
even if sown as late as July, A handful of good fertilizer, bone- 
dust, potash, etc., (according to the needs of the soil) or a some- 
what larger quantity of wood-ashes or composted hen manure, 
scattered around the plant after 
it has become well established 
after transplanting, as also light 
dressings of nitrate of soda, are 
always a great help. All of 
our hard- heading cabbages, when 
they are approaching maturity, 
and are not soon gathered, are 
liable to burst open or crack, 
which spoils them for market 
if not for use. Heads show- Express, 

ing this inclination may be pushed or pulled over to one 
side. This breaks or loosens part of their roots, and for some 
reason appears to counteract the undesirable tendency. I still 
have to add that cabbages should not be grown soon after 
cabbages on the same land. Club-root — a disease which attacks 
the root, and hinders the full development of the plants — is the 
usual penalty of a violation of this rule. 

204 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Methods of Wintering. — There are numerous ways in 
which cabbages can be kept successfully for home use, or the often 
good market during latter part of winter or early spring. A 
general rule is applicable to all methods. It is this, to pull the 

crop on a dry day, and 
pack it only when per- 
fectly dry. Also put off 
the final covering, or 
storing in buildings, cel- 
lars, etc., as long in the 
fall as can be safely done. 
One of the most com- 
monly practised methods 
is to wrap the outer 
leaves of each plant 
firmly around the head, 
and stand root side up 
closely together, either 
in single line or in a 
close double row, with 
Early Wakefield. ^^ without another layer 

on top; then plow a furrow from each side to the ridge of 

cabbages thus formed, and finish covering up with soil, using 

shovel or spade, leaving only the extremities of the roots sticking 

out. The illustration on page 162 represents a cross section 

of each of the three arrangements. Another good way to store 

cabbages is to put them in pits, like root crops. The excavation 

is made 6 or 8 inches deep, 4 feet wide, and as long as needed 

to make room for the 

quantity of cabbages 

desired to store. Here 

the heads are packed in 

a conical heap, roots 

inward, and covered 

with 8 or 10 inches of 

soil, packed firmly. In 

case we should want to 

use all or part of them 

during the winter, it will 

be a good precaution to 

cover the south side of 

pit with straw or other 

dry litter deep enough 

to keep the soil from freezing, and thus secure easy access to the 

cabbages whenever wanted. An improvement on this method 

was recently published in the Rzirai New Yorker. Boards or 

slabs are placed on bottom of pit. The cabbages, well trimmed 


Cultural Directions. — 205 

and dr>', are packed in, as was illustrated on page 163. Tri- 
angular frames of 2 b}- 4 scantling are then set upright into 
the pit, one at each end only if pit is less than 8 or 9 feet long, 
one additional in the centre for a pit of from 9 to 15 feet in 
length ; and common 
fence boards are nailed 
to them, thus forming 
something like a large 
three-cornered crate 
around the cabbages. 
This is lightly covered 
with straw, and 4 to 6 
inches of soil upon 
that. The ends need 
only be stuffed with 
dry straw, which will 
give free access to the 
contents of pit at any 
time. I know of no simpler or better method than this. For 
wintering a few dozen heads only, a barrel may be sunk into 
the ground to the brim, filled with trimmed heads, covered 
with dry forest leaves, chaff, etc., and a simple roof to exclude 

rain and snow. The cellar under the dwelling house is, for sani^ 
tary reasons, hardly a place for storing cabbages ; but a very few 
after removal of the coarse outside leaves, may each be wrapped 
in several thicknesses of common newspaper, so that only the 

2o6 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

roots are showing outside, and hung up in a convenient place in 
the cellar. Farmers might put a load of cabbages in some corner 
of the barn, on the floor, hay-mow, etc., and keep them lightly 
covered with loose straw, and thus have them ready for use at 
any time during the winter that they may desire them. The 
regular root cellar is also a good storing place for cabbages. 


Of these we have an endless number, and among them 
quite a good many that are very good. In fact, we have so 
much choice that the selection often puzzles us. Of many 
varieties again, we have almost as many strains or selections as 
we have leading seedsmen. Often the difference between many 

of these strains and the original type are decidedly "strained," 
and too nice for us clumsy observers ; again, they are often so 
strikingly distinct that they give us the difference between very 
indifferent and quite complete success, and this, I repeat, merely 
from different selections — strains — of one and the same variety. 

A serious fault of many of the cabbage seeds that I have 
bought of various sources during recent years, is their somewhat 
" mixed " condition. We often get too many sorts in one and 
the same lot, and the consequence is a mixture of all sorts. The 
evil seems to be on the increase, too. In justice to the publisher 
of my work — Mr. Maule — I have to say that I have been much 
pleased with both the high quality, and the purity of all the 
cabbage seeds I have had of him. I cannot agree with him and 

Cultural Directions. — 207 

other leading seedsmen, however, in regard to the wisdom and 
propriety of their nomenclature, especially their methods of 
multiplying names by adding their own for the sake of distin- 
guishing strains. 


Early Wakefield. In this we have j^et the leading early 
market variety, making solid, conical heads, with few loose outer 
leaves. For both home and market garden it has no superior as 
an early sort. Seed of this is grown quite extensively on Long 
Island, and I have 
always had excellent 
success with it. 

Earliest Etampes 
Much spoken of as a 
good market variety, 
earlier than the preced- 
ing, while it is decidedly 
reliable. I have never 
been able to discover 


Flat Dutch. 

more than a slight difference in 
earliness between the two kinds (in 
favor of the Etampes), nor other 
points of merit above those of the 
best strains of Wakefield. 

Early Express. Another early 
variety of the Wakefield type, intro- 
duced as considerably earlier than 
that variety, and profitable for early 
market. Said to produce heads in 

70 to 75 days from time of sowing seed. 

Early York, and Early French Oxheart, being extremely 

early, were formerly the leading sorts for market ; but since their 

heads are little more than loose bunches of leaves, they have 

deservedly lost favor with the growers. 


Early Winningstadt should be planted by all who have 
usually but indifferent success with other varieties. As a sure 
header, even under adverse circumstances, it has no peer ; and in 
spite of its earliness, it forms large cone-shaped heads, which are 
of good quality. It is emphatically the home grower's and the 


208— How to Make the Garden Pay. 

novice's sort, and can be planted tor early, intermediate and late, 
by planting at different times, sometimes as late as July, even at 
the north. 

Earl> Summer comes a week or two after Wakefield, is 
much larger with round, flat heads, of excellent quality, and 
altogether one ol the best and most reliable second early market 
sorts, and desirable in the home garden also. 

Midsummer. — Very nearly as early as the Early Summer, 
and at the same time producing very much larger heads, which 
for solidity and compactness cannot be surpassed. It is a 
remarkably sure header and for a market crop is one of the 
most profitable varieties. 

Fottler's Improved, or Improved Brunswick. — This 
large, hard-heading and reliable sort can be grown alike for 

«<fW ^hoh, ^^iii^ggKrCTiiiiJiii^, Pe summer, fall or win- 

^^^ ^ttfln^^^HHl|H^^£^^ ter use, and is the 

^ ^^^SbB^^B^^^^^^^^ Pn earliest of the large 


Early Bleichfield 
Giant also makes 
large, solid heads, 
with dark green 
leaves, and is reliable 
for second early. 

Early Flat Dutch 
is a good early sort 
of the Flat Dutch 
class, with good- 
sized heads, and 
can be recommended 
especially for the 
south, as it seems 
to stand heat better than many other varieties. 

Blood-Red Erfurt makes extremely solid heads of a deep 
red color. Used for pickling. May be planted for both early 
and late. 


Prize Flat Dutch, Large Flat Dutch, Excelsior Flat 
Dutch, etc., is a thoroughly reliable short-stemmed late variety, 
forming large flat heads. Good for both market and home use, 
and deservedly popular. 

Surehead is introduced as an improved sort of the Flat 
Dutch type, and I find it pretty much what its name indicates. 
Can be planted with entire confidence. 

Red Dutch is the best late pickling sort, with round and 
extremely hard heads, and dark red in color. 

Cultural Directions. — 209 

Mammoth Red Rock. This is the largest and hardest 
heading red cabbage in cultivation. Successful Long Island 
market gardeners will raise no other kind of red cabbage, for 
they consider this the best of all. The heads frequently average 
12 pounds each, and it is a very sure cropper. 

Stone Mason, much grown in New England States, makes 
very solid heads, and is quite popular at the north. 

Large Late American Drumhead, with its various strains 
(Louisville Drumhead, Short-Stemmed Drumhead, etc.), is a late 
sort with very solid heads of good quality. Decidedly a good 
variety, both for market and home use. 

Felderkraut. — A German variety, especially desirable in 
making krout; heads large, hard and solid. 

Drumhead Savoy. — Few cabbages have given us as much 
satisfaction in the home garden as the Savoys. In quality they 
are far ahead of the common varieties, and not so very inferior 
even to the cauliflowers. The Drumhead Savoy, in addition, can 
be depended upon to yield large, solid heads under fairly favor- 
able conditions, and also stands high as a winter keeper. It 
deserves to be more generally planted. 

Marblehead Mammoth is undoubtedly the largest of all 
our cabbages, and makes firm heads of good quality ; but needs 
high culture and the entire season to come to perfection. It is 
especially recommended for warmer latitudes. 


Cynara Cardujicidus. German, Spanische Artischoke ; 
French, Car don ; Spanish, Cardo. Cardoon is one of the 
many vegetables quite commonly grown on 
the Continent of Europe, especially in 
France, yet almost entirely unknown to 
American cultivators. Neither is there any 
prospect for its coming in general use. I 
confess I have not yet seen it in a single 
American kitchen garden. It belongs to 
the same species as the Artichoke. Its leaf- 
stalks, blanched like celery, are used for 
salads, in soups, etc. Sow seed in early 
spring, in very rich, and moist soil, having 
rows 3 feet apart; then thin the plants to 
l^ or 2 feet apart in the rows. Give good '^^ 
cultivation, and in autumn tie up the leaves 
with matting or bands of straw or hay, 
covering them up entirely almost to the tips of leaves, then earth 
up like celery. In four or five weeks the hearts will be blanched 
enough for use. Take up before frost and store like celery. 


210 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 


Carum Carui. German, Ki'immel ; French, Carvi Cumin; 
Spanish, Carvi. A common European biennial meadow weed. 
Seeds used in flavoring bread, cheese, pastry and sauces. Seed 
may be sown in spring or fall, in drills. Little or no culti- 
vation is required except to thin, and keep reasonably free from 


Daiicus Carota. German, M'dhre, Mohrrube ; French, 
Caroite ; Spanish, ZanaJioria. I have already referred to the 
carrot as a vegetable grown in cold frames, etc., for early 


market. See Chapter on " Cold Frames." 
As a market vegetable, carrots are tied 
up in bunches, in same fashion as early 
beets, bunch onions, etc., and generally prove profitable. When 
grown as an early outdoor crop for market or family use, seed 
is sown as soon in spring as the ground is in proper working 
order, in rows 12 to 15 inches apart, and the plants thinned to 
2 or 3 inches apart in the rows. The ground need not be as 
heavily manured as required for most other garden crops ; but 
early attention must be given, for the plants have a small begin- 
ning, and start somewhat feebly, and if neglected are liable to 
get crowded out by weeds or lost among them. Keep the 
wheel-hoe going from the very first, and pull up every weed. 

Except in the limited way of bunch carrots, the vegetable is 
more of a farm than a garden crop. Carrots, although good 
culinary material in the hands of skilled cooks, are not used so 

Cultural Directions. — 2n 

extensively for a kitchen vegetable here as they are in Europe ; 
but we are learning to appreciate them more and more as a root 
crop for stock, especially for horses and milch cows. In many 
places, especially near larger cities, carrots for stock feeding arc 
one of the best paying farm garden crops, being in ready demand 
at $i.oo to ^1.50 per barrel; and since 300 barrels and upwards 
can be produced per acre with good culture, the reader may draw 
his own conclusions concerning the profits. 

The crop can be grown as a second one after spinach, 
radishes, early beets, and even strawberries, early cabbages, etc., 
without further manuring. One of the best selections of soil 

on the farm is a piece of good, strong, well-drained, clean clover 
sod, manured with twenty-fiveor thirty tons of compost or 1 000 to 
1500 pounds of fertilizer, or a ton or two of wood ashes per 
acre. The cultivation which carrots require will also fit such 
land admirably for a succeeding crop of onions, or vegetables 
of that class. The ground should be deeply worked and 
thoroughly prepared. For home feeding I prefer the White 
Belgian. For market sale the Long and Half Long Orange 
sorts must be grown. Mix a few radish seeds with the carrot 
seed, and sow in drills 18 to 24 inches apart, using about six 
pounds of seed per acre. The radishes come up quickly. 

212 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

and the wheel-hoe or cultivator should. at once be brought in 
use. When the radishes are of fair eating size, they have 
fulfilled their mission, and may be used, or thrown away. 
Again let me emphasize the necessity of timely weeding and 
early thinning. Weeding on weedy soil will require a great deal 
of labor ; hence weedy soil and weedy manure should be care- 
fully avoided. The large late varieties need three, and on rich 
soil perhaps even four inches space in the row to each plant. 
After once having taken a good start they grow fast, and do 
not need so very much attention. Gather the crop before 
severe freezing. This is best done by running a one-horse plow 
close to each row on one side, thus almost laying the roots 
bare on that side, and then prying them out with a spade, or 
simply pulling them up by hand. Top, and store in same way 
as described for mangel wurzels. The roots should be perfectly 
dry when put away, or when packed for sale. 


Early Scarlet Horn. — This is most generally used for 
forcing for early market. Deep orange with small tops, and of 
good quality. Adapted for shallow soils. 

Oxheart. — An intermediate between the Early Horn and 
Half Long varieties. In quality it is extra good, and will prove 

profitable in both the 
home and market 
garden. Where other 
sorts require dig- 
ging, Oxheart can 
be pulled. 

Early Half Long 
Scarlet. — A stump- 
rooted sort, well 
adapted for shallow 
soils, and good for 
table use. 

New Chantenay 
is an improvement on 
the Half-Long Scar- 
let, of same general 
characteristics, and 
rich orange color. 
Danvers. — A Half Long variety of large size, is deservedly 
popular for general uses — a sort of all-purpose carrot. I have 
grown it for years and still consider it one of the best. It gives 
greatest bulk with smallest length of root of any of the orange 
sorts. Roots handsome, smooth, easily gathered, and of rich 
dark orange color. 

Cultural Directions. — 213 


Long Orange, Improved Long Orange, is another good 
sort for general purposes, and especially adapted to deep soils. 
Very productive ; roots smooth and 

Saint Vallery. — Very straight roots, 
broad at the top. Of superior quality for 
table use. Of deep orange color. 

White Belgian. — In this we have a 
somewhat coarse, but excellent variety for 
stock, attaining largest size, and for this 
reason the most productive of all sorts. 
Grows partly above ground and can be 
gathered by hand. 

Yellow Belgian, another fine variety 
for stock, resembles the White Belgian, 
but is perhaps richer, and less productive. 

White Vosges is introduced as an 
enormously productive field carrot, 
adapted for shallow soils. Can be pulled 
up without the use of tools. Not recommended for the table. 


Nepeta cataria. German, Katzminze ; French, Ahnthe de 
Chat. This perennial weed is quite common here, and more 
generally considered a nuisance than fit for cultivation. The 
leaves and young shoots are sometimes used for seasoning, and 
the plant has valuable medical properties. It is also appre- 
ciated as a honey-bearing plant, and cultivated on that account. 
It grows easily from seed sown in drills 18 or 20 inches apart, in 
almost any soil, and will need little or no attention. 


Brassica Olcracea {Botrytis). German, BlumenkoJil ; French, 
Choii-fleiir ; Spanish, Coliflor. High culture, deep, rich, moist 
soil plentifully provided with humus, and cool atmosphere, are 
the chief requisites for best success with this crop. Nice heads 
cannot be grown in hot, dry weather and soil ; hence gardeners 
always aim to have the plants head up either in early summer 
or in late autumn. For early crop the plants are wintered over 
in cold frames, or grown in greenhouses or hot-beds during the 
winter, in the same way as already described for early cabbages ; 
but being less hardy, they need more protection, by mats, 
shutters, etc. 

Good cauliflowers always find ready sale at paying prices, 
;^i 5.00 to $25,00 per one hundred not being an unusual figure; 
and for this reason it would be very unwise to attempt econo- 

214 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

mizing in the manure account. Fifty tons or more of good 
stable compost per acre, besides liberal dressings of fertilizers, 
wood ashes, nitrate of soda, etc., are no more than can be applied 
with profit. Plow deeply and pulverize the ground thoroughly. 
In early spring, as soon as the ground is ready (March or April, 
earlier at the south) the plants are set 30 by 15 or 18 inches apart, 
and cultivated and hoed frequently. This is the crop of all crops 
with which irrigation, by any of the natural methods, if it can be 
adopted without unreasonable expense, will pay. A plentiful 
supply of moisture, either by such means, or in consequence of 
frequent rains during the time of heading, insures a good crop. 

When the heads 
begin to form, be 
sure to clear out 
the worms that may 
be on the plants, by 
the prompt use of 
buhach, tar water, 
or thymo-cresol, 
and then gather 
up some of the 
large leaves over 
the head, and tie 
loosely to exclude 
the direct sun rays. 
This treatment 
keeps the heads 
clean, white and 
delicate. For late crop, seed is sown in May or June, the plants 
set out at same time as late cabbages, 3 by 2 or 3 feet apart, 
according to variety. Same general treatment as for cabbages is 
required, but soil should be richer. 

Prize Earliest. 


Until now seed of all sorts had to be imported from abroad, 
very little being grown near the Atlantic coast. An effort is 
now being made to grow it on the Pacific coast, and it seems with 
entire success. The American- grown seed is remarkably large 
and plump, and gives strong plants. The heads I had from such 
seed were not inferior to any from foreign seed. I have no doubt 
that American seedsmen will soon offer only the home-grown 
especially since this promises to be the cheaper of the two. The 
best foreign seed has always been excessively high-priced. 

Early Snowball, now recognized as the leading sort for 
early use, probably is good for late also. A very reliable 

Cultural Directions. — 215 

Prize Earliest has recently been introduced as earlier even 
than Snowball or Early Erfurt ; desirable alike for forcing and 
open-air culture. 

Earliest Dwarf Erfurt. — One of the old stand-bys, and a 
sure header. 

(Extra) Early Paris. — Popular for forcing. 

Autumn Giant, Veitch's Autumn Giant. — A large, late, 
vigorous growing sort, with large firm heads, well covered by the 
inner leaves. 


Apiwn Graveolens. German, Sellerie ; French, Celeri ; 
Spanish, Apio. — Celery fits so admirably into the crop rotation 
of market as well as home gardens, that it has become indispens- 
able in both. It affords an opportunity, after early crops are 
taken off, to make profitable use of the ground from mid- 
season until winter, and brings money to the market grower, and 
a daily relish of unsurpassed deliciousness for fall and winter to 
the home gardener. The newer methods and newer varieties have 
now greatly simplified its culture, and rendered quite easy what 
formerly was an awkward and laborious task. 

Growixg the Plants. — A supply of good plants is the very 
foundation — an indispensable requisite of success. It is true, 
plants are freely advertised for sale by good growers at very 
reasonable rates ; but my experience with such plants, after they 
have been packed for shipment, and gone through the hands of 
express companies, is far from satisfactory. I find that they come 
pretty high in the end, and often they cost more than the crop 
is worth after it is grown. The average quality of celery plants 
sold by growers, in my estimation, is rather poor. I grow 
annually a few thousand plants above what I need for my own 
use, and usually sell the surplus. After the best plants are picked 
out for planting, I consider those I sell of no more than fairly 
passable quality ; yet the buyers hardly ever failed to compli- 
ment me upon the fine plants that I furnished them. This shows 
that they are not accustomed to buy really first-class plants, and 
for this reason I am sure that the wisest, in fact the only safe, 
course for celery growers is to raise their own plants. If my 
instructions are followed to the letter, it is a comparatively easy 
thing to do. 

For the summer crop sow seed of the self-blanching sorts, 
White Plume, Golden Self-Blanching, etc., in flats in the green- 
house, during February, and prick the young seedlings out when 
an inch high, in other flats or directly in a hot-bed with moderate 
bottom heat (or in simple cold frame), giving each plant half an 
inch space in the row, with rows three inches apart. The soil 

2i6 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

should be made very rich, and be watered and ventilated freely, 
so that the plants will grow rapidly, and be large enough to go 
out in open ground sometime in May. 

They may be set out in single rows in same manner as will 
be directed for the late crop, and bleached with boards, straw 
mulch, or earthing up, boards being preferred by most growers ; 
or they may be planted closely in a piece of ground that is made 
excessively rich and if possible arranged for irrigation, ten inches 
apart one way, and five inches the other, thus forcing them to 
grow upright, and to blanch in the shade of their own foliage. 

The New Celery Culture. — The latter method has been 
called " The new celery culture," and I confess that I think 
highly of it, both for the early and the late crops. With the 
former (the summer crop), you can seldom succeed except when 
you apply liquids freely, for the immense mass of foliage that 
grows on a comparatively small spot of ground, needs immense 
quantities of water, and the rains of heaven, during the period of 
rankest growth, are seldom half sufficient to support it. In the 
home garden, where we have only a few hundred plants, or a 
thousand at most, we may turn the washing suds and similar 
liquids from the kitchen to good use by emptying them, and 
barrels of water besides, into a line or lines of small tile laid six 
or eight inches below the surface in the celery patch, or by let- 
ting these liquids run along between the rows on the surface, 
gradually soaking into the ground, and always causing a rapid 
and rank growth. Such a growth, say at least two feet high, is 
absolutely necessary in order to blanch the plants well, and make 
them salable, without further manipulation. Usually, however, 
I set boards up all around the patch, in order to blanch the out- 
side plants all the better. An excellent plan, for the early crop 
especially, is to provide a sort of half shade over the patch, by 
setting posts at reasonable distances, over which to string poles, 
or lattice work, or anything that will give the desired half shade. 

If the season be hot and dry, and water is not given in the 
required quantities, the blight (should it once get into the 
patch) will have a chance to do a great deal of damage, and per- 
haps utterly ruin the crop unless checked by timely spraying. 

For the late crop, shading as well as watering may often 
(partially or entirely) be dispensed with. 

Growing Plants for the Late Crop. — As early in 
spring as practicable prepare a rich, but clean, moist, and some- 
what protected patch of ground. Put on plenty of fine compost, 
which should be free from weed seeds ; and fork, spade or plow 
it into the soil. A top-dressing of composted poultry manure 
(wood-ashes, fertilizer, or whatever is on hand and thought of 
benefit to the land) may then be applied and mixed with the 

Cultural Directions. — 217 

surface soil, using harrow or steel rake. In short make an 
extremely rich and perfectly mellow seed-bed. Now mark out 
shallow drills one foot apart, and in these sow the seed, at the 
rate of one ounce to about 200 feet of row, firming it afterwards 
thoroughly with the feet. Next smooth the surface by drawing 
the back of rake lengthwise over each tow, or, holding the rake 
perpendicularly, handle upwards, pat the ground by pressing or 
striking the teeth flat and firmly upon the row. Rolling, although 
not strictly necessary, is, however, a good precaution. A small 
patch may be kept supplied with moisture by occasional water- 
ing, by covering with a slatted screen, providing half-shade, or 
by spreading a piece of cloth directly upon the soil until the 
seeds have germinated. Water, when required, may in the latter 
case be given upon the cloth, and soaking through it will provide 
the soil with moisture. The cloth must be removed as soon as 
the plants begin to show themselves above ground. 

My own practice differs from this in so far as I grow the 
plants in my regular vegetable patch. The ground is prepared 
in the usual way and as required for sowing onions, radishes, 
lettuce, and similar crops ; marked out with the common garden 
marker and in same distance as for the other crops. I walk upon 
the rows to firm the seed, and otherwise treat as above described ; 
but without shading and rarely watering. The wheel-hoe is 
promptly and persistently brought into use, and the ground kept 
loose and free from weeds from the very start. Early thinning 
is of the utmost importance, and I refer the reader to what is 
said on this subject in the chapter on " Transplanting and 
Thinning." Give the plants room enough if you want them to 
grow large, stocky, and to make strong roots. Narrow the row 
down with the blades of the wheel-hoe, or slash into them with 
a hand weeder, until not more than 40 or 50 plants are left 
standing to the running foot. An occasional light top-dressing 
of nitrate of soda (in its absence perhaps of saltpetre, preferably 
in solution) will do wonders in giving you rapid growth of theplants. 
Once or twice the tops may be cut back with a sharp sickle 
or knife, to induce still increased stockiness, and by the time the 
plants are wanted for setting out, you will have a stock that for 
its excellence must astonish people accustomed only to see and 
handle the average plants of the professional plant grower. I 
have not yet seen a place so far back that a few thousand good 
celery plants could not find ready sale amongst neighbors and 
towns-people at 50 cents per 100, or ^4 per 1,000. I can grow 
them profitably even at a lower figure. 

Southern people who need their plants so much later, 
namely, in September or October, generally depend on northern- 
grown plants. To supply this demand the seed should be 
sown toward the end of May. A somewhat shady, moist piece 

2i8 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

of land will be best, and shading may be required in most cases. 
But it seems to me that southern people, if they take these same 
precautions in the selection and treatment of a patch, could grow 
their own supply of plants without much difficulty. 

In the foregoing I have given you one of the " secrets " in 
horticulture that are of money value to those who make a 
proper use of it. The knowledge of " how to grow celery 
plants " brings me at least a little money every season. 

Planting. — Now we have the plants, and good ones, too. 
The next thing is to set them so they will make a good crop. 
The soil selected is usually such as is cleared from an early crop, 
or, in thehomegarden, any available spot in composition between 
sand and clay. If the first crop, as is very likely the case, was 
well supplied with feed in the shape of compost, there will be 
enough left of it to carry the celery crop through all right. In 
practice, I prefer to apply additional manures or fertilizers even 
then, and I do this in various ways, according to the particular 
circumstances of the case. To plant a patch, even if not larger 
than for a few hundred plants, furrows are opened with a one- 
horse plow, going twice in same furrow to get the desired depth. 
These furrows are made three feet apart for the self-bleaching 
sorts, and somewhat more (from 4 to 5 feet) for the common 
sorts that have to be bleached by " banking " or earthing-up. 
They are partly filled with fine, thoroughly-rotted compost — 
preferably of cow manure — , fine barn-yard scrapings, etc., and 
some soil mixed all through it. More soil is then filled in, and 
the rows made nearly level with the surface. 

If only a single row of celery, and a short one at that, is to 
be planted, as sometimes happens when a small strip of the vege- 
table garden becomes available, I merely apply the compost 
along the row to the width of about a foot, and fork or spade 
this nicely in. A little fertilizer or wood-ashes is scattered on 
top, and the soil raked smooth and even. After the ground has 
been prepared by either method, the garden line is tightly 
stretched along the row, and the plants set six inches apart. 

At the north our usual time of setting celery plants is early 
in July, and for winter use up to August. Gardeners in the 
middle and southern states plant correspondingly later. The 
plants should be lifted from the seed row when the ground is wet, 
or at least moist. In a dry spell I always give the plant rows a 
thorough soaking an hour or two previous to pulling plants. The 
ground where plants are to be set should also be moist. Let me 
again call attention to the general rule (which especially is not 
to be disregarded during a dry time) : Always sow and plant in 
freshly-stirred soil ; then firm thoroughly. The plants after being 
pulled are properly trimmed or clipped at both ends, the roots 
dipped in water and planted with a dibber, which is also used to 

Cultural Directions. — 2ig 

press the soil firmly against the roots, so that a leaf would tear 
off quicker than allow the plant to be pulled up by it. To apply 
a half pint of water to each plant after setting is a good 

After-Culture. — The ground must be kept clean and 
mellow, and the plants in growing condition by the frequent use 
of wheel-hoe, horse-hoe, steel-rake, and hoe. Next comes what 
is called " handling." When the plants have made a good 
growth, and the nights begin to get cool, late in August, the 
ground near the plants receives a thorough loosening, either by 
plowing a shallow furrow towards the row from each side, or by 
drawing soil up to it with the hoe. The gardener now gets 
down on his knees, straddling the row, and gathering up all the 
stalks of one plant after another in his left hand, packs the soil 
firmly around with his right, to retain them in this compact 
and erect position. More soil is then drawn up, or hoed up, to 

Celery after Earthing-up. 

Blanching. — No further treatment is necessary for the self- 
blanching sorts to blanch them for market ; yet we can greatly 
improve their flavor by earthing them up like the common 
varieties. Various methods are employed to blanch the crop. 
The one, though old, but yet commonly used, is by earthing 
up or " banking." This had best be done gradually, in two or 
three operations. Soil is dug up from between the rows, and 
banked up against the plants from each side, at the last 
operation almost to the tips of the leaves, as shown in above 

Blanching by means of boards is coming more and more 
into favor with market gardeners, and well deserves recommenda- 
tion. The plants are first " handled " in the usual way, and 
boards lO inches wide are then set on edge against the rows 
from each side, as illustrated on next page, and held in that 
position by tying a string around each set of two at each end, by 
pegs driven into the ground, by clamps, or in any other con- 
venient way. 

220 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Common drain tile, 4 or 5 inches in the clear, are some- 
times used and recommended for bleaching celery; but this 
method does not always give satisfaction. I have thought to 
improve on it, and had some " bleachers " made, 5 or 6 inches 
high, with 5 inches inside diameter, in shape like bottomless 
flower-pots. These are placed over the plants, one only for each 
plant of the self-blanching kinds, and two, or even three^one 
above the other — for each plant of the common sorts. This 

Blanching by Boards. 

method in its different phases is illustrated on next page. 
I have had good success with it, and grown some fine blanched 
celery ; but it seems to me that the expense connected with the 
purchase and breakage of the pots, and the labor required for 
storing and taking to and off the field, must prevent the more 
extensive or general use of this method. 

Early in the season, and while the plants are yet growing 
rapidly, celery bleaches beautifully in from 2 to 3 weeks after 
banking or boarding up, and is then in first-class condition for 
use or market. Later it will take 4 or 5 weeks, perhaps even 
more, to bring the plants out in marketable shape. 

Preparing for Market. — When the crop is ready for 
market, draw the soil away from the plants desired, take hold of 
the top with one hand and pull, at same time prying under the 
root with a spade. Thus one plant after another is easily lifted 
out without breaking a stalk. Shake the soil off the roots, and 
take the plants to the vegetable house, to be properly prepared 
for sale. Trim the main root smoothly with three or four 
sloping cuts ; remove the coarse outer leaves, and on one side 
open the stalks sufficiently to expose the heart in its tempting 
whiteness. From three to five, or even six of such plants, 
according to size, are then tied in a neat flat bunch, the exposed 
hearts all showing on one of the flat sides. The price depends 
very much on the tempting appearance of the bunches, on neat 
trimming and skillful tying. Such a bunch, properly put up is 
shown on page 222. Of course the plants when dug should be 

Cultural Directions. — 221 

guarded from freezing; and in cold weather the boxes in which 
the crop is taken to market, must be provided or lined with 
matting, coarse cloth, etc. 

When speaking of cold frame management, I have already 
alluded to celery as a crop grown for early marketing as " soup 
celery," in same way as parsley is handled. During fall and 
winter, the better outer leaves of the regular crop, and the plants 
too small for market otherwise, are bunched and sold for soup 
celery in the same manner. The thinnings from the seed-bed, 
as well as tops shorn off to induce stockiness, are often similarly 
utilized during summer. 

Storing for Market. — Celery intended for winter use or 
winter market only requires handling, but no earthing up, since 
it blanches perfectly, and with no extra labor, in winter store. 
Necessary precautions that must be observed are to lift the plant 

Celery Bleachers. 

on dry days only, and never touch a frozen plant. If these rules 
are violated, speedy decay will usually follow. The method of 
winter storage in general use in the market gardens of New 
Jersey and vicinity is as follows : 

On a well-drained spot a trench is dug as narrow as possible, 
and deep enough that the tops of the plants standing in it will just 
about reach to the level of the surface. The crop is then taken up, 
the soil shaken off, and the plants placed perpendicularly, and 
as closely crowded together as possible in the bottom of the 
trench. Here they are left until there is danger of severe freez- 
ing. Light frosts will do no hurt. The plants thus trenched in 
early (middle or end of October) may be used directly from the 
trenches, as wanted, during December. Except at the extreme 
north, no covering will be needed for them until this time. Roots 
trenched in during November, which will not be ready for use 

222 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

before January, need protection. During forepart of December 
boards a foot wide are laid in single line directly upon the trench, 
resting with an inch or two on the sides, and in the centre per- 
haps directly upon the foliage. When a cold night is expected 
a few inches of soil are drawn or shovelled upon the boards and 
allowed to freeze. Afterwards (early in the morning) litter of 
some sort is put over this crust to keep the frost in ; and this 
covering, during severe weather, must be increased to perhaps a 
foot in thickness. 

Celery kept in such trenches generally comes out beautifully 
bleached, crisp and tender. The chief point is thorough drainage^ 

for if water is allowed 
to stand in the trench, 
celery is sure to rot. 
The trench method is 
probably the best, sim- 
plest and safest for a 
mild climate like that 
of New Jersey ; but in 
colder localities I would 
give a genuine root 
cellar the preference. 
This gives us easy 
access to the crop at 
any time when wanted, 
and when it would not 
be safe to open a trench 
or expose the plants 
even for the shortest 
period outdoors. A 
dug-out in a hill-side, 
covered over with a 
substantial roofing of 
rails, poles, litter and a 
foot of soil, will answer 
quite well. Celery 
houses similarly con- 
structed on the level are used quite extensively by the large 
growers near Rochester, N. Y., and elsewhere. 

Mr. Theo. F. Baker, of South Jersey makes use of a struc- 
ture of this kind, and says it proves a great convenience, keeping 
the celery in perfect condition almost any length of time, and 
saving him a large amount of labor. The stock can be inspected 
at any time, taken out in cold and rainy weather, or at night, at 
pleasure, cleaned, washed and packed all under the same roof. 
Celery once handled can there be bleached in three weeks, and 
be free from rust or earthy flavor. 

Bunch of Celery ready for Market. 

Cultural Directions. — 223 

The cellar is 40 feet long, 16 feet wide, and 3 feet deep. 
The walls, which are 18 inches thick, rise i foot above ground. 
The rafters reach clear to the ground, where they rest on plates 
placed there to keep the roof from spreading. The ends are 
weather-boarded on both sides of six-inch studs, and filled in 
with sawdust. The roof is also double with a sawdust filling. A 
number of partitions well-lined with paper, and forming two or 
three, perhaps even four dead-air spaces of two inches each in 
width, would probably be still more effective and convenient. 
The height of the house inside is 4 feet at the eaves, and 11 at 
the peak. A ventilator at the peak admits air when needed, and 
gives a chance for the escape of heat that may be generated 
by the mass of celery. A door at each end, a small window 
over each to admit light, and steps to get down, complete the 

" In storing the celery," writes Mr. Baker, " posts are set in 
the ground about 16 inches apart, beginning at each side on one 
end of the house, and coming toward the centre, giving seven 
posts or alleys to a side, and leaving a passage-way two feet wide 
the entire length of the building. Three sets of posts on one 
side of the passage-way, and four on the other will suit 16 feet 
boards, two and a half lengths on one side, and two lengths on the 
other. This leaves a space 8 feet square for washing tank, and 
room to prepare the stuff for market." 

" Beginning next to the wall, we nail a board a foot wide to 
the post, so that the top of the celery will be even with the top 
of the board, leaving a space of four to six inches between the 
bottom of the board and the ground, through which one hand 
can be thrust to pack the roots firmly while the other holds the 
tops of the celery over the board. Some loose rich soil is thrown 
over the roots after the box or trench is filled from end to end. 
With a hose from the hydrant the soil is given a thorough 
wetting, and settled around the roots, causing them to throw out 
new fibres in a few days, when a new growth of the heart 
commences. Considerable heat will at first be generated by the 
mass of celery thus stored, and proper ventilation must be given, 
else rot will surely follow. After the one heating we have no 
further trouble from this cause." 

Storing for Home Use. — A few hundred plants may be 
stored in a common cellar, standing them upright on a couple of 
inches of moist soil or sand upon the floor, and dividing them in 
narrow sections between upright boards, in a similar way as 
described for celery-house storage. Instead of placing directly 
upon the cellar bottom, we can make use of narrow boxes (shoe 
boxes, for instance) putting in a little moist soil or sand, and 
standing the plants upon this. An improvement on this plan is, 
to bore inch holes at the ends and sides of the box, four inches 

224 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

from the bottom, and m packing the plants cover their roots with 
sand or soil. Keep this moist by watering occasionally through 
the holes near the bottom. 

Unquestionably the simplest, and I find quite a safe method 
of storing a supply for home use is by packing the plants, already 
trimmed, almost as closely as for market, in boxes between layers 
of moist moss, and keeping the latter moist by occasional 


A Southern Celery Bed. 

sprinkling. This plan permits of packing celery in the smallest 
possible'space for keeping, and it does keep well even until spring. 
As a further precaution, however, I would advise to moisten the 
moss before packing with a weak solution of salicylic acid (a 
teaspoonful dissolved in a gallon of hot water). 

Whatever method of storage is adopted, attention must be 
paid to two points, namely, to keep the foliage dry, to prevent 
rottmg, and the soil moist, to prevent wilting. 

A Southern Way of Growing Celery. — The method which 
I found in general use from Maryland south, is almost entirely 
unknown to the northern cultivator; yet its many decided ad- 

Southern Method of Handling and Banking Celery. 

vantages strongly recommend its adoption, at least for trial, in 
every northern kitchen garden. I is especially suited for 
growing the self-blanching sorts. 

The ground is laid off in beds 5 or 6 feet wide, with alleys 
of the same width between them. These beds are usually lowered 
3 or 4 inches by shovelling the soil off the surface and throwing 
it in the alleys. 

Cultural Directions. — 225 

An outline of such bed is shown on the preceding page. 
Fine compost is then apphed to the depth of several inches, and 
spaded or forked into the soil, after which the plants are set in 
rows one foot wide across the bed, and 6 inches apart in the 
rows. This is crowding the plants so closely together that they 
will grow pretty nearly upright without handling. They will 
need hoeing once or twice, 
and in a dry time can easily be 
watered, or provided with half 
shade, since the area is so 
ridiculously small for the num- 
ber of plants. For convenience 
in earthing-up, two boards each 
10 inches wide, and 7 or 8 feet 
long, with ends tapering for a 
handle, are set up on edge 
between two rows of plants, 
one to each side, as shown to 
the right of illustration. Pegs 
driven into the ground on the 

outside at each end hold the boards 
in position. The space between 
them is then filled up with soil 
from the alleys. This work — and 
earthing-up celery generally — can 
be done to best advantage by two 
men, one standing at each side of 
the bed. When the space is shov- 
elled level full, each man grasps 
the boards by the handles on his 
side and presses the upper ends 
together with a few smart raps, 
then proceeds to take the boards 
out, and to insert them in the next 
row. Thus the soil is left in a sort 
of ridge between each two rows of 
plants, and the handling is done afterwards by hand in the usual 
manner. The boards are then again brought into use in same 
way, and the process of earthing-up continued as needed. For 
winter protection the whole bed is covered up with a thick 
and well-rounded layer of earth, and further protected with 

Crawford's Half-Dwarf. 

226 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

leaves or litter of some sort. Northern growers who wish to 
adopt this method, may have to vary it in some respects to 
suit the circumstances. 


There is more difference in quality between different lots of the 
same variety when grown under different conditions and differently 
Ay^ managed, than there is between different 
varieties grown exactly alike and at the 
same time. As I grow it year after 
year, forcing rapid succulent growth 
by the free use of nitrogenous fertil- 
izers, especially of composted hen 
manure and nitrate of soda. I have 
celery in perfection — white as snow 
or yellow as gold, brittle as glass, and 
sweet as a nut. But it is always at its 
best when freshly dug from the bed. 
Early celery after it has been shipped 

Golden Heart. 

long distances, and 

lying about exposed to 

the air on the sidewalk _ , , ^ ,-^, . . 

. r ^ c Golden Self-BIanching. 

m front of grocery 

stores, is not to my taste. The self-bleaching celeries need 
higher culture than the common sorts, otherwise they are lia- 
ble to be more dwarf than desirable. Their flavor and appear- 
ance may be improved by board or earth blanching same as 
other celeries, but they can be made fit for the table by mere 

Cultural Directions. — 227 

"handling," hence are sometimes, and justly so, called "the busy 
(or lazy) man's celery." The red or pink celeries are charac- 
terized not only by greater vigor of growth than the other 
classes, but also by very superior flavor, hence deserve to be 
much more largely grown than they actually are. 

The tall sorts formerly grown for market to the exclusion 
of all others, are now almost gone out of cultivation, and the 
dwarf sorts have taken their places — 
very deservedly so, too. 

White Plume. — The general favor- 
ite among the self-blanching varieties, 
and especially valuable for early use, 
both as a table sort and for market. 
It is quite dwarf, but compact, and 
decidedly attractive. No grower for any 

Fern -Leaved. 

purpose should neglect to make the acquaintance of White Plume. 

Golden Self-Blanching, of beautiful golden color, but of 
too dwarfish habit of growth except under highest culture. 

Crawford's Half-Dwarf, Henderson's Half-Dwarf, until 
recently the most popular sort among market gardeners ; yellowish 
white when blanched, of compact habit of growth, and fine 
quality; very solid. 

^ Giant Pascal.— This variety Is an offspring of the Golden 
Self Blanching, most carefully selected. It partakes of its nutty 
flavor, and has no bitter taste at all. The stalks are very large, 
solid, and not stringy, in fact it is the largest celery yet known as 
to width of stalks. It blanches very easily. 

228 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Golden Heart is constantly gaining in popularity, both as a 
market variety and for the family garden, and well deserves it. 
Of beautiful golden color when bleached, and fully the equal of 
Crawford's Half-Dwarf in every other respect. Can be planted 
with entire confidence. Kalamazoo is probably identical with 
Golden Heart. 

Large ^Ai^hite Solid. — Popular among growers who plant 
the taller kinds. 

Boston Market. — A somewhat branching or suckering sort 
of rich, nutty flavor. Very popular among the gardeners near 
Boston. Stalks solid. 

Dwarf Large Ribbed. — Very solid, of crisp nutty flavor ; 
pearly white and an extra good keeper. Largely grown in the 
Kalamazoo celery districts. 

Fern-Leaved, Bouquet. — Very attractive during growth on 
account of finely-serrated leaves ; apparently a strong grower. 

New Rose. — Beautiful ; vigorous in growth ; superior in 
flavor. Decidedly desirable for the home garden. 


Apiuin Graveoleiis ; German, Knollcii Scllerie ; French, 
Celeri Rave; Spanish, Apio iiabo. — Celeriac is merely a 
variety of the common celery with abnormal root 
development, and like others, requires good, rich, 
mellow soil. It is sown in seed-bed in early spring, 
and planted out in rows i8 
inches apart and 6 inches 
apart in the rows. Keep free 
from weeds and well culti- 
vated, neither handling nor 
earthing-up being required. 
The tuberous root is the part 
used, especially for flavoring Celeriac. 
soups, etc. Boiled, sliced, and 
served with oil and vinegar, etc., it forms the celebrated dish 
known as " Celery Salad." Of the various varieties the newer 
Apple-Shaped deserves to be mentioned as one of the best. 


Chcerophyllum bulbosum. German, Kcrbel ; French, Cerfeuil 
Tjiberciix ; Spanish, Perifollo. 

The root of this hardy vegetable resembles a short carrot 
or parsnip; somewhat smaller, of dark gray color, and with 
yellowish white flesh, which is sweet and mealy, reminding of sweet 
potato. Chervil, if fresh seed is sown, either in autumn or early 
spring, is of easy culture, being managed and used in same way 


Cultural Directions. — 229 

as parsnips. It succeeds everywhere, and is improved by frost. 
The stalks grow tall and vigorous, and die down early in the 
season, indicating that the tubers have reached maturity. 


Cichorium Intybus ; German, Cichoric ; French, Chicorce ; 
Spanish, AcJiicoria. — Chicory is generally known as a substitute 
for coffee. For this 
purpose the root is 
roasted and ground. 
The vegetable is 
easily grown, some- 
what like carrots. 
Seed should be sown 
in spring, in drills a 
foot apart, and plants 
thinned to about 4 
inches distance in the 
drills. The leaves are 
sometimes blanched 
and used as salad. 
The blanching 




done in the cellar. The plants should be taken up at the begin- 
ning of cold weather, the leaves cut off ^^-inch or so above the 
root crown, and placed horizontally in layers, alternating with 
layers of sand or soil, the root crowns all pointing outward of 
the sloping heaps, to give them a chance for free growth. If the 
soil is rather dry, a slight watering may be given. In a few 
weeks, if the temperature of the cellar is high enough, the 
leaves will have made considerable growth, and may be used. 



Schnittlanch ; French 

Allium Schoenoprastim ; 
Civette ; Spanish , Cibellmo. 

A plant of the onion family, growing in large tufts, perfectly 
hardy, and requiring no attention after being once planted. 
Bulbs, oval and small, forming a compact mass. Leaves numer- 
ous and slender, and generally used in the raw state as a relish, 
with bread and butter, etc. Propagated by division of the root. 
Planted in permanent border, 6 or 8 inches apart. 


Brassica Oleracea. Nothing more nor less than common 
cabbage used while young. It seems to me that one might 
be satisfied with the good American name " cabbage greens," 
and as such they are known and used quite commonly in the 

230 — How to Make the Garden Pay, 

southern states. Cabbage seed is sown thickly in rows a foot 
apart, cultivated as if grown for plants, and cut and used when 
about 8 inches high. English gardeners cultivate a distinct 
variety under the name of ' 'Green Rosette Colewort " or Collard. 


Coriandriim Sativum. German, Coriander; French, Cori- 
andre ; Spanish, Ctdantro. — An annual herb of easy culture, with 
branching stems, grown for its aromatic seed. It likes light and 
warm soils. Sow seed in spring, in rows a foot apart, and keep 
free from weeds. 


Valerianella Olitoria. German, Acker Salai, Lizmmersalat ; 
French, MacJie ; Spanish, Canonigos. — This hardy plant is much 
grown and used for salads, and freely offered 
in large city markets. For summer use, sow 
early in spring, in rows one foot apart, and 
keep the ground well cultivated and free from 
weeds. For early spring use, seed is sown in 
September, and same treatment and protection 
given as for spinach. Several varieties are 
Corn Salad. quoted in English catalogues, of which 

Large Round-Leaved is as good as any. 


Sweet Corn. Zca Mays. German, Mais ; French, Mais 
Sucre ; Spanish, Maiz. — Sweet corn for market is emphatically a 
farm garden crop, but rarely grown in the market garden, since the 
area required for its culture is by far too large to fit into the market 
gardener's limited space. On the other hand, really good sweet 
corn furnishes such a delicious and wholesome dish, one that 
graces our table, and gratifies our palates for several months 
every year, that a large part of the kitchen garden (if it be a large 
one) may be profitably devoted to this crop. In that case it 
should be our aim to have an unbroken succession all during the 
season ; and we can easily have it by planting the early, inter- 
mediate, and late kinds at one time, and then continue to plant 
a patch of the latest every two weeks until middle of July. 
Farmers, who usually have but a small garden (certainly much 
smaller generally than they ought to have), had better plant it 
with garden crops requiring less room, and devote a quarter or 
half acre of the regular cornfield to the production of sweet corn 
for the table. I know there is considerable prejudice in the minds 
of most people against the free use of " green " corn. I consider 

Cultural Directions. — 231 

it decidedly wholesome, almost in the light of a natural and 
needed medicine, and consequently we indulge in it to the fullest 
limit of our natural appetites, without ever experiencing the ill 
effects so dreaded by the masses. 

As a farm or farm garden crop, I place it far ahead in 
profitableness to common field corn or potatoes. There are few 
localities in which a reasonable quantity of good boiling ears 
could not find ready sale at 75 cents or $1 per hundred. Where 
grown for canning or evaporating, of course, the ruling price has 
to be accepted. I find that I can plant sweet corn closer, and 
grow at least one-half as many more ears to the acre than I can 
of field corn, and this even with less labor and risk, and with no 
greater amount of manure. Consequently the grower easily 
realizes two or three times the profits on sweet corn that he 
would on the other. 

Sometimes I have wondered why farmers living in a locality 
where there is a steady and sure annual demand for " roasting " 
ears at the prices mentioned, go on planting their whole available 
ground with field corn, which they have to sell at 25 cents per 
bushel ears, or 50 cents shelled, while so much better opportunities 
are offered to them in the cultivation of sweet corn. 

Soil and Culture. — Corn delights in warm, well-drained 
soil ; and none is better for it than a rich clover sod. The plant 
is a quick grower and a powerful eater, and not in the least 
particular as to the kind of food. Anything in the shape of 
plant food comes acceptable, even fresh, coarse stable manure. 
Good crops can be grown in thin soils, if dressed broadcast with 
from 400 to 800 lbs. of some high grade complete fertilizer per 
acre, harrowed or plowed in. Sometimes we may plant corn on 
unmanured land, in the supposition that it is rich enough for 
the crop ; only to find out our mistake afterwards, by seeing the 
plants at almost a complete stand-still. Even at this late period 
the matter can be easily remedied in most cases, and a fair crop 
obtained, by applying a few hundred pounds of the fertilizer per 
acre as a top-dressing between the rows. 

Planting in hills for the purpose of cultivating both ways 
may be admissible on rough, stony, or gravelly farm land, and 
for farm crops ; but we want none of it in the garden, provided 
it is such as it should be — long and narrow in shape, and of 
clean, well-tilled soil. The drill method with corn, and most 
other crops, gives us an increased yield at no increase of labor ; 
for with skillful management of the narrow-toothed cultivator or 
wheel-hoe, going twice (back and forth) between each two rows, 
each time close to the one at the right, the entire surface of a 
reasonably level and smooth piece of land can be so thoroughly 
and effectively stirred, that the field will appear as if it had been 
harrowed all over. While the plants are yet young, in good 

232 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Cultural Directions. — 233 

mellow soil, there will be absolutely nothing left to be done with 
the hand hoe, nor will there be, or at least only very little, later 
on, if skillful cultivator work is persistently and timely done. 

The early dwarf sorts may be planted in drills 2^ or 3 feet 
apart, one stalk every 6 or 8 inches, or two to three plants every 
12 to 18 inches; the intermediate varieties need a little more 
space; and the late tall sorts should have the rows 3^^ or 4 feet 
apart, one stalk every 8 or 10 inches, or two to three stalks every 
18 inches. The ears are of best table quality when freshly 
broken oft' the plants, and greatly lose in this respect by standing 
about and becoming wilted. 


Cory Sweet. — I have grown this for a number of years, and 
consider it by far the best of the earlies, and the earliest of all 
that are worth growing. Stalk remarkably dwarf, and ear 
remarkably Large for such a small sort. Easily grown and 
always satisfactory. Tender and sweet. 

Early Minnesota, Early Marblehead, and Crosby's 
Extra Early, are early sorts with small ears, but largely grown 
for earliest market and home use. 

Mexican Sweet, Black Mexican, Blue Mexican. — A 
second early sort with fair-sized ears. Kernels extremely sweet 
and tender, and of a dark bluish purple when ripe. Good only 
for the home garden. 

Perry's Early, of vigorous growth, fair-sized ear, and good 

Maule's XX Sugar. — Fit for the table in 9 to 10 weeks 
from planting, and of a most delicious sweet and sugary flavor. 
It is of comparatively dwarf habit, stalks seldom growing more 
than 4 to 5 feet high. Remains long in an edible condition, and 
matures in a comparatively short time for such a large-eared sort. 

Everbearing. — Ears are of good size, and covered with 
kernels clear to end of the cob. Ripening a few days after the 
Amber Cream, each stalk will produce one to two, and at times 
four to five, well-developed ears. 

Amber Cream. — Medium early, of strong growth. Ears of 
good size. Kernels amber colored when ripe. Held in high 
esteem wherever grown. 

Evergreen, Stowell's Evergreen. — This is probably the 
most popular late variety, both for market and home use, of strong 
vigorous growth, and with large tender ears, that remain in 
condition for table use for a long time. Also much grown for 
fodder purposes. 

Egyptian, in all its valuable characteristics somewhat 
similar to Evergreen. Ears very large, tender and sweet. Much 
grown for canning purposes. 

234 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Gold Coin. — A recently-introduced variety, with as large 
an ear as Evergreen, but maturing a few days earlier. 

Mammoth Sugar is very late, and produces the largest ears 
of any variety. Of good quality and superior for canning. 
Remains long in the green state. 



Pop Corn is emphatically a crop for the children, and they 
would hardly consider the garden complete without a row or two. 
It is as easily grown as field corn, and while the ears are not very 
large, their number, especially with somewhat close planting, 
will go far to make up for lack of size. 

White Rice is more generally grown than any other. 
Ears quite large, a number of them growing on one stalk. 
Kernels sharply pointed. Superior for popping. 

Queen's Golden Pop Corn. 

Golden Pop, Queen's Golden Pop. Handsome, prolific 
and reliable. 

Marblehead Prolific. — This new variety is claimed to be 
the most productive pop corn in cultivation. Ears are eight to 
ten inches long, filled out to the end with bright handsome white 


Lepidium Sativum. German, Kresse ; French, Cresson ; 
Spanish, Mastnerzo. No vegetable starts quicker from seed, or 
is easier to grow if the flea beetle is kept off The leaves have a 
very pungent taste, and are much used as a salad, usually as a 
condiment with lettuce and other salad materials. Sow seed 
thickly in drills one foot apart, guard against flea beetle depreda- 
tions while the plants are small, and cut as desired. The plants 
run to seed quickly, and frequent successive sowings must be 
made, if a constant supply is wanted. 

Of the several varieties, the Curled or Normandy Garden 
Cress and the Extra Curled Dwarf are generally grown in 

Water Cress. — Nasturtuim officinale. German, Brunnen- 
hresse ; French, Cresson de Fontaine ; Spanish, Berro. This 
hardy perennial aquatic plant roots readily both in water, and wet 

Water Cress. 

Cultural Directions. — 235 

or moist soil, and after once being introduced, will thrive in 
almost any small stream of clear, cold water, ditch or pond, 
without care or culture. On account of the pleasant pungency 
and hygienic properties of the leaves, it is highly esteemed as a 
table delicacy, and extensively grown for "^ 

market near all the larger cities. It makes 
a superior salad, and fine material for garnish- 
ing. To introduce it in any stream or body 
of water, sow seed or a few cuttings or pieces 
of root in the mud, along the margin, and it 
will increase rapidly, often entirely overrunning 
ditches and small brooks. Flooding is the 
best winter protection. 
Gather and market in 
spring. It also grows 
well on a moist green- 
house bench, and on any 
upland that can be kept 
continuously moist. 

Upland Cress, Amer- 
ican Cress. — Barbarca 
praccox ; German, Amcr- 
ikaniscJie WmUr Krcsse ; 
French, Cresson de terre. 
— Native biennial of 
Pvurope, resembling 
Water Cress in taste, Upland Cress, 

and used for seasoning and garnishing. Easily grown from seed. 
I have no high opinion of it, and do not recommend it 


Ciicumis Sativus. German, Gurke ; French, Conconibre ; 

Spanish, Cohombro. Under heading of " Cold Forcing Houses " 
(Chapter XIII) I have already alluded 
to cucumbers as a profitable crop for 
T culture under glass. Otherwise the bulk 
'^ of cucumbers and pickles grown for 
market is produced in the farm garden 
rather than the market garden, simply 
because the market gardener has not 
sufficient space. Almost any kind of 
well-drained soil will produce cucum- 
bers, provided it is rich enough, or made 
so. Young clover sod is good. The 

selection of new ground — wide crop rotation — is always a good 

precautionary measure, and liable to lessen the dangers from 

insect and disease attacks. 

236 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Plow deep and thoroughly, and mellow the surface in the 
usual manner. Then mark out the ground four feet apart, both 
ways; put a large shovelful of good compost in each intersec- 
tion, and mix it thoroughly with the soil. When danger from 

Chicago Pickle. 

Tailby's Hybrid. 

late frosts is past, plant into the hills thus made, using plenty of 
seed to make allowance for injury by insects, etc., and when the 
plants begin to run, thin to the best three or four in each hill. 
From the time they begin to come up until several leaves are 
made, they should be kept dusted with plaster or a poisoned 
plaster mixture, as a preventive for insects. Occasional water- 
ing with washing suds during dry weather is of great benefit. 
Keep the ground well cultivated and free from weeds. It is not 
desirable to plant or hill up in great mounds, since cucumbers 

Evergreen Cucumber. 

need considerable moisture to do well. Gather the fruit regularly, 
without leaving any specimens to ripen, or the vines will stop 
bearing. For early market, and as a safeguard against insect 
depredations, the plants may be started on inverted sods under 

Cultural Directions. — 237 

glass in same way as mentioned for Lima beans, and also prac- 
tised with melons and squashes. This is done two or three 
weeks before the usual period for outdoor planting. 

The demand for pickles is largest in the fall, and the planting 
for pickles is usually postponed until latter part of June or fore- 
part of July. 


Maule's Extra Early. — A cross between the Early Russian 
and Green Prolific ; as early as the former, while it combines the 
fine pickling qualities of 
the latter. 

Early Russian. — The 
earliest variety. Fruit 
small, growing in pairs, 
and produced in great 
number. Good for small 

Early Cluster, Green 

Early Russian. 

Green Prolific, 
Early Frame, 
Short Green, 
White Japan, 
Jersey Pickle, 
Chicago Pickle, 
all these are intermediate sorts, 
reliable for pickling purposes. 
Peerless White Spine, 
Long White Spine, 
Improved Long Green, 
are popular varieties for table 
use and large pickles. 

Nichol's Medium Green, 
recently introduced, is a good 
all-purpose cucumber. 

Tailby's Hybrid. — A 
hybrid of White Spine with one of the large English Frame 
varieties. Very large and solid, containing but few seeds. A 
really fine and handsome sort, but not as prolific as I would 

Nichols' Medium Green. 

238 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Snake Cucumber {C. F/exuosus). — More of a curiosity than 
practical usefulness. Several feet in length, and always 

growing in a coil. 

Giant Pera. — A newly 
introduced sort of great length 
yl^and solidity, having but few 
^ Jf seeds. 

i-^ Small Gherkin, Prickly 

Gherkin, West India Gherkin, 
Burr [C. Angiirid). — A strong- 
growing plant bearing its small, 
prickly fruit in great abundance. 
It is largely used for pickles. 
Snake Cucumber. Should be planted in hills not 

less than 5 feet apart each way, with two or three plants to the 


Leontodon Taraxacuin. German, Lowenzahn ; French, 
Dent-de-liofi. — This common weed of our fields and meadows is 
often gathered and prepared for " greens." Esteemed especially 
for its hygienic properties. Careful selection of seed has resulted 
in a number of improved varieties, which are cultivated in 
European gardens, both for spring greens and salad. 

Americans are only just beginning to introduce its cultiva- 
tion into their gardens. I have a mammoth variety from Penn- 
sylvania under trial. 

The cultivation is simple. Sow seed in early spring in hills 
one foot apart, and thin or transplant to from 10 to 12 inches. 
Keep free from weeds. Leaves 
may be cut for use in fall ; and 
the plantation will continue to 
yield during the spring of next 
year. European gardeners often 
improve the flavor of this vege- 
table by blanching the leaves, 
either by covering the bed with 
a layer of sand or by putting 
a large flower pot, inverted, over each plant. 



Anethumgraveolens. German, Di// ; French, Anefk ; Spanish, 
Eneldo. — An annual herb of easiest culture, much used by 
Germans as a condiment, or flavoring for pickled cucumbers, 
beans, etc. Sow seed in spring or summer, in drills one foot 

Cultural Directions. — 239 

Long Purple. 

apart, and keep free from weeds. Where seed was left to ripen 
plants will spring up in great abundance the season following 
Little attention in the way of manuring or cultivation is required. 


Solanum melongena. G&rvadin, EierpJIanze ; French, Auder- 
gine ; Spanish, Berengena. — In the cultivation of the egg-plant 
we have to face several serious difficulties, among them chiefly 
its half tropical nature, which calls for the 
display of especial skill in raising good plants, 
and the great fondness of the potato bug for 
this particular food. 

Growing the Plants. — First of all we 
need strong plants. To start the seed and 
cause thrifty plant growth, a higher degree of 
heat and that of longer duration is required 
than for tomatoes or peppers. A good green- 
house, with heat under full control, is a great 
convenience in this emergency. The temper- 
ature should not be allowed to fall below 70 
degrees Fahr. during any of the stages of 
development. Sow seed during March or 

early April, and when plants are 
about an inch high, prick them 
out in pots or old tomato cans, in 
good rich potting soil. Where no 
warm greenhouse is at hand, a 
fresh hot-bed will have to answer 
for sowing seed ; but the young 
plants as soon as potted off should 
be transferred to another, freshly- 
made hot-bed. Better plants are 
usually grown in tomato cans, or in 
large boxes, than in ordinary flower 

Planting and Cultivation. — 
Well-drained, warm, rich soil is an 
indispensable condition of success 
with this crop. Good compost, or 
other good fertilizer, should not 
be spared. When the ground 
has become thoroughly warmed 
through, and not before, set the plants 2 or 3 feet apart each way 
— the latter distance in rich soil — and keep well cultivated and 
free from weeds. Dusting the plants frequently with plaster, 
especially if a little carbolic acid is mixed with it, has a decided 

New York Purple. 

240 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

tendency toward making bug visits less frequent; but where 
these are very troublesome, applications of the Paris green mix- 
tures will be necessary. For a number of years, while in New 
Jersey, I have tried in vain to save a few plants from utter 
destruction by bugs in early autumn. When the tops of the 
late potatoes have died down (in August) it becomes a matter 
of life and death to the hordes of hard-shell beetles to find a 
little food. So they all at once pounce in full force upon the 
egg-plants in the neighborhood, and will devour them even to 
the stalks, in spite of all the applications we might make. In 
such cases the only hope for success lies in extensive planting 
and close watching. If any one can tell me a practical method 
of protecting a few plants I shall be glad to hear. 


New York Improved, New York Improved Purple. — 
This is more generally grown for market than any other ; and on 
account of its mammoth size, handsome shape and color, a great 
favorite. A selection of this naturally very prickly sort, much 
grown among New Jersey market gardeners, is entirely free from 

Earliest Dwarf Purple. — Too small for market, otherwise 
resembling the New York Improved, only considerably earlier, 
and for this reason valuable for home gardens at the extreme 
north. Here I have little use for it. 

Early Long Purple. — Two or three times as long as it is 
broad. Color varies somewhat. Not much grown for market, 
but good for the home garden, as it is early and comparatively 
of easy culture. 

Black Pekin. — Almost round in shape, and very dark in 
color. Quite early for so large a variety. 

Japanese Varieties. — Of these I have two under test. They 
appear to be much hardier and easier to grow than other egg- 
plants, but fruit is small and only valuable for the home garden. 


CichoriuTn Endivia. German, Endivien ; Frfinch, Chicoree 
Endive ; Spanish, Endivia. — Endive, one of the best of fall and 
wmter salads, is not yet appreciated in America as is deserves. 
Practically unknown in the average home garden, it is found only 
in larger markets, and often there in but limited quantity. If my 
readers will once try it, and bring it on the table well bleached, 
crisp and tender, as a salad, in late fall or winter, I think they 
will continue to grow it, thus adding to the luxuries of their 

Cultural Directions. — 241 

Its culture is simple ; its requirements as to manure and soil 
are modest. For summer use sow seed in April or May ; for fall 
and winter use in June, July, and early August. Have drills one 
foot apart, and thin or transplant to same distance in the drill. 
Hoe occasionally to keep 
free from weeds; and 
when the plants have 
made about their full 
growth, gather up the 
leaves and lightly tie at 
their tips. In from one to 
three weeks the hearts 
will then bleach beauti- 
fully, when the crop 
should at once be mar- 
keted or used. Do not tie faster than the crop can be disposed 
of; for if left after blanching, the hearts will soon begin to decay. 

I have succeeded in bleaching endive in less than a week's 
time, and much more beautifully than usually seen, by simply 
placing one of my celery bleachers (largest size) over each 


Green Curled. — Generally grown for market and home use, 
and good for salad, greens or garnishing. European catalogues 
list and describe nearly a score of other varieties, among them 
the Moss-curled, Rouen or Stag's Horn, Green Curled 
Upright, Broad Leaved or Batavian, etc. ; but the Green 
Curled will do me. 



Ancthum Fa:7iiaihim. German, Fcnchel ; French, Fcnouil 
Doux ; Spanish, Hinojo. — The seeds of this easily-grown herb are 
used in the manufacture of liquors, and the leaves for various 
culinary purposes. Sow in drills one foot apart, like Dill, and 
keep free from weeds. 


Allium Sativum. German, Knoblauch. ; French, Ail Ordi- 
naire ; Spanish, Ago vulgar. — A well-known bulbous perennial 
of peculiar strong taste, mostly used by the foreign part of our 
population, and valued more in southern countries than at the 
cold north, for the simple reason that it has much less of the 
biting flavor when grown in a warm than in a cold climate. 

242 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

This vegetable — if it deserves that name — is only propagated 
by means of its sets or " cloves," of which each full-grown plant 
has about ten. In early spring plant them in shallow one-foot 
drills, about 5 or 6 inches apart in the drills, one clove in a place, 
and cover lightly. The crop ripens about the same time as 
onions, and is harvested in a similar manner. 

Garlic Sets. 

GOURDS. Fancy Gourds. 

None of these are grown or used here for culinary purposes. 
Fruit of various shapes and sizes, often quite ornamental, and 
unique. Plant in hills, and train on trellis. 

Nest Egg Gourd [Cncuuiis colocynihis oviformis), — Plant 
strong growing. Fruit white and resembling a hen's egg in size 
and shape. Often used as a nest-egg, and answering this purpose 

Dipper Gourd. 

Dipper Gourd {Cttcnrbita lagcnarid). 

Sugar Trough {Qicjirbita lagenarid), 

Dish QXo'C^ {^Qiciirbita lagenaria), 

The fruit of all these is sometimes used for the purpose 
indicated by their respective names. When bruised, all the green 
parts of the plant emit a strong odor which is far from agreeable, 
while the flowers are quite fragrant. All are of rapid growth, 
and valuable for covering trellises, arbors, and unsightly places 
of any description, but of no use to us as a kitchen vegetable. 

Cultural Directions. — 243 


Marrubium vulgarc. German, Andorn ; French, Marrube 
Blanc. — A perennial hardy plant easily grown from seed sown in 
spring, or propagated by a division of the tufts. The plant is 
much used as a cough remedy, especially in the form of " hore- 
hound candy." Plant in drills one foot apart. 


Cochlearia {Nasturtiuni) Armoracia. German, Meercttig ; 
Yrtnch, Raifort Saiivage ; Spanish, Taramago. — Horse-radish is 
hardly ever found in the home garden as a cultivated vegetable. 
It is allowed to propagate itself at will from pieces of root left in 
the ground where a plant had once been set out, or otherwise 
obtained a foothold, usually in the back-yard or some out-of-the- 
way place. From this source the family gets an abundant 
supply year after year, without ever bestowing care or attention 
to it. 

For both the market and farm garden, however, horse- 
radish is a most important crop, and almost invariably a profitable 
one. It delights in deep, rich, moist soil; and requires but a 
minimum of cultivation, since it makes a very large amount of 
top, thus giving the weeds little chance, at the same time keeping 
the ground well-shaded, moist and mellow. 

Planting and Cultivation. — Horse-radish produces no 
seed, but is always grown from "sets" or pieces of the smaller 
roots, cut 4 to 8 inches in length, with upper end slanting and lower 
end square. For culture in the farm garden, the ground is well- 
manured, deeply plowed, and otherwise thoroughly worked ; 
then marked out in rows from 2 to 3 feet apart. Here the root 
pieces or sets are planted 15 to 18 inches apart. This is done 
by making a hole with a long slim dibber or planting stick, or a 
small, light iron bar, and dropping the set, square-end down, into 
it, so that the top end is left slightly below the surface. The 
soil is then pressed firmly against the set. With cultivator 
(or wheel-hoe) and hand-hoe the ground is kept free from weeds, 
until the heavy top growth makes further working among the 
crop unnecessary. 

The eastern market gardener adopts a somewhat different 
course. With him horse-radish is chiefly grown as a second 
crop, yet planted almost simultaneously with a first crop. 
It usually is made to follow early cabbages, cauliflower or 
early beets. Just as soon as the first crop is planted, the 
horse-radish sets are put out, in the manner described, in a 
row midways between each two rows of the first-crop vegetables, 

244 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

so to stand 2 or 23/^3 feet one way by 16 or 18 inches the other. 

The sets are put in deep enough so the upper or slanting end 

will be about 3 inches below the surface of the ground. This is 

done to give the first crop time to get out of the 

way before the horse-radish appears on the scene. 

In the cultivation of the former no notice is taken 

of the presence of the horse-radish underneath, 

except to clip off any sprout foolhardy enough to 

come to the surface prematurely. Horse-radish 

makes the most of its growth during the cooler 

and moister weather of early autumn. When the 

first crop is taken off, its opportunity has come, and 

it generally makes the most of it. It will need one 

thorough hoeing, and may then be left to take care 

of itself The crop is dug late in the fall, or after 

all other crops are taken care of, freed from its 

small roots and large tops, and stored in root 

houses or pits, to be marketed during winter. A 

root when ready for market, appears as in annexed 

illustration. Being trimmed at both ends, it is Horse-radish. 

given a thorough washing, and a number of them are then tied 

together in a bunch, and thus put on the market. It is usually 

sold by weight, and one of the best paying late crops. 

The small roots are used for sets. When removed from 
main root they are at once cut of the proper length and shape, 
tied in bundles, and buried in sand in the cellar or pitted in the 
open ground until wanted in spring. 

An English Method. — I 
here also illustrate a so-called 
improved way of growing horse- 
radish, described some time ago, 
in the Garden (London). The 
discoverer of this method claims 

~*7 -' ; ^ ' 


A New \Va) oi Giuwin^ Hoi^L-idUibh. 
that the roots, being so much nearer the influence of the sun, 
and in warmer soil than those planted perpendicularly (in the 
usual way) grow to a much larger size, and are harvested with 
much less labor than they would otherwise. The sets are planted 
only from 2 to 3 inches deep, almost horizontally, as indicated in 
illustration, and given the cultivation as described for those 
planted in the usual way. 

Cultural Directions. — 245 


Hyssopus officinalis. German, hop; 
French, Hyssope ; Spanish, Hisopo. — A low- 
growing, evergreen perennial, preferring warm, 
calcareous soil. In cold climates it is usually 
grown from seed sown in the open ground in 
April or May. The leaves and other parts of 
the plant have an aromatic odor, and pungent, 
bitter taste. 



Brassica olcracca acephala. German, Braunkohl, Grunkohl ; 
French, Chou-vert ; Spanish, Breton. — This vegetable of the 
cabbage family is grown and used in various ways, most usually 
as " sprouts " for winter greens, similar to spinach or collards. 
Sow seed in early autumn, having drills one foot apart, and 
leaving the plants five or six inches apart in the row. South of 
New York City it is hardy enough to endure the winters without 
protection. In spring the plants are cut, dead leaves trimmed 
off, and put up in barrels for sale, or used for greens. The 

Germans usually plant kale as 
one would late cabbages. 
Seed is sown in spring, and 
the plants set out in June or 
July, in rows three feet apart, 
with two or three feet distance 
between the plants. Same 
cultivation is given as for cab- 
bages. During early winter 
the leaves, which grow to a 
considerable size, are gathered frequently when frozen, or to be 
dug from under the snow, and used for greens. If properly 
prepared they are exceedingly palatable, especially as they come 
at a time when fresh green stuff is quite scarce. The young 
sprouts issuing in spring from the stumps are also utilized for 
greens ; and when boiled and served with vinegar, make a very 
popular and palatable salad. 




German Greens, Dwarf Curled, Sprouts, Green Curled, 
Canada, Labrador, with beautifully curled, dark green leaves, 
which usually rest on the ground, the plant being quite dwarf. 
Usually grown for market as " sprouts." Tender and of superior 
flavor, almost equaling Savoy cabbages. 

^46— How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Green Curled Scotch, \A/'inter Greens. — Very hardy, two 
to three feet high, has many large and beautifully curled leaves, 
which, after exposure to frost, make excellent winter greens, and 
sprouts for spring salad. The plant is one of the hardiest of 
the whole tribe. • 

European seedsmen list a large number of varieties, little 
grown in America, among them the following : 

Intermediate Moss Curled. 

Tree Cabbage, or Jersey, which grows four to five feet 
high in the first year ; for cattle. 

Marrow Kale, a large, coarse sort, with thickened stem, for 

Dwarf Purple Curled, with very dark, curled leaves, much 
used for winter greens. 


Brassica Cmilo-rapa. Q^xva-Axv, Kohlrabi ; F tench, C/iouRadr; 
Spanish, Col de Nabo. — In this we have another vegetable much 
less cultivated in American gardens than it deserves. As easily 
grown as any member of the cabbage family, it yields in its 
swollen, fleshy stem a most palatable dish, which 
combines the cabbage and turnip flavors, but in 
a more refined degree. It is deliciously tender, 
especially when used just when fully grown ; 
but when old, becomes hard, tough and unfit for 
the table. The usual method of culture is to 
sow seed in drills, 15 or 18 inches apart, and 
thin to 6 or 8 inches in the row. The time for 
° " ^ '■ sowing is from early spring until summer, so 
that a succession may be had from early summer until winter. 
Keep the ground loose and free from weeds. With careful 
handling, kohl-rabi can also be transplanted successfully. 


Early Vienna, Improved Imperial. — This, unquestion- 
ably, is the best for forcing, late planting, and for general table 
use. The tops are very small and leaves short, with slim stalks ; 
the balls (bulbs, heads or whatever we may call them) handsome, 
forming very early, and retaining their delicious tenderness for 
a long time. There is also a purplish variety of this in cultivation. 

Large ^Vhite. — The balls form much later in this than in 
the preceding and grow to a large size. The leaves also grow 
large, with stout leaf-stalks, so that it is easily distinguished from 
the Vienna by its much heavier top. Requires nearly the whole 
season to come to full development. For the kitchen garden it 
will be found a good companion to the Vienna. If both are 

Cultural Directions. — 247 

planted at the same time, in early spring, the one will supply you 
with tender balls in the forepart, and the other in the latter part 
of the season. 


Lavandula Spica. German, Lavendel ; French, Lavande ; 
Spanish, Esplicgo. — Lavender leaves are sometimes used for 
seasoning, but the chief value of the plant is in its flowers, which 
are used in the manufacture of the well-known perfumery. 
.Grows in compact tufts with numerous stalks two feet high. 
Perennial, and generally propagated by division of the tufts, 
sometimes by cuttings, and in rarer cases from seed. Set the 
plants 15 or 18 inches apart, and keep free from weeds. They 
will last a number of years, succeeding best in light calcareous 


Allium Porriiin. German, Lauch ; French, Poireau ; 
Spanish, Puerro. — Leek, although but rarely found in American 
home gardens, is quite extensively cultivated as a second crop, 
to follow early beets, cabbages, etc., in the market gardens near 
cities having a large for- 
eign population. The 
ground should be rich 
from previous manurings, 
and receive an additional 
dressing besides. 

Cultivation. — In April 
or early May sow seed in 
seed bed, having rows one 
foot apart, and cultivating 
same as onions from seed. 
In July, the young plants, 
then about as thick as a 
goose quill, are planted 
out on soil cleared from 
the earlier crop and well 
prepared, in rows one foot 
apart, with five inches distance between the plants. They should 
be set deeply (with a dibber) since their market value depends 
on the bleached condition of the root and stalk. For the same 
reason, the soil, in hoeing, is drawn up towards them. . Leeks 
transplant very easily at any time while the soil is moist, but the 
loose roots and leaves should be trimmed back, and the roots 
dipped in water, previous to setting. 

Giant Italian Leek. 

248 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

The crop may be stored and wintered somewhat similar to 
celery, in trenches or root-houses, or marketed directly from the 
field in the fall. The decayed leaves are to be removed, roots 
and tops cut back, and the plants, after washing, tied in bunches 
of half a dozen or more, and marketed 


Long Flag, Large Flag, Broad Flag, London Flag. — 
Often ten inches long, and nearly two inches wide. A good 
early, productive sort, and popular with our market growers. 

Scotch Flag, Musselburgh. — A form of the common, 
long leek, somewhat hardier than the Large Flag, and with a 
stem sometimes 10 or 12 inches long, but only an inch in diameter. 

New Giant Italian is introduced as a variety of very large 
size, hardy, and of qjild flavor. Perhaps identical with the 
Giant Carentan introduced in England. 


Lactiica Sativa. German, 5c//<7/; French, Zrt'////^; Spanish, 
LecJmga. — The production of lettuce in hot-beds and hot-houses 
during winter, and in cold-frames and cold-houses in early spring, 
is one of the chief resources for money for a large number of 
market gardeners. The chapters on " Cold Frames " and " Cold 
Forcing Houses " deal more fully with this subject. As an early 
market garden crop for outdoor culture it is, perhaps, of still 
greater general importance. 

Growing for Market. — Plants are usually grown from 
seed sown in open ground in latter part of September, trans- 
planted into cold-frames (allowing 4 to 5 square inches space to 
each) toward end of October or early November, and wintered 
over in same way as early cabbage plants. Just as soon as the 
ground is in working order in early spring, the plants are set 
out in warm, rich, well-manured and well-prepared soil, 12 by 10 
to 12 inches apart, all by themselves, or in rows between early 
cabbages or cauliflowers. The latter plan is often adopted by 
good market gardeners for the sake of utilizing space. The 
lettuce crop comes off in time to give to the other crop the entire 
space, long before it is needed, and for this reason is almost clear 
gain. To a more limited extent lettuce is also grown for summer 
and fall market from seed sown in one foot drills in open ground ; 
the drills one foot apart, and the plants thinned to about the 
same distance. 

In favored localities in the middle states, and almost every- 
where further south, lettuce sov/n or planted out in open ground 
in the autumn will usually winter all right, especially if protected 
(when thought necessary) by lightly covering with evergreen 

Cultural Directions. — 249 

boughs, or coarse litter, and will give a crop much in advance 
of that planted out in spring. It should go without saying that 
the stimulus given to plant growth by free use of the hoes 
cannot be safely dispensed with in the lettuce patch. 

Growing for Home Use. — People who know lettuce only 
as loose leaves (cut-lettuce, leaf-lettuce) grown in close rows or 
masses, as usually found in American kitchen gardens, have not 
yet learned to appreciate the possibilities of this vegetable as 
salad material, nor all its inherent virtues. My method of 
growing it for home use brings out all its best points. 

At the earliest possible date in spring I sow seed of various 
varieties in drills 12 to 15 inches apart, and give clean and 
thorough cultivation from the start by means of the hand wheel- 
hoe, same as all the other closely planted vegetables in the patch. 


Strictattention is given to early thinning, the most vigorous plants 
being left, so they stand about 3 or 4 inches apart in the drills. 
Rapid growth is forced by occasional light dressings of nitrate 
of soda (a little saltpetre will give similar results); and as soon 
as the heads have fairly begun to form, we commence using them 
for the table, thinning the plants as we go along, until they stand 
10 or 12 inches apart in the rows. By this time they have 
developed into large heads, sometimes of mammoth size, and of 
the delicious crispness and tenderness which only rapid growth 
can give us. Thus we have always the very best quality of 
salad, the little partly-developed heads at first, and later the hard, 
solid, large ones. As we always have it in great abundance, the 
crisp inner hearts alone are used, and the large outer leaves go 
to the fowls. Thus grown, lettuce makes a most excellent salad, 
indeed, above all comparison with the stuff usually found in the 
markets, or in most people's kitchen garden. Repeated sowings 
should be made for succession. 

250 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

For earliest use I often set a row of cold-frame-wintered (or 
hot-bed-grown) plants between two rows sown with early 
cabbages, which is merely a modification of the method of grow- 
ing lettuce for early market in alternate rows with cabbages. 


These are exceedingly numerous ; and many nev. varieties, 
both for market and home use, are being introduced every year. 
Indeed we have so many really good sorts that the selection of a 
few is not without difficulty. Yet we can take any one out of 
dozens of them, and feel perfectly satisfied with our bargain. 

Tennisballj Boston Market. 
— Well adapted for forcing under 
glass ; very early, of medium size, 
and a reliable header. 

Salamandefo — A favorite with 
eastern market gardeners, and j'^et 
in the front rank as a market 

Green Fnnged Salamander 

variety, as it makes 
large and firm heads, 
and endures the sum- 
mer heat well, although 
in the latter respect 
it is now surpassed 
by many newer intro- 

Hanson. — An old 
favorite for market in 
the New England 
States. A good, reliable 
header, but perhaps 
surpassed in many Ohio Cabbage, 

characteristics by the recently introduced Improved Hanson. 

Boston Curled and 

Green Fringed. — These form somewhat loose heads, and 
therefore not adapted for market purposes ; but their curled or 
fringed masses of foliage make them attractive for the home garden. 

Buttercup. — The most delicate appearing of any lettuce I 
am acquainted with. Only medium in size, but the heads are 
firm, and foliage of a most pleasing beautiful golden color, which 
would naturally suggest the name given it. It is one of the 
varieties that has come to stay in my garden. 

Ohio Cabbage. — A beautiful summer lettuce, of very large 
size, firm head, tender and reliable. Also good for early. 

Cultural Directions, — 251 

California Butter. — A long-standing summer variety, 
making large, firm heads with dark foliage. 

Marblehead Mammoth, 

New York. — Those two are newer sorts of remarkable thrift, 
giving us heads of the very largest size, but somewhat lacking in 
compactness. Beautiful and well worthy a place in the home garden. 

Stubborn-Head, Stubborn-Seeder. — Introduced as a fine, 
firm-heading variety, able to endure the summer heat and drouth 
for a long time, and without running to seed. 

Prize Head. — Forms a large, tender and crisp mass of 
leaves of superior flavor. 

Passion. — -A California variety that stands the heat remark- 
ably well, and at the same time forms a very large solid head. 

Philadelphia Butter. — Produces fine heads of large size ; 
very certain to head. 

Cos Varieties.— These are favorites in England, but little 
grown in our gardens. Leaves elongated, with a large thick 
mid-rib. The hearts are blanched by tying the tips of the leaves, 
which have an upright habit of growth. 

MARJORAM (Sweet.) 

Origanum Major ajia. German, Majoran ; 
¥rQnc\\, MarJolaiJie ; Spanish, Mejorana. — The 
leaves and young shoots of this perennial 
sweet herb are highly esteemed by many 
people as a seasoning, and Mother's marjoram- 
flavored "veal pot-pie" will not easily fade 
out of my memory. The plant is cultivated 
as an annual, and of easy culture. Early in 
spring, sow seed in shallow drills, one foot 
apart, and keep free from weeds. Sweet Marjoram. 

252 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 


Martynia proboscidca. German, Gemshorner ; French, Mar- 
tynia; English, Unicorn Plant. — An annual of easiest culture; 

plant large, strong-growing 
rather coarse, yet decidedly 
interesting. Flowers large 
and similar to catalpa in 
shape; fruit curved, and ter- 
minating in a long, hooked 
point. While young and 
tender it is frequently used 
Martynia. — ^^j. pjckles. Sow seed where 

plant is to grow, giving each a space of 2 or 3 feet square. If 
seed is allowed to ripen on the plant, and to scatter upon the 
ground, plenty of plants may be expected to spring up the 
following season. 


Cucumis Melo. German, Melone ; French and Spanish, Melon. 
— Where climatic conditions in the northern states, and shipping 
and marketing facilities at the south are favorable to their cul- 
ture, melons constitute a very important money crop of the farm 
garden. For the home garden they are almost indispensable 
everywhere. I believe there are few things, if any, that are a 
more general object of desire for the younger members of the 
family, or would be more painfully missed by them, than a good 
supply of fine melons ; and I am sure no household that has 
once had its fill of the fruit, in all its freshness and lusciousness 
as it comes directly from the garden, will ever wish to forego 
the pleasures of the melon patch again, even for a single season. 

Soil and Culture. — A rich, warm loam, more or less sandy, 
and plenty of good compost or fertilizers are required. New land 
— on the wide rotation system — is always preferable, in order to 
reduce the dangers from insect and disease attacks to a minimum, 
and nothing better could be found very easily than a young 
clover or old pasture lot. Plow deep, and otherwise prepare the 
ground well, then mark off rows from 4 to 6 feet apart each way, 
according to the strength of the soil, and vigor of variety to be 
planted. A shovelful or two of well-rotted compost is mixed 
with the soil at each intersection, and a large broad hill formed 
with the hoe. 

Next drop a dozen or two of seeds scatteringly over the hill, 
and cover with half an inch of soil, pressing it firmly over the 
seed with the back of hoe. Only the three or four thriftiest 
plants are left in each hill ; the rest must be pulled up at the 

Cultural Directions. — 253 

first or second hoeing. Cultivate frequently with the horse 
wheel-hoe, and hoe afterwards, drawing fresh soil up to the plants. 
Guard against the attacks of the yellow-striped cucumber bug, 
the squash borer and other insects ; and keep free from weeds. 
I usually pinch off the ends of 
leading shoots when they have 
grown several feet in length, for 
the purpose of forcing out the 
laterals, on which the fruit is always 
borne. In early September I also 
remove the later settings of fruit, 
which cannot be expected to conic 
to maturity before frost. For ship- 
ping and marketing, melons must 
be picked when yet green, but fully 
matured, so that they will be in 
best condition for the table when 
they reach the consumer. In order 
to make the crop earlier, and at the 
same time protect the plants from bug attacks, they are fre- 
quently started on pieces of inverted sod, in hot-bed or cold- 
Irame, in the same way as described for Lima beans. Care 
should be taken to make the transfer from fram.e to open ground 
on moist, cloudy days only; then cultivate same as directed for 
plants started in open ground. 




Hackensack. — The most popular market sort among 

growers near New York City and 
in New Jersey. Large, round ; 
depressed at the ends ; deeply 
netted and productive. 

Cassaba. — A large, 
green-fleshed melon of same 
excellent quality as Nutmeg. 
Can be recommended for market, 
as well as the home garden. 

Nutmeg. — Green-fleshed, of 
delicious flavor. Size medium; 
round in shape; prolific; good 
for market and home use. 

Early Christiania. — Very 
early, of fair size ; productive, 
P "°^* and valuable for early market. 

Netted Gem. — Quite small, thick-meated, of fine flavor, 
and extremely early. 

254 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Perfection. — Nearly round, and of good size, frequently 
weighing 8 to lO pounds. Of a dark green color outside, heavily 
netted, while inside they are of a rich orange color. Flesh very 
thick, there being scarcely room for the seed. Can be recom- 
mended alike for either home or market use. 

Starn's Favorite. — This variety is nearly round, just a little 
oblong, thickly netted, with thick green flesh ; rich and spicy 
and one of the best- flavored in cultivation. They are shy 
seeders; the cavity for seed in many of them is so small that if 
they were all seed inside the flesh, they could not contain many. 

Jenny Lind. — It is surprising that this, a 
most delicious small melon, is so little known 
outside of the State of New Jersey. There it is 
more largely grown than any other, and thou- 
sands upon thousands of baskets are annually 
shippL'd to the Philadelphia and New York mar- 
kets. It is the earliest of all g.een-fleshed sorts. 
Superior. — Ripens about the same time as 
the Jenny Lind, a strong and vigorous grower. 
So attractive in appearance that it is sure to 
command good prices. 

Emerald Gem. — Plant and fruit small. 
The latter has a smooth, deep-green skin and 
salmon-colored flesh, unsurpassed for sweetness, 
richness, and lusciousness. Almost solid, con- 
taining but few seeds, and ripening thoroughly 
clear to the thin skin. When ripe it separates 
but being of inconspicuous color, and inferior 
size, the " small boy " is apt to pass it by. This feature, com- 
bined with its unexcelled high quality and sweetness, renders it 
indispensable for the home garden. The markets also are just 


from the stem 

Cultural Directions. — 255 

beginning to appreciate its fine qualities. It can be planted in 
hills only 3 or 4 feet apart each way, two or three plants to the 

Bay View. — A white-fleshed, oblong variety, with green, 
netted skin. Medium sized. 

Montreal, Montreal Nutmeg. — A mammoth variety, much 
grown under glass at the northeast. I did not find it of much 
value for outdoor culture in New 

Osage. — A Western market 
sort; green fleshed, small, round, 

Banana. — Grows 18 inches and 
upward in length, and only 2 to 4 
inches in thickness. Flesh thick, 
solid, reminding somewhat of 

Algerian Canteloupe.— Flesh Hardy Ridge, 

thick and juicy, sweet and having a delicate aroma. Fruit 
round, slightly elongated, with many roundish dark green warts 
or scabs, which change to an orange color when fruit is ripe. 

Prescett, Hardy Ridge. — Thick fleshed, salmon colored ; few 
seeds. This and the preceding are favorites with Paris (France) 
growers. Not grown to any extent in America, except as curiosity. 


Citridhis Vulgaris {Caaunis Citndhis). German, Wasser- 
mciofie ; French, Melon d'eaii ; Spanish, Saiidia. — Culture of the 
water-melon is very similar to that of the musk varieties, except 

that the soil, if anything, should be warmer and richer, and the 
hills made from six to ten feet apart each way, according to vigor 
of variety and strength of soil. 

256— How to Make the Garden Pay. 

The chief difficulty for the novice is to tell when the melons 
are fit for market or consumption, as they should not be picked 
too soon, nor left on the vines after the proper stage of maturity 
has been reached. The tendril or curl on the vine opposite the 

melon generally dries up and dies just about at the time when 
the melon ripens ; but this is not always the case, and hence the 
sign is not infallible. A safer indication even than this is the 
turning of the whitish underside of the fruit (where it rests upon 

the ground) to a sort of cream color. Experienced growers and 
dealers simply snap the melon with the middle finger, and tell the 
ripe from the immature melon by the difference of sound. The 
skin of the melon also becomes somewhat duller in color when 

Cultural Directions. — 257 

approaching maturity, and somewhat firmer. The novice should 
compare ripe and green specimens, and try to note all these 


Mountain Sweet, 
Mountain Sprout, 
Black Spanish. — In these 
we have three old, but reliable 
sorts, still much grown for market. 
They are large, sweet and good. 
Vick's Early. — A small, 
early, solid melon, valuable for 
the home garden. 

Kolb's Gem. — 
Much grown for market 
on account of its earli- 
ness. Nearly round, 
flesh bright red. 

Scaly Bark (Flor- 
ida Favorite), 
Georgia Rattle- 

Pride of Georgia, 
Cuban Queen, 
Gray Monarch, 
Mammoth Ironclad. — All these are large melons, exten- 
sively grown at the south for northern market. 

Colorado Preserving 

Hungarian. — Introduced a few years ago as a superior 
sort for the home garden. Medium size ; skin dark green ; flesh 
sweet, melting, brilliant red. Vine strong grower, productive. 


258 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Volga, — After two seasons' trial I am disposed to place this 
ahead even of the preceding as a reliable sort for the home 
gardener. Distinguished by the light color of its rind. A 
thrifty grower, enormously prolific, early, of medium size, and to 
my taste unsurpassed in quality. If I could plant but one variety 
in the home garden, this is the one I would unhesitatingly 

Prize Jumbo. — This new melon is a cross between the 
Ironclad and Cuban Queen. In color dark-green, striped with 
lighter shades of the same color ; flesh ol" a rich cardinal color. 

Prize Jumbo. 

free from strings. The rind, while unusually thin for so large a 
melon, is so tough it will bear transportation in first-class condi- 
tion for very long distances. 

Green and Gold. — Name comes from its rich green color 
outside, while the flesh is of a golden orange color, free from any 
tinge of white, even around the seeds. In productiveness it 
equals any of the red-flesh varieties ; has a thin rind. It makes 
a desirable ornament for the table, if arranged in contrast with 
the red flesh of other varieties. 

Christmas. — None surpasses this in vigor of vine. Fruit 
late, large, and of most remarkable keeping qualities. I had 
them last season in December, kept in a common cool room 
upstairs, and they were sound and palatable. 

Colorado Preserving. — A productive sort for preserving 
and sauce. Flesh firm and solid ; seeds few ; vine thrifty. 

Cultural Directions. — 259 


MentJia viridis. German, Krauseminze ; YxtXiQk\.,Mcnthe. — 
A hardy perennial, often found in great masses along moist road- 
sides, near swamps and low places. Easily propagated by 
division of the creeping root-stock. In a small way it is forced 
under glass, for winter and spring market, and the growers find 
it very profitable. The leaves and young shoots are used for 
seasoning, mint sauce, and for flavoring liquors. 


Agaricus campestris. German, Champignon; French, 
Champignon ; Spanish, Seta. — The very first and most important 
requirement for the successful production of mushrooms is a 
dark, damp place with an even temperature ranging from 50 to 
70 degrees. This may be a common cellar, a cave, railroad or 
other tunnel, under the greenhouse benches, or in a building 
constructed or arranged for the purposes and heated with pipes. 
In proper situation mush- 
rooms can be raised the year 
around, and it is done on a 
large scale in natural caves or 
abandoned tunnels in this 
and other countries. One of 
these mammoth mushroom 

factories is said to be in ,, , 

r 1 ^ t- Mushroom Spawn, 

successful operation near ^ 

Chicago, run by a stock company ; and more chances equally 

good for starting an enterprise of this kind might be found in 

various parts of the country. It is reported to be a paying 


For culture in a common cellar or other place, on a limited 

scale, the best time for active operations is from the beginning 

of September until January. Take fresh horse droppings without 

long straw or litter, and mix it with one-third of its bulk of fresh 

loam, or finely cut-up sods from an old pasture, and put in a heap 

to heat. Turn frequently (perhaps once a day) until the first 

violent heat has nearly subsided. Then spread a layer of it. 

four feet wide and as long as desired, upon the place intended 

for the bed. This may be on the ground or on shelves. Beat 

the layer down firmly with a wooden mallet, or other convenient 

implement ; spread another layer of the manure mixture upon 

the first, and beat down solidly once more, repeating this, 

if necessary, so the bed, when finished, will be about 8 or lo 

inches in thickness. 

26o — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Now insert a thermometer in the centre of the mass, and 
again allow the first violent heat to subside. When the tempera- 
ture has been reduced to 85 or 90 degrees, the bed is ready for 
planting the spawn. 

Break the bricks of spawn into pieces of the size of a small 
egg; then make holes 2 inches deep, and 10 or 12 inches apart 
each way, all over the bed, and drop a large piece, or two smaller 
ones, into each, afterwards filling the holes with the manure 
mixture, and again beat the beds down smoothly and evenly. 
Then cover the whole with two inches of fine loam firming it 
with the back of spade or shovel. 

In a dark cellar and even temperature of from 55 to 60 
degrees the mushrooms will appear in from 5 to 8 weeks. 
If the cellar is rather light, the bed had better be covered with 
6 inches of hay or straw. In a reasonably damp cellar watering 
will not be necessary ; but in a dry one warm water should 
occasionally be sprinkled over the bed with a fine rose sprinkler. 
A little nitrate of soda, or saltpetre, dissolved in the water will, 
I think, be found of great advantage in lengthening the bearing 
period of the bed. The spawn can be obtained of any large 
seed house. 

A Summer Mushroom. — Recently a new species has been dis- 
covered and introduced, under the name Agaricus stibrnfesccns. 

It seems to be of stronger 
growth and vitality than the 
ordinary fall meadow mush- 
room, flourishing in hot 
weather and moister soil 
and atmospheric conditions. 
The mycelium (root growth) 
will endure a soaking which 
would surely be death to 
that of A. cavipcstris. I 
find this new mushroom of 
easy culture, of excellent 
quality, and so quick in 
growth when conditions are 
favorable, that the tiny mag- 
got which during the hot 
season invariably ruins the 
ordinary slower-growing 
kinds, is noi given an oppor- 
tunity to do much harm to 
this if promptly gathered. 
The illustration shows an average good specimen. The gills 
while under the veil are white, gradually turning to pinkish, then 
to light brown, and when old, finally to a blackish-brown. The 

Mushroom {Agaj'icus sichrufescens). 

Cultural Directions. — 261 

top of the cap is sometimes clear white, more usually slightly 
colored a light pinkish or reddish brown. 

The simplest way to grow it, especially for the amateur, is in 
hot-bed. Prepare fresh horse droppings, from well-fed horses, in 
same manner as directed for making ordinary mushroom beds. 
The proper time to do this is in spring, so that the hot-bed can 
be made up not later than in May. What we want is to have a 
solid layer of the mixture of horse droppings and loam, that will 
promptly come to a heat and retain a moderate degree of warmth 
for the longest practicable period. This layer may be made 
twelve to fifteen inches deep. Be sure to pack it down very 
firmly. Then when the temperature is right, say 90° Fahren- 
heit, insert the spawn and proceed in about the same way as 
required for the ordinary mushroom. A thin layer of sphagnum 
moss, marsh hay, leaves, or similar litter may be placed upon the 
loam covering of the bed, and then the sashes may be put on. 
The glass should be heavily shaded by means of a good coat of 
lime whitewash, and the sashes partially raised, especially dur- 
ing the hot weather later on, to provide some ventilation. If 
the work was done right, the mushrooms will appear in from 
four to five weeks, and should be gathered every day. Water 
may be applied quite freely during hot, dry weather. 

MUSTARD. (White Mustard.) 

Sinapis Alba. German, Gelber Scnf ; French, Moiitarde 
blanche ; Spanish, Mostaza blanca. — Annual of rapid growth and 
easiest culture. The leaves while young are used for salads and 
for garnishing, and are of pleasant pungency. Sow seed in drills 
one foot apart, and keep free from weeds. 
The ripe seed is variously used in the prep- 
aration of pickles, and when ground makes 
the chief ingredient in the well-known condi- 
ment on sale in groceries under the name 
"Mustard." The " curled mustard" seed, a 
sample of which years ago I received from a 

friend in the South for trial, has recently been 

. ^ J J u /- 1T • " Mustard. 

mtroduced as Calitornia peppergrass or 

"Japanese mustard." It is thought to be of Chinese origin. 

This is one of the best plants for early spring "greens," as it 

grows very quickly, and makes a large, compact plant, and crisp 

and beautifully curled leaves, of pleasant pungent flavor. 

NASTURTIUM. (Indian Cress) Dwarf. 

TropcEolwn Minus. German, Kapuzincr Krcsse ; French, 
Capucine petite ; Spanish, Capuchina pcqucna. — Annual of easy 
culture, and like the climbing form [T. Majus) more frequently 
found in the flower garden and border than in the kitchen 

262 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 



garden. The flowers of both forms are sometimes used for 
garnishing, and the young seed pods, pickled in vinegar, for 
seasoning. Sow seed in border, or in rows one foot apart, 
thinning to 4 or 6 inches apart in the rows. 


Hibiscus esciilentiis. French, Gombaud ; Spanish, Gombo 
[Quimbombo). — The plant succeeds in almost any soil, being an 

annual of easy culture. 

Little grown in the north, 

but quite popular in the 

southern states, where the 

young and tender seed 

vessels are used as a table 

vegetable, in the form of 

soups and stews, to quite 

an extent. These pods are 

apt to grow somewhat 

tough at the North. Sow 

seed in rows 2^ to 3^ 

feet apart, and thin to 
9 or 12 inches apart in the row. Cultivate same as corn. 


Dwarf Green, Improved Dwarf Green. — An early and 

productive sort of low growth. 

Long Green. — Plant dwarf; pods long and ridged. 

White Velvet. — Introduced as having very large, round 

smooth pods. Very productive. 


Allium Cepa. German, Zzviebel ; French Oig'no^t ; Spanish, 
Cipolla. — Onion growing presents itself to our consideration in 
three materially-differing aspects, namely, culture in the market 
garden, culture in the farm garden, and culture in the kitchen 
garden. This vegetable, as a crop, is of value to the market 
gardener chiefly in the role of " bunch onions," i. e., grown from 
sets, pulled and bunched in the green state when only partly 
developed, and thus put on the market. The sets, like mature 
onions for market, are chiefly grown by people who make it a 
specialty, and in farm gardens more remote from the larger 
market centers. Some of our market gardeners, however — 
probably induced by the high price which they are often com- 
pelled to pay for sets — , now grow not only enough to supply their 
own needs, but a surplus for market besides. 

Cultural Directions. — 263 

Growing Sets. — The selection of soil is of greatest import- 
ance. It should be of a sandy nature, or even clear sand, free 
from weed seeds, rubbish and coarse gravel, and at least 
moderately fertile. A good top-dressing of some good fertilizer 
may be sufficient. Weedy manure must be scrupulously avoided. 
Such land needs thorough preparation. After plowing, the 
harrow and roller should not be spared, and the Meeker small 
disk harrow, or a steel rake, is needed to put on the finish. What 
we want is a perfect, smooth, mellow seed-bed. The seed is 
sown thickly in rows, either by hand or with the drill. The rows 
may either be made 9 to 12 inches apart, and sown in the usual 
way, only more thickly, or from 15 to 20 inches apart, and sown 
scatteringly in a strip 2 or 3 inches in width. I prefer the drills 
12 inches apart, and to sow in a strip of about i^ inches in 
width, which allows of the convenient use of the wheel-hoe. 

Sowing. — The easiest method of sowing onion seed for sets 
is with one of the common garden drills, and in doing so, I 
usually let the seed run moderately free, and go twice or even 
three times over the same row, thus sowing the required quantity, 
and at the same time spreading it over the desired width in each 
row. To give a full crop, the plants have to stand pretty thick. 
It is always an advantage to roll the ground after sowing. 

For sowing by hand, the rows should be marked out with a 
marker having wide blunt teeth, in order to make wide marks, 
and allow the seed to be scattered over a wider space across the 
rows. The covering is done with both hands, the gardener 
moving along over the rows on his knees, and drawing the soil 
over the row from both sides, or with the feet in the way quite 
commonly practiced for covering the larger seeds. 

The amount of seed needed ranges between 40 and 60 pounds 
per acre, according to distance between the rows, and width 
of sowing. The aim is to grow bulbs of less than Yi inch in 
diameter, and the largest bulk without undue crowding. The 
varieties used for this purpose are Extra Early Red, Yellow 
Dutch, and Silver Skin. 

Cultivation and Harvesting. — Cultivation is given in the 
usual way, with wheel-hoe ; and weeds are pulled up by hand 
without thinning the crop. 

When the tops begin to die down, in August, the bulbs are 
harvested, either by lifting out with the onion set attachment of 
the Planet Jr. wheel-hoe, or by raking in windrows, 5 or 6 
rows together, care being taken, of course, to get the teeth well 
under the bulbs. They are left on the ground for 2 or 3 days 
to cure, and then taken under shelter, and spread out on a dry 
floor to be cleaned at leisure. This is done by rubbing the sets 
between the hands, to remove remnants of tops and roots, and 
adhering soil or sand, and by running through fanning mill 

264 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

afterwards. All bulbs that will not readily pass through a grain 
sieve with ^-inch meshes are too large for sets and should be 
sold or used for pickling onions. 

Another method of harvesting consists of running a large 
garden trowel lengthwise under the row, lifting up the bulbs, with 
soil adhering to them, and throwing into a small-meshed sieve 
to sift out the sand and soil. 

Storing. — In storing for winter the bulbs (sometimes mixed 
with chaff) are piled up 4 or 5 inches deep in a dry loft, there 
allowed to freeze, and covered with a foot or so of straw or hay 
until spring. Or they may be stored in shallow open crates, and 
protected from alternate freezing and thawing. 

Growing Bunch Onions — The ground should be put in 
best possible condition. Use 50 or more tons of good compost 
per acre, besides top-dressings of poultry manure, wood ashes, 
fertilizers, etc., not to forget of nitrate of soda. The same 
thorough preparation is required as for growing sets. Then 
mark out the ground in rows 9 to 12 inches apart, and plant the 
sets 2 or 3 inches apart in the rows. This is best done by pick- 
ing up the set between thumb and forefinger, top up, and press 
firmly down into the soil. Thus they can be planted quite rapidly. 
Then cover still more soil over them with the feet, firming at 
the same time, and roll. Afterwards keep the ground loose and 
free from weeds by the frequent use of wheel and hand hoes, and 
at earliest date commence to bunch and market. While small, 
a dozen bulbs may be required for a bunch ; later on 6 or 7 will 
be sufficient. 

There is still another method of growing early bunch onions, 
and when successful, is more convenient, and often more profit- 
able than the one described, as it requires less labor and expense, 
and gives an earlier crop. Seed is sown during August or Sep- 
tember (perhaps later at the South), in drills one foot apart, and 
at the rate of 6 or 8 lbs. of good seed per acre. At the north 
this method is risky, and the whole crop may winter-kill ; but 
even in an exposed situtation in Western New York, I have 
occasionally succeeded in carrying the crop through without any 
effort at protection, and without loss. Covering with evergreen 
boughs, or coarse litter may be a wise precaution. In the middle 
and southern states there is nothing, to my knowledge, that could 
hinder growing bunch onions on this plan with complete success. 

Growing the Bulb for Market. — This, as a business, 
sometimes pays, and sometimes it does not. The financial out- 
come depends on management, and on the season's prices. Onion 
growing in the farm garden can easily be overdone. Only last 
year thousands of barrels of as fine onions as were ever grown 
had to be left to spoil, or were fed to stock, for want of buyers at 
even 25 or 30 cents per barrel. 

Cultural Directions. — 265 

Knavo'age onion crop is not likely to ever yield blj^ returns, 
but a lc7rge one (the result of plenty of manure and high culture 
generally) with a fair market price, always pays the grower 
reasonably well. The premium in this, as in all other under- 
takings, is invariably awarded to skillful management. 

Soil. — A good crop can be produced on soil of almost any 
composition (sand, sandy loam, clay loam, clay, muck), provided 
it contains a fair amount of decaying organic matter; but it 
should be free from weed seeds. Use the richest soil you have ; 
thin soil if no other can be had ; and sandy loam in preference to 
others. Muck lands sometimes produce enormous crops, but the 
bulbs are not as firm as those grown upland. Land in fine tilth, 
perhaps having been cropped with carrots, beets, cabbages, or 
other vegetable crops, is usually given the preference, and justly 
so ; but a young, rich, clean clover sod, thoroughly worked, is 
seldom less profitable, and often more so, than old ground. 

Manure and prepare the land as thoroughly as described for 
the production of bunch onions, being particularly careful to 
avoid manure which contains live weed seeds, for the greatest 
expense connected with onion growing is the destruction of weeds. 

Sowing Seed, — The torrid heat and prolonged drought of 
August should find the crop ready for harvesting. Consequently 
it is absolutely necessary for best success to sow as early in spring 
as the ground can be got in working order, perhaps by the help 
of fall plowing and laying off in beds. In the middle and 
southern states fall sowing may be practicable, and should at 
least be tested in every locality there. Here we usually sow in 
April, seldom in March. 

When the Meeker disk-harrow (or the steel-rake) has left the 
ground perfectly smooth and fine, good, plump, water-cleaned 
seed, that stands at least 75 per cent, germination test, is sown 
with the garden drill in rows 12 inches apart, at the rate of four 
or five pounds per acre. Most growers sow further apart, 16, 18, 
or even 20 inches ; but I consider this a useless waste of space 
and opportunity, since the yield per row will be the same, 
whether the rows are 12 or 20 inches apart, and the narrower 
planting, with no greater outlay for manure and tillage (weeding 
excepted), increases the crop in exact proportion to the increased 
number of rows. The style of wheel-hoe to be used perhaps 
influences the question of width of row somewhat. A Ruhlman, 
going between the rows, works to best advantage when the rows 
are 14 or 16 inches apart; while the Planet Jr. (and any other 
row-straddler) can be profitably run among rows that are only 
12 inches apart. The roller in the rear of the distributing 
tube and hopper, in our modern seed drills, firms the soil 
sufficiently to insure prompt germination of seed under common 

the larger part of the growing season. 

266 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Cultivation. — Usually the young plants will begin to 
appear above ground inside of two weeks, and now an energetic 
and unceasing fight against weeds begins, which lasts all through 

Use the wheel-hoe early 
and often, and never 
attempt to do without one 
of these tools in the onion 
patch, as this would 
almost exclude any possi- 
bility of making it pay. 
The weeding has to be 
done on hands and knees, 
early and often enough to 
suppress all weed growth. 
One of the hand-weeders, 
a common table knife with 
blade sharpened on both 
sides and bent in a curve, 
or a common iron spoon, 
can be used to advantage 
in scraping away the soil 
from the growing plants, 
and with it all weeds just 
starting in the row. Never 
draw the soil up to the 

onions, as they grow best 
on top of the ground. A 
second top-dressing of fer- 
tilizer, or of wood-ashes, at 
the time when the bulbs 
have made about half their 
growth, often has the happi- 
est effects. Still I consider 
repeated applications of 
nitrate of soda, say at the 
rate of 100 pounds per acre 
each time, of more conse- 
quence than any other 
top-dressing I know of. 
Early attention should be 
directed to the proper 
thinning. At the second 

weeding the plants must be left to stand not less than 2 mches 
apart in the rows. Remove the weaker — always leave the 
strongest plants. In subsequent weedings a narrow-bladed hoe 
may be used, thus allowing the work to be done in a standing 


Cultural Directions. — 267 


I cannot lay too much stress on the great importance of 
timely action in every stage of the proceeding. A few days' 
neglect in cultivating or weeding may increase the amount of 
labor required to such an extent as to double the cost of crop, at 
the same time greatly reducing the yield. 

Harvesting. — When the bulbs have reached their full size 
and maturity, as indicated by the dying down of the tops, the 
crop is ready to be harvested. 
Pull the onions by hand, or rake 
them out by means of a dull 
steel rake; taking great care to 
avoid cutting into them ; then 
leave in windrows on the ground 
to cure. Afterwards twist or cut 
off the remnants of tops and 
roots, if there be such, and try 
to sell the crop immediately from 
the field. If this cannot be done, \ [ 
store in a rather thin layer on a ^ 
dry floor or loft, until they can ^-- 
he disposed of I would not 
advise the novice to attempt 

wintering even a part of the crop, as this is a task which involves 
risk even for the more experienced. 

Onions in the Kitchen Garden. — For home use we want 
variety at all times, consequently we should plant a few sets to 
give us an early supply of bunch onions. This we do in the way 
already described for market growing, setting them in a row or 
two among our regular patch of closely-planted vegetables. We 
also desire onions for late use, and so we must also sow seed of 

various varieties, a row or so of 
each. Here the general rules 
given for culture in the farm 
garden should be closely fol- 
lowed. The thinning can be 
done gradually, and the young 
plants thus pulled out of the 
rows will supply the kitchen 
with onion material and onion 
flavor during the larger part of 
summer, and until the bulbs mature. For convenience and uni- 
formity's sake we allow the same space between rows as adopted 
for all the other small stuff, 1 5 inches being the usual and most 
convenient distance between the teeth of the hand marker designed 
for use in the home garden. Seed is usually sown by hand, but 
if a garden drill is handy, and seed is to be sown in larger 
quantities than single small packages, by all means use the drill. 

Yellow Dutch. 

268 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

The New Onion Culture. — No recent innovation in hor- 
ticultural practices has created such a stir among American 
gardeners as has been caused by the new method which I in- 
troduced under the name of " the 
new onion culture" in 1890-91. 
The idea of transplanting onions is 
not new; but it had never been 
systematically applied to practice in 
growing dry onions in America. 
The new method is of especial value 
in growing the large varieties of 
foreign origin, chief among them the 
Yellow Spanish or Prizetaker. In- 
deed it is so superior to the older 

^ method of growing the crop directly 

Extra Early Red. f^^^ ^^^^^ ^j^^^ I ^^^ „^^„^ ^^^^^ 

growers now practice the former to the almost entire exclusion 
of the other, resorting to the latter only in the production of 
sets and pickling onions. 

By far the best variety for the " new onion culture," and 
almost the only one which I grow, is the Prizetaker, already 
mentioned. Seed is sown under glass, preferably in flats in the 
greenhouse, during February (perhaps earlier, even in the fall in 
more southern locations). An early hotbed will do here ; a cold 
frame perhaps further south. Broadcast sowing gives the largest 
number of plants to a given space. By sowing j^ to ^ of 
an ounce of seed evenly over one square foot of space, we go 
about to the limit of allowable crowding. The tops will need to 
be sheared off once or oftener, to make the plants short and 
stocky. The transplanting should be done just as soon as the 
land can be gotten in best working order in spring. Earliness 
and promptness in this work largely determine the measure of 

Make the land very rich. Have the surface very smooth. 
Then draw light straight marks one foot apart, and with the 
help of a dibber, or with he finger set the plants two to three 
inches apart in the rows. The professional gardener, used to 
such work, will do this quite rapidly, and perhaps be able to set 
5000 and more plants in a day. 

It should hardly be necessary to say much about the neces- 
sity of keeping the ground well cultivated and scrupulously 
clean from weeds. The Planet Jr. double wheel hoe, and a nar- 
row-bladed hand hoe, are just the tools that will render ma- 
terial assistance in this task, and if they are used promptly, the 
weeds will have very little chance to become troublesome. One 
great advantage of the new method, indeed, is the small amount 
of hand labor required in caring for the crop after transplanting. 

Cultural Directions. — 269 

Thinning is entirely avoided, and the weeds are easily taken out 
from among the large plants standing at regular distances. I 
can grow an acre of Prizetakers by the new method with a sav- 
ing of 20 or 25 per cent, of labor 
compared with the old way. But 
there are other, and no less im- 
portant advantages of the former, 
among them : 

(i). Earlier ripening of the 
crop. With six weeks to start in 
sowing, the crop will come to 
maturity several weeks earlier than 
it would otherwise. This gives a 
chance for marketing the bulbs 
much in advance of competitors 
who adhere to the old onion cul- 
ture, as also in clearing the ground 
for succeeding crops, such as 
celery, turnips, fall spinach, etc. 

White Globe. 

(2). A decided improvement of the bulbs in respect to 
shape and uniformity. The bulbs standing at regular distances 
and having room enough for perfect development, grow to a 
much larger size, and as perfect as it is possible for onions to 

(3). A greatly increased yield, to the extent of even doub- 
ling or trebling that obtained by the ordinary method. A yield 
of 2000 bushels to the acre is within easy reach under the best 
conditions, and the crop can always be expected to exceed 1000 
bushels to the acre where the conditions are only fairly favora- 

(4). Quicker sale and better prices, in consequence of 
marketing at a more favorable season, and of the finer appear- 
ance of the bulbs. I often get all my Prizetakers into the market 
when they bring a dollar and upwards per bushel, while the ordi- 
nary crops, later on, bring 50 cents or less. 

(5). The elimination of almost all uncertainties from the 
business. P^ven failure, by blight or drouth, would often mean 
what average growers would call a " big crop." Nothing short 
of hail and flood could prevent a good profit in this new onion 
culture if managed with ordinary intelligence. 

Readers who are especially interested in this new and profit- 
able way of growing onions for market, will find all the minutest 
details explained in my "The New Onion Culture," 

270 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 


Our list of standard market sorts is not so very larp^e, and 
often we have but little choice in this respect. On the other 
hand the strains and selections of the different kinds are numer- 
ous, and greatly differing in merit. Of the Danvers Yellow, for 
instance, we have strains of almost perfect globe shape, others 
more or less approaching it, and from this every grade to the 
flat shape of the Yellow Dutch. Some strains are so improved, 
by careful selection, that the scallion is a if^ 

rare occurrence among them, while others 


Top Sets 

give a large proportion of thick-necked bulbs. Our first concern, 
therefore, is not only to get fresh seed, but also the best strain of 
the best varieties. Repeated trials of the seeds offered under 
guarantee by leading seedsmen will give you the desired infor- 
mation about their worth. 

Wethersfield, W^ethersfield Red. — The leading red 
market variety, large, coarse, reliable and exceedingly prolific. 
Skin deep purplish-red ; flesh white ; flavor strong. Unsurpassed 
as a keeper. 

Danvers Yellow, Yellow Globe Danvers. — Undoubtedly 
the most reliable market variety, and one of the most prolific. 
Early, good-sized, as round as a ball, and smooth as an apple, 
neck very small, flesh fine-grained. Cannot be praised too 

White Globe, Southport "White Globe. — The most popu- 
lar white market sort. Beautiful silvery-white in color, and of 
perfect globe shape. Large, prolific, reliable. Should be cured 
in the shade, otherwise it is apt to become discolored. Keeps 

Red Globe, Southport Red Globe, 

Yellow Globe, Southport Yellow Globe. — These resemble 
the White Globe in every way except color. 

Yellow Dutch, Yellow Strassburg. — Prolific and of fine 
flavor. Shape rather flat. Largely grown for market, and 
almost exclusively for yellow sets. 

Cultural Directions. — 271 

Extra Early Red. — Desirable for early market. Hardy, 
reliable, growing quickly to fair size. A good keeper, and 
especially valuable for red sets. 

Silver Skin, White Portugal, Philadelphia White. — 
Largely grown for pickling and for white sets. Of mild pleasant 
flavor, and decidedly handsome appearance. 

Maule's Prizetaker. — This I consider the finest of all 
onions with which I am acquainted. I have grown almost every 
variety listed by seedsmen ; but have never found one as large 
in size nor as handsome in shape and general appearance. This 
variety looks for all the world like the imported Spanish onion, 
which is sold in our fruit stores at five cents or more per pound. 

White Barletta. — The earliest and smallest onion ; excel- 
lent for pickles. 

New Queen. — Another small, handsome early pickling 
onion, good keeper. White. 

Silver King, Mammoth Silver King. — Introduced as the 
largest of all onions. Skin silvery-white, flesh remarkably sweet 
and tender. 

Giant Rocca of Naples, 

Giant Pompeii, 

Mammoth Red Tripoli, 

Giant White Tripoli, etc., etc. — All these are Italian 
varieties of quick growth, large size, remarkably mild flavor, 
but not long keepers. 

Potato Onions. — These produce no seed, and are always 
grown from the bulbs, which when planted, increase in size, and 
also produce a cluster of bulbs around the one planted. I have 
had excellent success with it in New Jersey, and seen it do well 
in southern Pennsylvania and sections south of these localities. 
Profitable for market, and entirely reliable. 

Egyptian Perennial Tree Onion. — This is probably 
grown more for its tops, to be used during winter for soups, etc., 
than for its bulbs. It is entirely hardy, and after once planted, 
can be had from the garden almost the entire year. I do not 
value it very highly. 


Apium Petroselimim. German, Pctersilic; French, Persil ; 
Spanish, Pcryil. Grown to a limited extent in market and home 
gardens. The leaves are used for seasoning soups, and for gar- 
nishing. Market garderiers sow for early supply in cold frame, 
or between rows of other vegetables. Seed is slow to germinate, 
and an early crop like radishes or lettuce can be taken off in 
time to give to the parsley the needed room. When large 
enough, the tops are repeatedly cut, and tied in little bunches for 

272 — How to Make the Garden Pay 

market, each containing about as much as can be encircled by 
thumb and forefinger. For later use, seed may be sown in open 
ground, in drills 12 inches apart. A little patch will go a great 

ways towards overstocking 
the market, and half a 
dozen plants, well fed, will 
be sufficient for a family 
^'/l garden. For winter use 
the leaves may be dried ; 
or a few plants taken up and 
trenched in like celery. 
Or you may have a few 
plants growing in a box 
or keg in the kitchen or cellar, or under the greenhouse bench. 
To grow it in the latter way, the plants should be started from 
seed in the fall. 

Double Curled. 


Plain or Common. — Somewhat hardier than the curled sorts, 
and good enough for seasoning. 

Double Curled, Extra Double Curled. — A beautiful 
variety with thick, curled foliage, and suitable both for flavoring 
and garnishing. 

Fern-Leaved. — Foliage most beautifully serrated, excel- 
lent for garnishing. 


Pastinaca Sativa. German, Pastinake ; 
French, Panais ; Spanish, CJiirivia. — Parsnip 
culture is very similar to 
that of the carrot, and the 
t/^ vegetable has about the •" 

*^^^^ same value as a garden and 
farm crop, and for stock 
^ ^ feeding. Sow in April or 

May in rows 12 to 18 , . 
mches apart, being careful f^ 
to use nciv seed only; and : ^, 
thin the young plants to 
3 or 4 inches apart. The 
plants start slowly and 
feebly at first, somewhat 
like Parsley, but soon get 
strong and able to take 
care of themselves. Soil should be clean and moderately rich. 
Parsnips are perfectly hardy, and their flavor is improved by 

Early Short Round. 

Cultural Directions. — 273 

frost. That part of the crop which is wanted for use or market 
during the winter, should be dug before the ground freezes solid, 
and stored in root cellar. The balance is left in 
the ground, and will carry through the winter 
without loss. For stock in early spring it is 
very superior — equal to carrots — and the easy 
way of wintering gives to parsnips a great 
advantage over all other root crops. 


Long Smooth. — The old standard variety, 
with very long roots. Large and reliable. 

Hollow Crow^n, Student, Improved Kalf 
Long. — Roots handsome, and very clean- 
skinned; crown despressed or hollow. A 
superior half-long table variety. 

Round, Early Short Round. — Very early ; 
roots short and chunky, somewhat like a turnip 
in shape. Decidedly the best for very shallow 



Arachia hypogcza. German, Erdmiss ; French, Arachide, 
Spanish, Chufa. — The peanut is an important farm crop for Vir- 
ginia and other south- 
ern states ; and while 
interesting everywhere, 
it is very unreliable 
north of Philadelphia^ 
as it requires a long 
season to bring it to 
maturity. In the north- 
ern home garden it 
will especially interest 
the young people, 
and the newly intro- 
duced " Spanish " or 
"Improved " nut should 
be tried just on this 
account where the com- 
mon Virginia peanut 
cannot be expected to 
ripen. Select warm 
soil, if possible of a cal- 
careous nature ; mark 
put rows 3 feet apart, and drop the nuts about a foot apart in the 

Improved "Ground Pea" or Peanut. 

274 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

rows, one in a place, and cover with 2 inches of soil. It is not 
necessary to remove the hulls or shucks before planting. Culti- 
vate and hoe freely, leaving but one plant in a place ; and keep 
the soil well mellowed up around the plants when seeds (nuts) 
are forming. It is quite interesting to observe the flowers as they 
insert their ovaries into the mellov/ soil, where they complete 
their growth and form nuts. Before freezing weather the plants 
are dug, or pulled up. Hang under a shed to cure ; then gather, 
clean and sort the nuts. 


Common Virginia. — The common market sort of the 
south, and found in every fruit store in America. Prolific, nuts 
large and well scattered. 

Spanish Improved. — Several weeks earlier than the pre- 
ceding. Nuts all growing in a compact cluster near the main 
stalk, and can be harvested by simply pulling up by hand. Pods 
small but well filled. Worthy of trial at the north. 


Pistint Sativum. German, Erbse ; French, Pois : Spanish, 
Guisante. — In green peas we have an important crop for both the 
garden and the farm. The profits may not be so very large, but 
the product is always salable, and brings early money. Nor is it 

necessary that the soil be so very rich 
or heavily manured. I found no garden 
crop that I can grow with greater ease 
and certainty merely by a moderate 
application of some good complete fertil- 
izer — say 500 or 600 pounds per acre. 
Peas seem to be partial to potash, and 
this in some form alone, or together-with 
phosphate (in ashes) frequently give as 
good results as complete manure. Peas 
do best in the fore-part of the season, 
and should be planted early, as those 
planted late for " succession " hardly ever 
turn out very satisfactory. Sow in drills, 
2 to 3 inches deep, and 2^ to 3)^ feet 
apart, according to vigor of variety and 
strength of soil. When grown for market the first aim should be 
to get the crop ready for sale at the earliest possible date. 

For the home garden I prefer to sow the best sorts — early, 
medium, late and latest — as early as I consider it safe, and often 
all at one time. This gives me a succession for 3 weeks or more, 

Earliest of All. 

Cultural Directions. — 275 

which is fully sufficient for my purposes. I also look with dis- 
favor upon the practice of brushing; lience plant chiefly the more 
dwarf sorts which do not require support. 

The sowing is usually done by hand in drills opened to the 
proper depth, and seed scattered pretty freely to insure a full 


Garden peas are classed in three great sections ; namely, 
(i) the round or smooth peas ; (2) the wrinkled peas ; and (3) 
the edible-podded or sugar peas. The round or smooth sorts 
are hardier than the others and can therefore, be planted earlier. 
Although all peas are usually classed as perfectly hardy, it is 
nevertheless a fact that a large percentage of the seed annually 
planted rots in the ground, merely because the ground at the 
time of planting is not warm enough for germination. 

The majority of farmers plant only the common smooth 
kinds, chiefly Black-Eyed Marrowfat, both for home use, and for 
market ; and neither they, nor their village customers are aware 

f/\AULE'S IMPROVED^t- ^/SW ness, sweetness and 

EXTRA EARLY y^jU \,/-'J^^M ^ tenderness of some 

THE MOST PROFITABLE PEA' l{ iy\\t L| M-^^^ r 

FOR MARI^ET GARDENERS f /J^Jjl* f?-\S ^. °"^ newer 

^ "*" wrinkled peas. I 

confess I have no appetite for the Black-Eyed Marrowfats, and 
others of that class, and do not want it on my table, so long as I 
can just as well have wrinkled sorts, that are as much superior 
to them as cream is to skim-milk. Besides this the wrinkled 
sorts have larger and better-filled pods, and peas of very much 

276 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

larger size, while the plants perhaps are only 12 or 18 inches 
high. Our children, for instance, would pick three baskets of 
Stratagem, or Yorkshire Hero, etc., as quickly and easily as 

they could fill one of the 
Black-Eyed Marrowfats. 
Earliest of All, 
Maule's Improved 
Extra Early. — These two 
sorts are the only ones of 
the very early smooth 
kind, with which I have 
been entirely pleased. 
Pods are good-sized and 
well-filled, and the peas 
of very good quality. A 
few days earlier than 
Little Gem, and decidedly 
prolific. Good for both 
market and home use. 

Daniel O'Rourke, 
Philadelphia Extra 

First and Best. — In 
these we have other 
and very popular market 


Bliss' Everbearing. 

varieties of the first early 
smooth class. All of this 
kind are somewhat similar in 
general characteristics, and 
grow from i ^ to 2 feet high. 

Black-Eyed Marrowfat. — 
Very popular with farmers for 
general use, and as a field 
variety. Good bearer; pods 
large and well-filled. A late, 
smooth variety. 

Blue Peter, McLean's 
Blue Peter, 

Blue Imperial, Dwarf 
Blue Imperial, 

Blue Beauty. — These blue- 
seeded smooth varieties bear 
numerous and well-filled pods; 

and the peas are large and handsome, but not equal in flavor to 
the wrinkled kinds. 

American Wonder. 

Cultural Directions.— 277 


Little Gem, McLean's Little Gem. — A leading and 
reliable first-early wrinkled sort, with well-filled pods, and of fine 

Premium Gem. — Resembles the preceding, and is said 
to be an improvement on it. 

American Wonder. — A very dwarf, very early wrinkled 
pea, of unsurpassed quality. Grows seldom 
more than 6 to 8 inches high ; and should he 
planted only on very rich soil, where highest 
culture is given. 

Abundance, Bliss' Abundance. — Half- 
dwarf, branching, exceedingly prolific. Pods 
large, well-filled, I might say overcrowded. 
Wrinkled and of fair quality. Late. 

Bliss' Everbearing. — Similar in outward 
appearance to the preceding, but of vastly better 
quality. In this respect really one of the very 
best of all peas. Late. 

Stratagem. — One of the finest peas in 
existence. Plant dwarfish, branching. Pods of 
very largest size, and crowded with peas which 
are of largest size and remarkably rich and 
sweet. Late. 

Prince of Wales, 

Yorkshire Hero, 

Telephone. — These beautiful wrinkled sorts 
should be tested in every garden ; pods and 
seeds large and the latter sweet and rich. Late. 

Champion of England. — The old popular 
late Wrinkled sort. Plant 4 or 5 feet high. Pods 
and peas of fair size and numerous. Peas of 
choicest quality. 

New Perpetual. — A real summer pea, 
worthy its name. A strong grower, branching, 
and seemingly inexhaustible in productiveness. 
Late, and continues to produce its large and 
well-filled pods until fall. Peas very large and 
of fine quality, tender, rich and sweet. 

Dwarf Sugar. — A low growing sort, bearing edible pods. 
None of this class are used to a very large extent in this country. 

PEPPER (Chili Pepper.) 

Capsicum Aiiuuinn. — German, Pimcnt Pfeffcr ; French, 
Pimcnt ; Spanish, Piniento. — Easily grown in almost any 
rich soil, and almost any location of the United States. 
Plants should be started early in hot-bed or green-house, 


278 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

and treated similarly as tomato or egg-plants; but they do 
not require near as long a season as either of them to 
produce a crop. I usually sow seeds in boxes or flats, often 

rather crowded, and in 
early June transplant 
from there directly to 
open ground, 2 or 2^ 
feet apart, and plants 1 5 
inches apart in the rows. 
Soil of a warm, sandy 
character is given the 
preference. I stimulate 
the plants to thrifty 
growth with liberal 
dressings of hen manure, 
and perhaps wood ashes, 
and thus have rows that 
for thrift and amount of 
fruit are beautiful to 
behold. I usually sell some of the peppers; a very few are 
utilized in the household, in preparing pickles and chowders, 
etc., and the rest are chopped up and mixed with other stuff to 
be prepared as a warm breakfast for the hens during fall and 
early winter. 

Ruby King-. 


Ruby King. — Too much cannot be said in its praise 
as a market and family variety. Fruit very large, bri 
red, well-shaped, always 
smooth, and of mild flavor. 

Large Bell, Bullnose, 

Sweet Mountain. — 
These are the principal 
older market sorts; early, 
bright red, mild, thick- 
fleshed and prolific. 

Golden Dawn. — Re- 
sembles Bullnose, except 
in color, which is a beau- 
tiful yellow. Sweet and 

Golden Upright. — 
Fruit large, golden yellow, smooth, thick-fleshed, mild 
always upright. Plants and foliage of remarkable thrift. 

Golden Queen. — Resembles Ruby King, except in 
which is a fine yellow. 


Red Cluster. 


Cultural Directions. — 279 

Procopp's Giant. — Largest of all, being two or three times 
as long as widest diameter ; pointed. Will need a few years more 
of careful selection for seed to make it more uniform and smooth, 
when it may be- 
come one of the 
grandest sorts in 

Red Clus- 
ter. — A small 
plant, perfectly 
covered with 
coral-red, small, 
thin peppers, 
all growing in 

bunches on the top of branches, 
and pointing upward and outward. 
Useful for hot pickles. Plant quite 

Long Red Cayenne. — Fruit 
small, long, very pungent. One of 
the old standards. 

Celestial. — Fruit about i]4 
inches long, conical, at first of 
beautiful waxy yellow, then chang- 
ing to purplish scarlet. Plant a free grower and thrifty bearer, 
and at any stage of development, after fruit has begun to set, a 
most attractive thing, worthy to be cultivated as a pot plant in 
greenhouse or conservatory. 


Mentha Pulcginm. German, Kraiisemunze ; French, Ment/i^ 
Pouliot. — Perennial of the mint family, easily propagated by 
division of the creeping root-stock, often found growing wild in 
moist, clayey soils. Leaves have an agreeable odor, and are 
used for seasoning and for medical purposes. 


Mentha Piperita. German, Ffeffennunze ; French, Menthe 
poirrce. — Grows wild along the margins of swamps and streams, 
and other wet places. In a few localities it is largely cultivated 
and utilized in the manufacture of peppermint oil and essence. 
Propagated by division of root-stock or stem, and is easily grown. 
Plant pieces of root in rows 2 feet by i, and give it a fair chance 
to grow, when it will soon take care of itself even on upland. 

28o — How to Make the Garden Pay. 


Solanum Tuberosiun. German, Kartoffel; French, Pomme-de- 
terre ; Spanish, Batatas. — The invention of potato planters and 
diggers, and the adoption of simplified culture generally, with 
consequent greatly increased production and greatly diminished 
average prices, have rendered potato growing for fall and winter 
market on a small scale much less profitable than it was a few 
years ago, and are more and more taking the business out of the 
hands of the small grower, and concentrating it in the hands of a 
few who plant large areas. The extensive grower has immense 
advantages in the opportunities afforded him to make use of all 
the modern improved implements ; and the small-scale operator 
can hope to stand up against this ruinous machine competition 
only by adopting a highly intensive system of cultivation. It is 
an unfortunate development, but seems to be the natural out- 
growth of all our present industrial conditions, and in entire 
conformity with those in other branches of business. Potatoes 
may yet be grown on a similar plan as wheat growing is now 
carried on at the west by the Dalrymples ; but while the yields 
on the large-scale plan may be a little above loo, and certainly 
less than 150 bushels per acre, the small grower, by careful 
selection of soil, varieties, manures, etc., should aim to bring his 
crop up to double the yields named, which together with the far 
smaller cost of getting the crop to market, must more than offset 
all large-scale advantages. 

The production of late potatoes for market is a farm (not a 
garden) operation, but the cultivation of early varieties often fits 
nicely into market-garden rotation, and, of course, belongs to the 
family garden also. 

Soil and Manure. — Under proper treatment, the crop can 
be grown on soil of almost any composition, provided it has a good 
natural or artificial drainage, Sandy loam, however, is always 
considered best — best for the yield and best for quality of tuber. 
All soils for potatoes, however, should be generously provided 
with humus (decayed vegetable matter), the more the better ; 
hence a young clover sod is always given the preference. 

Where the humus supply in the soil is scant, nothing better 
in the way of manure could be applied than thoroughly-rotted 
compost. Raw stable manure is to be avoided unless it can be 
applied a year in advance, or on a preceding crop. As a general 
thing, it is much safer to depend on soil in good fertility rather 
than on manure applications ; but on soils containing a sufficiency 
of vegetable matter I would use a good high-grade complete 
fertilizer, such as now made by most large fertilizer concerns 
especially for potatoes and other vegetables (a " special potato 

Cultural Directions. — 281 

manure ") in preference to even the best of stable manure. It is 
pure nonsense and poor economy, however, to waste large 
quantities of such fertilizer on utterly run-down land, in the 
expectation of growing very large crops right away. I have often 
found out that this will not work. Accumulated fertility in the 
soil appears to be indispensable for a full measure of success. At 
the same time, it will be proper to state that these high-grade 
fertilizers, applied at the rate of from Soo to 1600 lbs. per acre, 
have sometimes given me an increase in the yield sufficient to 
pay two or three times the cost of manure, besides leaving the 
ground in better condition than before. 

Rotation. — To diminish the danger of attacks by potato 
beetles, flea beetles, and other insect foes, as well as by the 
diseases peculiar to the crop, its frequent change to a location 
as far as possible remote from any place where potatoes had 
been grown the year before, is to be heartily recommended 
as a safe and most practical means. This may not usually 
prevent the attacks entirely; but it will tend to render them 
far less serious and intense. Although perhaps not generally 
recognized, it is nevertheless a fact that few potato crops are 
now grown the foliage of which escapes considerable injury 
by beetles, blights, and poisonous applications, resulting in 
great reduction of the yield. Strictest adherence to the " wide 
rotation " principle, therefore, is a practice dictated by ordinary 

Average Yields. — The average yield of the crop in the 
various states is ridiculously low. Some of the reasons for this 
fact have already been alluded to. Another is the yet common 
practice of planting in check rows, which, besides, are often 
needlessly wide apart. A change to drill planting, with not more 
than 3 feet space between the rows, and 1 2 to 18 inches between 
the seed pieces, frequently doubles the yield. 

The size of seed pieces also has its decided influence upon 
the yield. Large seed pieces under average circumstances give 
the largest crops. Most growers use pieces too small for their 
own good. Let us make an examination of the potato fields a 
few weeks after planting time, in spring, and we see the great 
majority of the plantings come up slowly and weakly, with a 
single stalk growing from each hill, and many gaps in the rows. 
We may be sure the yield will be accordingly. Larger pieces, 
even whole tubers, have always given me the heaviest yields, and 
this to such an extent, that this extremely heavy seeding (some- 
times over 30 bushels per acre) has turned out to be very profit- 
able on good soil, and under average fair conditions. 

The condition of seed is another factor in determining the 
yield. A full crop can only be grown from fresh, plump, seed- 
tubers that have not been weakened by the emission of spindling 

282 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

sprouts before planting. Southern growers were in the habit of 
planting " northern-grown" seed, and now northern planters call 
for " second-crop " southern seed. 

Early Crops. — The same methods suited for the production 
of early potatoes in the market garden may also be adopted for 
the family garden, and for small-scale operations generally. 

The southern states supply the chief markets of the north 
with young potatoes long before the northern near-by grower 
can get his crop ready. It maybe true that the southern potato 
grower takes the cream ; but the milk that is left is yet very 
acceptable to the northern grower, who manages now to get his 
crop into market a little in advance of the rush, thus securing 
quite remunerative prices in spite of all southern competition. 
Earliness must be the foremost aim. 

As means to this end we have (first), a judicious selection of 
soil, which should be well-drained, warm, somewhat sandy, and 
full of vegetable matter; (second), the selection of earliest good 
varieties, such, for instance, as Early Ohio and Early Sunrise ; 
(third), the use of well-preserved seed tubers ; (fourth), reasonably 
heavy seeding ; (fifth), early planting, in a sheltered situation if 
possible ; (sixth), stimulation of the plants by high feeding and 
high cultivation to induce rapid development ; (seventh), digging 
and marketing just as soon as the tubers are in merchantable 

Garden Culture. — Early in spring the ground is thoroughly 
plowed and harrowed, and the furrows marked out with a one- 
horse plow, 2^ or 3 feet apart. Market gardeners, following 
their natural instincts and habits of close planting, usually have 
the rows 2^ feet apart. I find it more convenient for cultivation 
to make them for early sorts at same distance as for the late ones, 
3 feet apart. If any fertilizer is applied in the bottom of the 
furrows — say a dressing of fine compost, wood ashes, hen manure, 
or " special potato manure," it is well mixed with the soil, and the 
latter at the same time nicely pulverized, by running a shovel- 
plow once or twice along in each furrow. On a small scale this 
may be accomplished by plying the hand hoe. 

The seed pieces are then dropped 10 or 12 inches apart in 
the furrows, and covered about two inches deep with the hoe. 
Some good special potato fertilizer may now be scattered along 
the rows above the covered seed pieces, say at the rate of from 
400 to 800 lbs. per acre ; and if the land is not rich in accumu- 
lated plant food, a small dressing of nitrate of soda, broadest, 
will assist in bringing out an early and thrifty growth of foliage. 
The cultivator (Planet Jr., or a similar narrow-bladed wheel-hoe) 
should be used very freely; and as the plants grow, the furrows 
are filled up level with the surface. Hilling is neither required 
nor beneficial. The old style of ridging by means of a winged 

Cultural Directions. — 283 

shovel-plow is out of date ; but the soil must be kept well stirred 
and mellow until the plants cover the ground. When the tops 
begin to die, or even sooner, the crop is ready for digging, and 
if the price is acceptable, should be marketed at once, since prices 
are usually declining very rapidly just at that time. 

Field Culture. — The market gardener, on account of his 
larger yields and the better prices he receives, can well afford 
to take more pains with his crop ; and so can the home grower, 
who will hardly miss the 
few hours he spends on his 
patch plying the hoe. In 
growing potatoes for main 
(late) crop, however, with 
the prospect of continued 
low prices for an average 
crop before us, we are forced 
to adopt a more economical 
system, especially in the 
employment of labor. The 
work must be done almost 
exclusively with horse and 
machine, and without call- Early Sunrise. 

ing on hand hoes and spading forks or potato hooks for assistance. 
Thus it is yet possible, even at the present low average prices, to 
make the crop one of the most profitable for the farm in favor- 
able locations. 

A young, rich clover field, as already stated, is undoubtedly 
a superior selection for a site. In regard to the application of 

manures, I confess we are as yet 
quite ignorant. A number of 
ways are open to us, namely : 
(i) to apply the compost or 
fertilizers broadcast and plow it 
in ; or, (2) to broadcast them 
after plowing and simply harrow 
them in ; or, (3) to put the fertil- 
izing material into the bottom of 
the furrows under the seed ; or, 
(4) to scatter it over the lightly 
covered seed. Myself and other 
people have made various tests to find out which of these 
methods will give us the best results ; but the outcome thus far 
has been of a rather negative character, and I believe the conclu- 
sion is justified that the mode of application is of far less influence 
upon the yield than the quantity of fertilizer. The indications, 
also, are that fertilizer applied above the seed usually gives 
slightly better returns than when applied in the bottom of the 

Chas. Downing. 

284 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

furrow before planting. My own practice — satisfactory to myself 
— is to spread the compost, if any is applied, evenly over the field 
before plowing ; but to apply only half of the fertilizer broadcast, 
either before or after plowing, and to scatter the other half over 
the rows above the covered seed pieces. 

I believe in planting early, say one or two weeks before the 
customary time for planting field corn. But it can also be done 
later in the season, and even up to July, provided that good seed 
is on hand. To preserve seed tubers until that time in best con- 
dition, they may be spread thinly upon the floor in a well-lighted 
room, or kept in cold storage until wanted for planting. 

Size of seed pieces and distance of placing them in the drills 
depend somewhat on local conditions. Some growers report 
good results from planting single-eye pieces rather close. I 
have never been able to raise a full crop from single eyes, or 
small seed pieces generally ; and in order to insure a chance 
for a good crop, always find myself obliged to resort to pretty 

heavy seeding. When plant- 
ing time approaches, plow 
the ground 8 or 10 inches 
deep, or at least to the whole 
depth of the surface soil, if 
this be less. Fall plowing 
is seldom of much benefit 
except on heavier soils ; 
neither is double or cross- 
plowing. Mellow the ground 
thoroughly by means of one 
of our modern deep-cutting 
harrows (Cutaway, disk, etc.) 
and drill in the seed by means of an Aspinwall, or other good 
potato planter, in rows 3 feet apart, and 12 to 18 inches apart 
in the rows. Of course, the potato planter is usually available 
only to large operators ; and where the planting has to be 
done by hand, furrows must be laid out with a single-horse 
plow, 4 inches deep and 3 feet apart, and the seed, consisting 
of good-sized pieces, or whole small or medium-sized tubers, 
deposited at intervals of 12 to 18 inches in the bottom ot the 

In most cases, especially when the soil is not as mellow as 
it might be, the treatment of the furrows, which has recently 
become famous as the " Rural (New Yorker) trench system," 
will be found to give good results. It consists in mellowing up 
the soil in the bottom of these furrows very thoroughly, either 
by means of a common shovel-plow, going at least twice in each 
furrow, or by devices constructed for the purpose, such as I 
hope will be invented before long and put on sale in every 

Cultural Directions. — 285 

hardware store. This is done in order to give to the roots 
of the vines, and to the tubers also, the best possible chance for 

The seed is to be covered with about two inches of soil, and 
this should be firmed in same manner as other seed, best by- 
setting the foot firmly and squarely upon each piece. The 
fertilizer is then scattered along in the half-filled trenches, and 
this finishes the planting. 

Cultivation should be begun within a week. I have never 
found a method of cultivating the potato field during its earlier 
stages more effectual, cheaper and easier than by the early, 
thorough, and repeated use of a Thomas' smoothing harrow. 

It gives us every advantage without a single drawback. The 
first harrowing, shortly after planting, had better be given in the 
direction of the rows ; the next one four or five days after, across 
the rows; and one or two more, at intervals of four or five days 
each, in the same way. This 
treatment renders the surface 
smooth and even, mellows and 
pulverizes the soil thoroughly, 
and so utterly discourages the 
weeds, that they will not 
venture to show themselves 
for a long time. Now the 
young plants have probably 
grown several inches high ; 
and the cultivator (Planet Jr., 
for instance) must take the 
place of the harrow. In the 
manipulation of the cultivator, 
we aim to crowd the row at 
the right-hand pretty closely, and going twice between the same 
two rows, stir the entire surface of the soil without leaving 
anything for the hand hoe to do. Cultivation is kept up until 
the vines cover the ground. 

Digging, Harvesting and Storing. — In clean, mellow soil 
our modern potato diggers do good service. Where none is avail- 
able, a common one-horse plow (or a shovel-plow) often answers 
very well. Small patches may be dug with a potato hook, or a 
digging fork, or even a common hand hoe. If dug by machine 
or plow, the ground, after the crop is picked up, can be harrowed 
over with the smoothing harrow, thus brinp-ina- the few tubers, 
that had been covered up and hidden, into sight for gathering. 
The tubers may be left on the ground for a short time, and 
are then gathered in box-crates holding a bushel each, and thus 
drawn to market, cellar, root-house, or pit. The simplest, 
cheapest, and generally most satisfactory mariner of storing for 

The Polaris. 

286 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

wintering over, next to that in root cellar, is in pits, provided the 
potatoes are covered up when cool, and protected sufficiently to 
keep them from contact with frost. 


The most sensible way of classifying our hundreds of potato 
varieties, it seems to me, would be by bringing them under the 
head of types or families — Early Rose type, Burbank type, 
Beauty of Hebron type, Peerless type, etc. — The varieties are 
and will always be changing, new additions being made to the 
list, and old ones dropped. The following list includes the 
sorts now leading : 

Early Ohio. — Yet the earliest good sort with which I am 
acquainted. Needs high culture, and is emphatically a garden 
potato ; especially valuable for the market garden. Cooks dry 
and mealy even before fully ripe. Quality best. Keeps well, 
much better than its parent, the Early Rose. 

Early Sunrise. — Another seedling of Early Rose, much re- 
sembling it, but considerably earlier. Good for home and 
market garden. 

White Prize. — A very smooth, handsome potato and a 
great yielder. Flesh, white ; and always cooks dry and mealy. 

The Polaris. — A new extra early of considerable merit. It 
is of oblong shape, white skin ; eyes few and shallow, always 
cooks dry and mealy. Matures a week ahead of either the Early 
Rose or Beauty of Hebron. 

Early Rose. — The well-known early market variety. So 
many of its seedlings have been introduced in recent years, 
and are being marketed under the name of " Early Rose," that 
it may be difficult to procure the pure old variety under that 

Beauty of Hebron. — Equals the Rose in popularity as an 
early market sort, and ripens at about the same season. 

Clark's No. i. — An early sort of the Rose type. 

Peerless. — An old sort, formerly much grown for market, 
especially in sandy soils; very productive, and perhaps still 
good for the south. 

Cultural Directions. — 287 

White Elephant. — A large, late and immensely productive 
Beauty of Hebron ; of fine quality, and still well thought of in 
some localities. 

Burbank. — The old standard market sort. Of Rose- 
shape, and pure white color ; prolific ; a good keeper ; but of good 
quality only when grown on light soils. 

White Star. — Might be called an Improved Burbank, as it 
resembles that sort in general appearance, but seems to be 
superior to it in almost every respect. Now, next to the Rose, 
the leading market sort. 

Empire State. — Superior in yield and quality. 

Freeman. — A fairly early variety of the old Snowflake 
type. Tubers round, somewhat flattened ; skin white, slightly 
russeted; flesh of snowy whiteness. The plant is of very strong 
growth, and liable to set a large number of potatoes which are 
unexcelled by any other for smoothness, handsome appearance, 
and high quality. Everyone who appreciates a really good po- 
tato, should grow the Freeman. It wants rich soil, high culture, 
and light seeding. 

Irish Daisy. — Introduced in 1894; a seedling of Empire 
State ; claimed to possess all the strong qualities of its parent. 
Eyes shallow ; skin pure bright straw color. Ripens with Rural 
New Yorker No. 2 and White Star. 

Rural New Yorker No. 2. — A mid-season variety which 
has quickly come to the front. It is a strong grower and heavy 
yielder of large, square, somewhat flattened tubers. Rather 
coarse, and desirable only where large yield is of more consid- 
eration than quality. 

Carman No, i. — Introduced in 1894. Resembles the pre- 
ceding in growth, thrift, season, productiveness, and general ap- 
pearance of tuber, but far surpasses it in quality. Probably des- 
tined to take the place of the former as a leading market variety. 


Convolvulus Batatas. German, Batate ; French, Patate 
Douce ; Spanish, Batata — In sweet potatoes we have a most 
important crop for the middle and southern states ; but one which 
will hardly ever succeed in the short seasons north of New 

288 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

York city, although by coddling a comparatively few plants, the 
tubers can be brought to some size. The crop, however, will not 
be a profitable one for market in such northern localities. 

Growing the Plants. — To start the beds we need a good 
strong hot-bed, although not as early in the season as for egg- 
plants or even tomatoes. The manure is but lightly covered with 
soil or sand, and the tubers are spread out in single layer, the 
larger ones split in halves, cut-side down, as closely as possible 
without overcrowding. The layer is then covered with 3 or 4 
inches of sand. Water and ventilation have to be given as for 
egg plants or peppers. In five or six weeks the first plants will 
be large enough to sever from the seed tubers, which is accom- 
plished by simply pulling them up. New plants continue to start, 
and may be pulled, and planted out as they grow large enough. 

Growing the Crop. — Warm, well-drained soil of medium fer- 
tility is best. Rich soil is apt to produce too rank'a growth of vines, 
and make it almost impossible to prevent them from rooting all 
over the ground, and thus wasting their energies in the formation 
of large numbers of tubers too small for use, instead of concen- 
trating them on the development of the tubers in the hill. 

Mark out light furrows 4 feet*apart, and fill them rounding 
full with good manure, or scatter a liberal quantity (say 800 
pounds or more per acre) of good special potato fertilizer in them. 
Next with a one-horse plow throw a furrow to the manure 
from each side of the row, forming a pretty good ridge, which is 
to be smoothed nicely with the hoe, and thus got ready for 
setting the plants. The proper time for doing this is when the 
ground has become thoroughly warm, say from May 15th to 
June 15th. Set the plants firmly on top of the ridge, about 24 
inches apart, leaving them in the centre of a slight depression. 
I need hardly repeat that the roots of the plants, just previous to 
setting out, ought to be dipped in water. A half-pint of water 
should also be poured into the depression around each plant. 
Afterwards keep well cultivated and free from weeds, and occa- 
sionally lift up the vines to detach them from the ground, where 
they have begun to strike root between the hills and rows. 

Harvesting. — After the first light frost, the vines are to be 

cut off close above the ground, and the roots carefully lifted out 

by means of a spading fork. Great care is necessary in order to 

avoid bruising the tubers. The latter may be left out on the 

ground for a few hours to dry, and should then be stored in a dry 

and warm loft. To keep well, they should not be exposed to much 

change of temperature, or a lower temperature than 50 or 55 

degrees Fahrenheit. 

^ varieties. 

Yellow Nansemond. — The leading market sort in the 
middle states, A red sort is now gaining in popularity. 

Cultural Directions. — 289 


Cucurbita. German, K'urbiss ; French, Potiron ; Spanish, 
Calabaza. — The cultivation 
of pumpkins is the same as 
described for squash, which 
see. Have the hills about 
12 feet apart each way, with 
2 or 3 good plants in a hill. 
Farmers generally plant 
pumpkin seeds in the hills 
with their corn, and often 
have a large crop, both for 
stock and for pies, in the 


The following are excel- 
lent for pies : 

Japanese Pie. — This 
new pumpkin originated in 
Japan, and is said to surpass 
every other variety in flavor. 
Flesh is unusually fine 
grained, and when cooked 
is almost as dry and mealy 
as a sweet potato. They 
grow to a medium size ; are 
very productive, and excel- 
lent keepers. 

Large Cheese, 

Mammoth Etampes, 


Yellow Sweet Potato, etc. — All these are popular sorts. 


Raphaniis Sativus. German, Radies {Rettig) ; French, 
Radis ; Spanish, Rabanito. — Radishes are one of the chief 
market garden crops for forcing under glass, and for 
early outdoor culture, and so easily grown that there is 
no need of giving lengthy directions. The whole crop can 
often be produced and disposed of within thirty-five or forty 
days from sowing seed, and, for this reason, it is often sown 
between the rows of other vegetables that occupy the ground 

290 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

for a longer period, but, starting slowly, give the radishes 
opportunity needed to come to full size. In outdoor 
broadcast sowing is not unfrequently practiced ; but it is a 
hardly worthy of consideration by good gardeners, and I 
practice nor recommend it. For culture 
under glass see the hints given in the 
chapters on cold-frames and forcing- 
houses. In open air culture, avoid new 
manure and old ground, i. c, ground on 

all the 

Early Deep Scarlet Olive. 

Earliest Deep Scarlet Turnip 

Mammoth Chinese. 

which radishes, turnips, cabbages, and other plants of the same 
family have been grown the year before. Stimulate growth by 
light applications of nitrate of soda. In the market garden, to 
save space, the rows can be crowded very closely together, 6 
inches between them being ample; in the home garden we 
usually plant twice that distance, or more, for convenience in 
cultivation. In either case, however, it is a good practice to 
utilize the space between widely planted crops — cabbages, beans, 
etc. — when first set out or sown, by growing a row or two of 
radishes between each two rows of the others. The great enemy 
of this crop is the maggot, which often entirely ruins whole 
patches. Rotation and avoidance of rank manure are our best 
weapons. Don't neglect early thinning to make the crop 


These are divided in three classes, (i) early or forcing 
radishes, (2) summer and autumn radishes, (3) winter radishes. 

Cultural Directions. — 291 


Earliest Deep Scarlet Turnip. — One of the very earliest. 
I have had it fit for the table in less than twenty days after 
sowing. Round, handsome, of bright color, and fine quality. 

Early Erfurt. — Another extra early sort, and one of the very 
best. Somewhat similar in general characteristics to the preceding. 

Early White-Tipped Scarlet Turnip. — A handsome, 
early, round sort, bright carmine in color with white at tip end. 

Early White Turnip. — Roundish or flattened, white, 

White Box is sent out as an improved White Turnip. 

Early Deep Scarlet Olive, 
and handsomest of the small or 
forcing varieties. Flesh tender 
and of mild flavor. Very early 

-Considered one of the best 

White Turnip. 

French Breakfast. — Handsome and early, and quite 
popular as an early market sort. Remains in condition fit for 
table use but a few days after the bulbs or roots are fully formed, 
hence it cannot be recommended for the home garden. 

All these early varieties are suitable to be planted for 
succession all through the season. 


Long Scarlet Short-Top. — A handsome second early, 
long-rooted variety, suitable both for forcing and out-door culture. 

Long Vienna, 

White Ladyfinger. — Two fine, long, white sorts, of tender 
flesh and superior flavor. 

Large White Summer Turnip. — Grows to a large size, 
and remains in condition fit for the table longer than most other 
summer varieties. 

Stuttgart Giant White Turnip. — Grows still larger than 
the preceding, and in flavor and otherwise has many of the 
characteristics of the winter varieties, and may be served in the 
same manner. 

292 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Yellow Summer. — A good, strong, long-standing summer 
variety with dark russety -yellow skin. Its flavor reminds of that 
of winter radishes. 

Golden Summer is introduced as an improved Yellow 

White Strassburg Summer. — One of the finest half-long 
varieties, very productive, growing to large size ; skin and flesh 
pure white ; of superior tenderness and quality, 

1834. — Similar to the above, but of American origin. 

Chartier. — One of the largest of this class, smooth, hand- 
some, long roots ; somewhat late, and of considerable pungency 
but crisp and tender when well-grown. 


White Lady Finger. Long Scarlet. 


China Rose Winter. — Early, handsome, tender, of some- 
what sweetish flavor. Quite popular. 

Black Spanish Winter Long. — Very black, flesh white, 
firm, tender, pungent. 

Large White Spanish Winter. — A quick grower, skin 
and flesh white. Firm and pungent. A good keeper. 

Large White Russian. — A mammoth in size, but lacking 
in tenderness and crispness. 

California Mammoth White Winter, Mammoth Chinese. 
— Of very rapid growth, large, tender, and of mild flavor. I 
prefer it to all other winter varieties. 

Cultural Directions. — 293 


Rheiim Hybridum {Rhaponticum). German, Rhabarber ; 
French, Rlmbarbe ; Spanish, Ruibarbo. — Rhubarb, or pie-plant, 
is largely grown for market near all larger cities, and found in 
almost every American home garden. It is usually propagated 
by division of the roots, each eye or bud with a piece of the 
fleshy root attached being capable of producing a large plant 
within a year's time. It also grows readily from the seed, at a 
year's delay in producing the crop. Plants grown from seed 
also vary very largely in habit of growth. Seed is sown in drills, 
12 or 15 inches apart, and the plants thinned to a few inches in the 
drills. In fall or spring following they are to be set out in same 
way as pieces of roots from older plants. 

Select warm, well-drained soil, plow deeply, if possible 
following with a subsoil plow, and mark out furrows four feet 
apart each way. A few shovelfuls of rich compost should be 
mixed with the soil at each intersection. Then set the plants 
carefully and firmly, and from this time on keep the ground 
cultivated and free from weeds. In spring following, the stalks 
may be pulled freely. A plantation will last many years, but the 
plants should be given a good dressing of rich compost every 
year or two. Home gardeners sometimes place boxes, or kegs 
with heads removed, over the hills in early spring, and by this 
means produce extra long and tender growth of stalk. 

For winter and early spring use, Rhubarb is often forced 
in greenhouses and cold-frames, and usually with very fair profit. 
The roots are taken up in the autumn, crowded together in boxes 
or barrels with a little soil between them, and placed in any con- 
venient place in the greenhouse (under the benches, for instance), 
where they soon start into growth. For cold-frame culture the 
roots are planted closely together in a deep frame in the autumn, 
and covered with a heavy layer of dry forest leaves. In February 
or March the leaves are removed, and the sashes put on. Forced 
Rhubarb is usually more tender and succulent than that from 
open ground. 


Victoria, Wyatt's Victoria. — Stalks red, and very thick. 
Leaves broad. Productive. Late. 

Linnaeus, "Wyatt's Linnaeus. — Stalks deep green, early. 


Rosmarinus Officinalis. German, Rosviariii ; French, 
Romarin ; Spanish, Romero. — A shrub-like perennial, the leaves 
of which are used for seasoning. Propagated from seed, or 

294 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

more generally from division of the root-stock. A tuft or two of 
it planted in any convenient, well-drained spot, will furnish all a 
family may possibly want, without requiring further attention. 


Rtiia Graveolens. German, Raute ; French, Rue. — The 
leaves of this little perennial shrub, although bitter and very 
pungent, are nevertheless sometimes used for seasoning. Plants 
are easily grown from seed, or from division of the tufts. Set 
the plants 20 or 24 inches apart each way in well-drained but 
rather moist soil. Little or no further attention is required. 


Salvia Officinalis. German, Salbei ; 
French, Sauge ; Spanish, Salvia. — A perennial 
shrub of easiest culture, the leaves of which 
are largely used for seasoning sausages, meat, 
etc. Readily propagated from seed as well 
as by layering. Sow seed in early spring in 
drills, in well-drained soil. The plants will 
last for many years without requiring much 
attention. It is largely grown for market as 
a second crop. The Broad Leaved is an 
improved variety. 



Tragopogon Porrifolium. German, Haferwurzel ; French, 
Salsifis ; Spanish, Salsifi. — It is only recently 
that people have begun to like salsify, and to 
cultivate it more generally. It is becoming so 
important as a market crop that some market 
gardeners near the large cities of the east now 
grow acres of it. 

Culture. — Seed is sown in spring in drills 12 
inches apart, and the plants thinned to 3 or 4 inches 
apart in the rows. The soil should be rich and 
well prepared, and kept well cultivated and hoed 
during the growing season. The crop may be dug 
late in the fall, and stored away like other root 
crops for use during the winter. Frost improves 
its flavor. That part of the crop which is intended 
for spring use, may safely be left in the ground 
over winter, and only at the extreme north it 
may be necessary to draw a little soil over the rows for winter 

Cultural Directions. — 295 


Until recently only one variety was catalogued, sometimes 
under the name of \Vhite French. Some years ago a much 
larger sort was introduced as Mammoth Sandwich Island. 
This is so much more productive, and generally so superior to 
the old sort, that we have no further use for the latter. 


Sahireia Hortcnsis. German, Bohncnkraut ; French, Sar- 
riette {anmielle)\ Spanish, Ajcdrea. — The leaves of this bushy 
annual are frequently used for seasoning. Sow 
seed in spring in good, warm soil, and keep free 
from weeds. Sometimes grown for market as a 
second crop. 


Saturcia Montana. German, Winter Bohn- 
cnkraut ; French, Sarnetta (vivace) ; Spanish, 
Hisopillo. — A small perennial shrub, the leaves 
of which are used in same manner as those of 
the summer savory. Seed may be sown in 
spring in any convenient, well-drained spot 


where the plants are to remain. They need very little attention. 

Scorzoncra Hispanica. German, Schivarzzvurzel ; French, 
Scorsonere ; ^^2ji\s\\, Escorzonera. — A perennial, cultivated either 
as annual or biennial, exactly like Salsify, with this difference 
that the roots, if left in the ground, will continue to grow in size 
and to remain fit for use. Used like salsify, but grown in 
America only to a very limited extent. 


Crambe Maritima. German, Mecrkohl ; 
French, Crambe; Spanish, Soldanella ; 
Maritima. — Sea-Kale is found in very few 
American gardens. When well-grown, it 
makes such an excellent dish that it is well 
worth the trouble required to raise it. 
Propagated both from seed and root cut- 
tings. Make the soil very rich and mellow. 
Then plant a few seeds, or a four-inch piece 
of root, in hills, three feet apart each way, 
and keep well cultivated and free from weeds. If more than one 
plant grows from the seed, all but the strongest are pulled up as 


296 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

soon as the one remaining has attained sufficient size. At 
the extreme north the crowns must be protected during winter 
by a covering of leaves or litter. The second season from 
root cuttings, or the third season from seed, the plants are strong 
enough to yield a supply. To make sea-kale fit for use, it has 
to be blanched. For this purpose the crowns must be covered 
in early spring with sand or muck, to the depth of at least 
twelve inches; or an inverted flower pot, with hole in bottom 
entirely stopped up, be placed over each crown, and further 
covered with leaves or dry soil. The bed will last quite a 
number of years, but should be manured with good compost 
every fall or spring. 


Allium Ascalonicmn. Ger- 
man, Schalotte ; French, EcJia- 
lotc ; Spanish, Chalote. — Used 
to some extent as a '"ubstitute 
for green onions in early spring. 
Tht bulbs are usually divided 
and planted in early autumn, in 
rows one foot apart, and five 
or six inches apart in the row. 
Perfectly hardy, and coming 
earlier than onions, they are 
often quite a profitable crop for 
Shallot. market. 


Riiniex Acctosa. German, Satierampfer ; 
French, Oseille. — Used to a limited extent 
for soups and salads. Usually grown from 
seed, which is sown in early spring in good 
soil, having rows one foot apart. Thin the 
plants to stand five or six inches apart in the 
rows. The leaves are the part used. Cut 
out the seed-stalk, as soon as it appears. 


Spinacea Oleracea. German, Spinat ; French, Epinard ; 
Spanish, Espinaca. — In spinach we have a most important market 
garden crop, valuable alike for open air culture and for forcing 
under glass. There is hardly a time during the entire year that 
spinach could not be produced, or find ready sale in the city 
markets. Southern truck farmers grow it quite extensively as 


Cultural Directions. — 297 

an early spring crop for shipping to the north. Within reason- 
able distance from New Yori< city and Philadelphia spinach is 
largely grown in cold-frames and forcing houses, and usually 
affords the grower very fair returns. For fuller information on 
.this point see the respective chapters. 

As early in spring as we can get the ground in working 
order, we begin outdoor culture by sowing seed in drills in the 
usual way, and in very rich and well-prepared soil. Nitrate of 
soda, applied in small and repeated doses, tends to produce large fol- 
iage. Use the hand wheel-hoe freely, and keep the ground free from 
weeds. When ready for gathering, run a sharp scuffle or push hoe 
along the rows under the plants, thus cutting them off close to 
the ground. They are then picked up, freed from dead and 
decaying leaves, and washed clean, when they are ready for use 
or market. For longer distances, spinach is usually packed in 
barrels, haying openings in bottom and sides. In many market 
gardens spinach is sown 
as a secondary or auxiliary 
crop between rows of early 
cabbages, etc. It comes 
off in time to give the cab- 
bages the needed space. 
For fall market, seed is 
sown in August, for win- 
ter and earliest spring 
crops, in September and 
early October. Make the ■!S553««»c==-— — -==^ 

land very rich, using the 
best of compost freely. Top dressings of poultry manure and 
nitrate of soda seldom fail to increase the yield largely, and some- 
times immensely. 

Plant in drills one foot apart, using seed very freely (twelve 
or fifteen pounds to the acre), and firming it very thorougkly. 
At this time of the year it is often so hot and dry, that seeds 
refuse to germinate, unless extra precaution is taken in sowing. 
Keep the ground well cultivated and free from weeds. Should 
the plants come very thick, they may be thinned late in October 
or in November, and the thinnings used or sold. The main 
crop usually winters over without loss, but in exposed situations 
should be lightly covered with coarse litter or leaves. The crop 
is cut and marketed in early spring. 


We have now quite a number of varieties, varying slightly 
in habit of growth, and formation of leaf 

Round-Leaf. — Very popular with market gardeners on 
account of its great hardiness. 

igS — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Long-Standing Summer. — Closely resembles the Round- 
Leaf, but runs to seed a week or more later. For this reason it 
is decidedly preferable, especially also for the home garden. 

Thick-Leaved. — An old market sort, both for spring and 
fall sowing. 

Viroflay is said to be a more productive strain of this. 

Savoy-Leaved. — Leaf somewhat curly, reminding of the 
Savoy Cabbages. I do not see in it any merits above those of 
other sorts. 

Prickly. — So named from the prickly character of its 

Substitutes. — Various plants are now used as substitutes 
for spinach, among them the following : 

New Zealand Spinach, Tetragonia expansa. — An annual 
with spreading stem, and thick, heavy leaves. Seeds large and 
prickly. Stands the summer heat remarkably well, and is 
therefore frequently used in place of spinach during June, July 
and August, or in very hot and dry locations. 

Orache, Atriplex Hortensis. — Annual with broad, arrow- 
shaped leaves; stands the heat remarkably well, but succeeds 
best in rich, moist soil. Otherwise treated like spinach. 

Sprouts. — Much grown at the south for home and northern 
markets. See Kale. 

Strawberry Elite, Blitiim Capitatum. — An annual weed, 
extremely hardy, and sometimes recommended as a substitute for 
winter spinach at the extreme north. When loaded with its 
bright-red, berry-like fruit in spring, it is quite ornamental. 


Ciiciirbita. German, Speise Ki'irbiss ; French, Courge, 
Potiron ; Spanish, Calabaza. — Their rank growth and demands 
for, space exclude squashes from the market garden, but they can 

usually be made a profitable crop for 
the truck farm. All squashes thrive 
best in a warm, highly-enriched soil 
and in a warm location. An old pas- 
ture or clover field is one of the best 
selections. Apply good compost lib- 
erally, plow and harrow well, and plant 
Summer Crookneck. after the weather has become thor- 

oughly settled and the ground warm. 
Striped bugs are usually so destructive to the young plants, 
that it is frequently considered the only safe way to start plants 
on inverted sods under glass in April or May, in same manner as 
described for Lima beans, and afterwards plant out in the open 
field. Mark out rows four feet apart each way for the bush or 

Cultural Directions. — 299 

summer sorts, and eight to twelve feet each way for the running 
or winter varieties, and mix three or four shovelfuls of rich 
compost with the soil at each intersection ; then plant a dozen 
seeds, or set a sod with plants in slightly 
raised hills. Afterwards cultivate and 
hoe frequently, always drawing some 
fresh soil up to the plants. Pull up all 
but two or three of the most vigorous 
plants, and continue fighting the cucum- 
ber beetle and squash bug. Also guard 
against the attacks of the squash borer. 
Covering the first one or two joints, after 
the vines have begun to run, should never 
be neglected. The summer varieties are 
gathered and marketed while young and 
yet tender. The winter sorts must be 
harvested before frost, and marketed in 
bulk or in barrels. If carefully handled 
and stored in a dry room, like sweet 
potatoes, they may be kept until spring. 
Winter squashes thus kept can generally be marketed during 
winter or spring at prices that make the crop a very profitable 



"White Scallop, White Bush, 

Yellow Scallop, Yellow Bush. — These are leading sorts 
for market, differing only in color of the skin. 

Summer Crookneck. — Quite popular, especially for the 
home garden. 

Brazilian Sugar. — A running variety, fine for late summer 
and fall. Prolific and of superior quality. 


Hubbard. — The leading market variety. Fruit dark green, 
sometimes marked with red. Unexcelled for quality, and as a 

Marblehead. — Similar to Hubbard, except in color, which 
is ashy-gray. 

Boston Marrow. — Much grown for market, and highly 
prized for quality. 

Prolific Marrow has been introduced as an improvement 
on Boston Marrow. Both are fine autumn sorts. 

Sibley, Pike's Peak. — A new introduction, highly recom- 

Bay State. — Another new sort of great promise. 

300 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Olive. — Fruit of medium size, elongated. Vine remarkably 

Essex Hybrid. — Fruit thick, almost cylindrical; of salmon 
pink color. 

Red China. — A beautiful fruit of recent introduction. Its 
bright color makes it especially attractive, and desirable for the 
home garden. 


Perfect Gem, 

Cocoanut. — Three vigorous growing varieties with small 
but numerous fruits. Quality good. Vines seem to be as hardy 
as those of the bush sorts. Worthy a place in the home garden. 

I, White Bush. 
No. 2, Boston Marrow. 

No. 3, Marblehead. 

No. 4, Cocoanut, 

Yokohama. — A variety of Cnciirbita moschata, from Japan, 
of most rampant growth, and fully as hardy as the summer 
sorts ; also apparently less subject to injury from bug attacks. 
Fruit flattened, of very dark green color, deeply lobed or ribbed. 
Quality good. 


Thymus Vulgaris. German, Thymiaii; 
French, Thym ; Spanish, Tomillo. — A small 
perennial shrub, the leaves and young shoots of 
which are often used for seasoning. Generally 
raised from seed sown in April in permanent 
bed and border, or to be transplanted to the 
permanent patch. For market, near large cities, 
it is grown as a second crop, planted out in June 
or July, in rows one foot apart. 

Broad-leaved is the only variety in profit- 
able cultivation. 


Cultural Directions. — 301 


Solanutn Lycopersictan. German, Liebesapfcl ; French and 
Spanish, Tomate. — In many sections of this country, tomatoes are 
a leading farm crop, and grown almost more extensively than 
j)otatoes. The market garden has little use for them, except as 
an early or a forcing crop ; for this vegetable, to do its best, requires 
more space than high feeding and high cultivation. With good 
plants to start with, tomatoes are one of the easiest crops to 
grow where the climate is warm enough to bring the fruit to 

Growing the Plants. — It is of especial importance to start 
the plants early (not later than in March) in hot-bed or green- 
house, in order to get an early crop. Give the plants all the 
space they need for full development, during every stage of 
growth, in order to make them stocky ; then harden them off 
thoroughly before their transfer to the open ground. 

Culture. — To give the best results, tomatoes require the 
soil in a fair state of fertility ; but the richer it is, the wider 
should the plants be set, 4 feet square usually being the very 

Dwarf Champion. 

Turner Hybrid. 


least distance, except perhaps for some of the very dwarf sorts. 
Keep the crop cultivated and hoed, same as a good farmer would 
his corn. 

Winter Forcing. — For forcing the crop in greenhouse, 
plants may be obtained by rooting cuttings of old plants in the 
fall, then planting out in beds in greenhouse, or in large pots or 
boxes, giving each plant a space of about 2 feet each way. All 
laterals are removed and the main stalks tied to stakes, or wires, 
or strings. During the time of fruit-setting the atmosphere in- 
side of the building has to be kept dry. In order to secure the 
proper fertilization (pollination), good growers now gather to- 
mato flowers from the field in the fall when pollen is produced 
most freely, dry them and keep them in a box or jar until 
wanted. The pollen dust is then applied to each flower as soon 
as it opens. 

302 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Enemies, Marketing, etc. — The potato stalk-borer some- 
times attacks the tomato vines, and the green tomato-worm the 
foliage. Both enemies, when appearing, should be hunted up 
and destroyed. Tomato rot and blight appears very destructive 
in some localities, and the proper precautions, of which " wide " 
rotation is safest, must be taken. The far- 
mer and market gardener can hardly afford 
to stake or train his thousands of plants; 
neither is this of any special benefit. It is 
different in the home garden, where a few 
plants, nicely trained, can easily be Miade an 
interesting and attractive feature of the 
vegetable patch. A simple way of training 
the plants is by single stake. Set the stake 
Strawben^ Tomato. ^^ ^^"^e of setting the plant, and keep the 
latter tied up from the very beginning. 
In packing for distant market, be sure to send only nice, smooth 
specimens, and sort out all the rough and otherwise faulty ones. 


Our list now includes a large amount of most excellent sorts, 
and if I were restricted to a single one, I would hardly know 
which to choose. Leaving a few early dwarfish sorts out of con- 
sideration, there is but little difference between all our really good 
varieties so far as earliness and productiveness are concerned. 
They vary greatly in color, size, shape, as well as habit of 
growth, and character of foliage. Scores of new varieties have 
been introduced during the past few years. 

Dwarf Champion, — Fruit of purplish color, fair size, solid, 
smooth and uniform. Vine of remarkably stiff and compact 
growth ; foliage heavy, of dark bluish-green. Can be planted as 
close as 3 feet each way, and if staked when first set out, will be 
apt to remain in an upright position right through. 

Early Ruby. — This for a number of years has been our 
principal early market variety. It has its faults. It is not al- 
ways regular in shape ; its size might be a little larger ; and the 
plant is lacking in thrift, size and vigor. High cultivation reme- 
dies these faults to some extent. We have grown it because it 
has been by far the best of its season, far better than Early King, 
Earliest Advance, Atlantic Price, etc., and it has given us ripe 
fruit weeks in advance of the ordinary standard sorts. Other, 
smoother sorts, I hope will soon take its place. 

Maule's Earliest. — This comes highly recommended as a 
first early and very productive sort. 

Matchless. — This newer tomato is certainly matchless in 
form, regularity of growth, and desirable shipping qualities. 

Cultural Directions. — 303 

Fruit free from core ; in color, a rich cardinal red, and less 
liable to crack in wet weather than any other large tomato. It 
is good every way. 

Trophy. — An old favorite on account of superior solidity 
and quality of fruit, which, however, is not always smooth. 

Acme. — A popular sort for early market. Of purplish 
color; round, smooth, solid and productive. 

Beauty seems to be an improvement on it. 





Cardinal. — All these are excellent for market and canning 
factory use, varying but slightly in their leading characteristics. 
Fruit large-sized, red, smooth, solid. 

Turner Hybrid, Mikado. — Mammoth in plant, foliage, fruit, 
and productiveness, but fruit not always smooth. 

Potato Leaf Tomato. 

Potato-Leaf. — Similar in habit of growth and foliage to 
the preceding ; fruit of good size, purple color, and uniformly 
smooth. One of the best for home use or early market. 

Essex Hybrid, 


Optimus, and many others might be named that prove to 
be good and reliable sorts for all purposes. 

Golden Queen. — One of the best of the yellow sorts. 

Peach. — Quite distinct. Foliage much serrated and deli- 
cate. Fruit small, fine color and shape, growing in clusters. 
More interesting than practically useful, however. 

Lorillard. — Superior for forcing, but also does well in 
open air. Fruit early, large, smooth and solid. 

Strawberry Tomato (Alkekengi), Physalis. — Fruits yel- 
low, of size of cherry, growing enclosed in a husk ; of sweetish, 
fruity flavor. Sometimes grown for preserves. The plant, when 
once grown, is apt to reproduce itself year after year from self- 
sown seed. 

304 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 


Brassica napa {campestris). German, Steckriibe, Kohlri'ibe ; 
French, Navet ; Spanish, Nabo. — The market gardener has but 
httle use and room for turnips, except to a limited extent for the 
early flat varieties, which are grown and marketed in the same 
manner as early beets. The ground is made very rich by applica- 
tions of thoroughly-rotted compost, supplemented, if convenient, 
with some good, plain superphosphate strewn in the drills, and 
seed sown as early in spring as the soil can be got in readi- 
ness, in drills 15 inches apart, using seed at the rate of two 
pounds per acre, and firming the soil in the often recommended 

Cultivation, etc. — Use the wheel-hoe as needed, and thin 
the plants, when danger from flea beetle injury is past, to 2 or 3 
inches. When the roots are about 2 inches in diameter, pull, 
trim, wash and bunch for market. 

Turnips as Farm Crop. — These turnips are of still greater 
importance as a fall crop for the farm. Sometimes they find 

ready sale at very acceptable prices for 
table use, during late autumn and win- 
ter, but usually the swedes or rutabagas. 

Improved Purple Top Swede. Extra Early Milan. 

with their richer flavor, are grown for this purpose in preference 
to the quicker-growing flat turnips. 

As a crop for stock feeding this vegetable is not yet appre- 
ciated to its full value by the average farmer. I have not yet 
seen the farm where suitable pieces of land are not annually 
available for turnip growing in the latter part of the season, 
and after the main crop is removed. An early potato field, 
an old strawberry patch, a pasture lot, etc., after the crop 
is harvested in July or August, may yet produce many hundreds 
of bushels of flat turnips (or of rutabagas either, if early enough) 
per acre the same season, with very little labor and trouble. 
Being easily wintered, they will materially aid in carrying stock 
through the winter in good condition, and with a saving of grain. 

Cultural Directions. — 305 

But even if such land should not be available, the farmer 
can at least provide for a superior lot of fall feed, just when 
pastures are short, by scattering the seed of the flat turnips all 

Extra Early Munich. 

over his corn fields immediately after the last working. The 
turnip crop will make its best growth after the corn is cut, and 
entirely cover the ground with foliage and crisp roots — alike 
acceptable to cattle, sheep, and hogs. Here the simple expense 
for a few pounds of seed, without any other trouble besides the 
little effort it takes to scatter it, will greatly add to the aggregate 
income of the farm. 

Rutabagas. — The rutabagas or Swede turnips are quite an 
important crop for the farm garden ; but while the flat varieties 

in the latitude of Philadelphia will give a crop even if sown as 
late as the middle or end of August, the rutabagas must go into 
the ground 4 or 6 weeks earlier. The drills should not be les§ 

3o6 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

than 1 8 inches apart, and the plants be thinned to 6 or 8 inches. 
The same cultivation and attention to weeds is required as for 
other crops of similar character. Gather before settled cold 
weather ; trim off the tops, and ship in barrels, or store as directed 
for other root crops. 


Extra Early Milan. — Earliest of all, and just the variety 
for early bunching. In general appearance like Red-Top Strap- 
Leaf, only smaller and earlier. 

Extra Early Munich resembles this very closely, perhaps 
a few days later and less reliable than the Extra Early Milan. 

Red-Top Strap-Leaf.— The 
old reliable fall turnip, flat, white 
with red or purplish top. Red- 
Top White Globe is introduced as 
a round, consequently more pro- 
ductive sort of this type. 

Early Flat Dutch. — A fine 
white garden turnip, resembling 
Red-Top in shape. 

White Egg. — Of egg shape 
and quite handsome and productive. 
Large V^hite Norfolk. — Valu- 
able for stock. 

Among other sorts worthy of 
planting, we have 
Cow Horn, 
Large Yellow Globe, 
Yellow Aberdeen, 
Jersey Lily, etc. 

White Rock. 


Improved Purple Top Swede. — Of fine quality, prolific, 

Maule's Heavy Cropping. — An extra good sort. 

Sutton's Champion. — Very productive. 

White Rock. 

Hardy Imperial. 

Large White French, and others. 




" And it was called the Queen of Fruits." 

^O work on vegetable and market gardening could 
justly be called complete if it had refused to 
take notice of the strawberry and its culture, 
not only because this is the most luscious, the 
most desired and desirable, indeed the queen, 
of all fruits, and indispensable in any well- 
regulated home garden — coveted alike by young 
and old, a most enjoyable luxury, and a most 
potent medicine at the same time — but also because it often fits 
so admirably in the crop rotation of the market garden. The 
skilled market gardener, who retails his own garden stuff to local 
or near-by customers, always finds it a most useful crop, which 
adds many dollars to the cash receipts during a period of two or 
three weeks annually, without requiring extra time to dispose of 
it. A single crate of berries, occupying but a few square feet of 
room on the wagon, and adding comparatively little weight to 
the load, will sell quickly along with the other products, and 
increase the day's sales by $2 or $4. This, however, is true also 
of raspberries, blackberries, and all other small fruits. Indeed, 
I think the grower for local market can generally combine 
vegetable gardening and small fruit growing to the best 

During the entire strawberry season we usually find the 
city markets abundantly supplied with this fruit — such as it 
is — poor, coated with dust, jammed, ill-looking, and anything 
but inviting to people who are used to getting them fresh from the 
garden, in all their prime and glory. I have never been tempted 
to buy the average fruit as I saw it on the market stands of the 
cities. It averages poor, and so, usually and deservedly, does 
the price, which the grower realizes for them. 

On the other hand, really first-class fruit — large, even, fresh, 
packed neatly in attractive and clean packages — is rare, and 
always in good demand at paying prices. The premium here is 
on superiority. There is no overproduction of fine berries, and 
I do not think there ever will be. Large, well-colored, perfect 

3o8 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

berries have always been scarce, always commanded good prices, 
and consequently always proved profitable to the producer, and 
to the dealer as well. Like the onion among vegetables, so the 
strawberry among fruits is the great money crop for the skillful 
grower, but a source of annoyance, disappointment, and even 
loss to the shiftless manager. 

The chief aim of the grower must be directed towards 
growing fine berries, picking them when just right, and bringing 
them to market in best possible shape. Mr. John Burdett who 
lives seventeen miles from Buffalo, and is known to fruit growers 
as the originator of the " Long John " strawberry, a particularly 
prolific sort, equaling the Wilson in its best characteristics, picks 
his berries very early in the morning (from 3 to 7 a. m.), grades 
and arranges them, all of uniform size and appearance in each 
package, upon fancy plates or in fancy baskets ; takes his morn- 
ing's product to Buffalo, on train at 8 a. m., and delivers this 
fancy article at fancy fruit stores an hour later — only a few hours 
after they came from the patch — and always receives 25 or 30 
cents a quart for them. As he is the only one furnishing this class 
of goods, and only in limited quantities at that, he virtually controls 
the market, and gets his own price for his fancy article. 

Soil. — In the selection of soil for strawberries I would give 
a deep, well-drained clay loam the preference, although -a good 
crop can be grown on any soil adapted for the production of a 
good crop of corn. The lay and composition of the land has a 
great influence upon the season of ripening. Among the chief 
factors favoring earliness of crop are sandy composition of soil, 
porous subsoil, south-eastern exposure, and selection of early 
varieties; while the following conditions, viz., muck or clay soil, 
clay subsoil, north or north-western exposure, heavy mulch left 
on until late in spring, and selection of late varieties, tend to 
make the crop a very late one. The market gardener who has a 
variety of soils and situations may make such selections and 
combinations which suit his particular purpose. By proper selec- 
tion of conditions, the berry season can be greatly lengthened, or 
the bulk of crop ripened in just such season as the market may 
be expected to be most favorable. 

Old sod should be avoided, as it is usually infested with 
white grubs (the larvae of the May beetle), and with other 
insect enemies. Nothing will fit a piece of ground so nicely for 
planting to strawberries, as cropping for a year or two with 
onions, beets, carrots, or other close-planted vegetables, which need 
high manuring and thorough cultivation, and leave the land in a 
high state of fertility, and reasonably free from weeds. 

Manuring. — Really fine strawberries can only be grown on 
fertile soil, and poor ones are hardly worth growing. Too much 
manure cannot well be applied, although an overdose is not 

Strawberry Culture. — 309 

necessary. Well decomposed stable manure is always a reliable 
fertilizer, provided it is free from weed seeds, and if we only have 
enough of such, we have no reason to look for anything else. 
Under no circumstances use manure liable to befoul the land 
with weeds, as the latter are the great curse of the strawberry 
grower. I believe it is easier to grow a good crop of onions on 
weedy land (although not an enjoyable task) than to keep a 
strawberry patch clean when once well stocked with weeds. The 
latter invariably interfere very seriously with the strawberry crop. 

On fairly good soil I have had most excellent success with 
concentrated commercial fertilizers. They have the advantage 
of being free from weed seeds, and may be used alone, or in 
combination with smaller quantities of stable compost. They 
also lessen the dangers from fungus diseases, and make a firmer 
and better berry than the stable manure alone. 

Potash fertilizers are of especial benefit to all fruit crops, 
and I would recommend, as a good, safe ration for strawberries 
on most soils, 400 pounds of muriate of potash and from 6co to 
1000 pounds of bone-meal per acre. Wood ashes, especially if 
unleached, are also a most excellent manure for strawberries, 
being rich in the mineral plant foods, particularly in potash — the 
one substance most urgently needed. 

Preparation of the Soil. — The roots of strawberries go 
down deeply into the ground without spreading a great deal. 
Consequently the soil must be loosened up deeply. Stable 
manure, if applied, is to be plowed in. The use of a good sub- 
soil plow, after the common plow, is always advisable, and time 
spent in cross-plowing and in thorough harrowing is always well 
employed. If ashes and concentrated fertilizers are used, they 
should be put on the surface after plowing, and then thoroughly 
mixed with the soil by means of a Disk harrow, cultivator, or hoe. 
If soil is lumpy, roller or Meeker harrow may be brought 
into use. In short, no means should be neglected by which the 
desired mellowness and smooth surface of the soil can be secured. 
The next thing is to mark out furrows four feet apart, either with 
a corn-marker or a one-horse plow, taking particular pains to run 
them straight and even. 

Quality of Plants. — Early fall, or even summer, is the time 
usually selected for planting strawberries in the southern states. 
At the north we oftener prefer to plant in spring, unless we have 
a chance to get good plants — the first runners made after the 
fruiting season — not later than August. If these plants are " pot 
grown," or taken up with a clump of soil, they may be expected 
to do all the better. 

The quality of the plants influences the result, both immed- 
iate and permanent, very materially. I believe in " pedigree " 
with strawberry plants as well as with vegetable seeds, or with 

310 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

Pot- Grown Plant. 

live-stock. If the first, most vigorous runners from young 
vigorous plants that have not yet been weakened by fruiting, are 
used, and this method of propagation is continued for some time, 
the strain will be improved, and stock of such strain is likely to 

give better results than the later, and 
less vigorous runners taken from old 
plants, debilitated by years of fruit 
production. The grower also has to 
take in consideration that there are 
sorts with perfect flowers, and others 
with imperfect flowers. The former 
possess both male and female organs 
of reproduction, and are called her- 
maphrodite or bi-sexual, sometimes 
(although erroneously) staminate 
sorts, and will produce fruit, even if a single plant or variety is 
standing all by itself The imperfect or pistillate varieties have 
a perfect pistil (female organ), but no stamens, or these but imper- 
fectly developed. Consequently they cannot 
be depended upon to produce fruit, at least 
not in profusion and perfection, unless planted 
in proximity to varieties that have perfect 
stamens (male organs) and can furnish pollen 
(the principle of fecundation) to the pollenless 
pistillate sorts. Purely staminate plants — 
those having no pistils and always barren — 
are more rarely met with. In buying and 
setting plants these facts must be kept in 
mind, and whenever imperfect varieties, which usually are the 
most fruitful, when pollen is furnished by others, are planted, a 
row or two of some suitable and perfect sort 
should always be alternated with every four 
or five rows of the pistillates. I might make 
this statement still stronger by saying that lack 
of proper pollen is the chief cause of barrenness, 
or of improper development of seed or fruit, in 
many plants. Putting many varieties in close 
proximity usually seems to prove beneficial to 
all, with strawberries as well as with many other bush and tree 

Selection of Varieties. — No " best " variety can be named. 
One that is doing elegantly in one locality often turns out to be 
an utter failure when transferred to another location. Each sort 
seems to have a combination of soil, climate and treatment that 
suits its nature best, or special requirements of its own. The 
grower must try to learn what sort or sorts are best adapted to 
his surroundings. Those giving the best results in one's nearest 

Perfect Strawberry 


Strawberry Culture. — 311 

men send 
lot, such 
shown in 
tion ; and 

neighborhood are usually the ones to plant and experiment 

with. The highly-lauded, expensive novelties had better be 

touched very lightly, and in a cautious, experimental way only. 
Planting. — Where, in accordance with these suggestions, 

really good plants are procured from a grower near-by, success 

will be rendered much more 

certain from the very start, 

than where one has to depend 

on plants purchased from a 

distance. Reliable nursery- 
out a pretty fair 
for instance as 
annexed illustra- 
if these are well 

packed, and suffer no unusual 

delay in transportation, they 

will do well enough. Often 

such plants, when received 

by express, are not exactly 

what we would wish them 

to be. Immediately after 

arrival place them in a damp, 

cool place, (cellar or the 

like), and keep their roots 

covered with moist sand 

until wanted for setting out. t> , , ^ 

When this time has come, ^"""^ "^ Strawberry Plants. 

and the field is all in readiness, trim off about one-third of the 

roots with a slanting cut, using a sharp knife, and remove all 

partly-decayed leaves ; next dip the roots in water, and let a boy 
scatter the plants along the rows, one 
plant to every twelve or fifteen inches, 
and follow (or let your man follow) on 
hands and knees, taking up each plant in 
its turn, spreading the roots carefully, 
and plant it in the bottom of the furrow, 
on a little mound of soil, filling in mellow 
earth around it, so the crown will be the 
veriest trifle below the surface of the 
ground, but not covered. This is done 
because the crown-growth has an upward 
tendency, and the plants gradually rise 
higher out of the ground as the seasons 

go by. The annexed illustration shows a fine sample plant, well 

planted. As always in setting plants or other growths, the most 

important point, and the one making success reasonably sure in 

any case, is the thorough firming of the soil around the roots, 

A Good Plant Well 

312 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

not merely around the crown. It need hardly be said, that the 
soil, when moist, but yet crumbly, is in exactly the right con- 
dition for the operation of setting plants. Where only shallow 
marks, no deep furrows are made to indicate the rows, the 
planting may be facilitated by the use of a gardener's trowel, or 
one of the improved dibbers illustrated on page 43. 

Treatment After Planting. — Now comes the tug-of-war. 
Weed growth must be prevented all through the season, and to 
do this the cultivator should be started soon after planting, and 
used at short intervals pretty much during the entire season. 
Weeds appearing in the rows are to be pulled up by hand, or cut 
out with the hoe. 

Spring-set plants should not be allowed to fruit, as this 
would be a great strain on them so soon after the check received 
by the rough treatment of transplanting. The little labor 
required in picking off every fruit-stalk as soon as noticed, and 
the exercise of a little patience on the part of the grower, will 
always be well repaid in increase of crop the year following. 
The whole vital force of the plant is thus thrown into vigorous 
growth of the plant itself, and the production of runners. 

The amateur frequently, and the market grower rarely, 
practices what is known as the " stool " or hill method, which 
consists in growing large individual plants or " stools," and pre- 
venting the full development and rooting of runners by their 
early and careful removal. This method requires much atten- 
tion, but gives fine plants, and very large and perfect fruit, but 
not so much of it as can be produced by the so-called matted- 
row system. This is the one commonly practiced by market 
growers, and the more popular everywhere. The runners are 
allowed to strike root on a strip from one to two feet wide. As 
the season advances the cultivator has to be gradually narrowed 
down until, at last, we have a strip of cultivated ground only 
about two feet in width. The cultivator should also be run in 
one and the same direction, not back and forth between each two 
rows, so that the runners will not be disturbed or torn out more 
than necessary. 

This frequent stirring of the soil by means of hoe and 
cultivator serves another good purpose, and performs a most 
important office. The strawberry succeeds best when the soil 
is moist. In rare cases only can irrigation be made use of. 
Usually we have to depend on moisture already stored up in 
the soil, and supplied by rains. The underground-reservoir is 
always well filled during winter, and all we have to do during 
the growing season is to prevent waste by over-rapid evapora- 
tion. Of the means at our command to retard this evaporation, 
mulching with a few inches of mellow soil is probably the simplest 
and most inexpensive, and, I believe, also the most efficient. We 

Strawberry Culture. — 313 

might accomplish this same object by mulching with litter — 
straw, hay, saw-dust, tan-bark, etc. — but it always involves more 
expense and is usually less convenient. It also affords undesir- 
able hiding places for vermin, prevents the needed airing of the 
soil, and favors the propagation of fungi. Altogether, the loose 
soil mulch, which is the result of good tillage, is usually the 
most satisfactory. A clean straw or hay mulch, however, comes 
very acceptable during the picking season. It then protects the 
berries from contact with the soil, and keeps them bright and 

Winter Protection. — Strawberry plants are quite hardy, 
yet liable to heave out by the freezes and thaws of winter, and 
for this reason should be given a winter overcoat. Without 
protection of some kind, say by a mulch of litter or snow, best 
results ought not to be expected, as great loss of plants, and 
damage to fruit buds and roots will be unavoidable. If you have 
a nice strawberry bed, whatever you may do with it, don't neglect 
to provide a winter mulch. It is not enough to apply fine 
compost to the patch in the fall. Coarse, strawy manure will do 
very well, and should be put on all over the ground (not only 
over the rows) as soon as the ground is frozen hard enough to 
hold a wagon. Evergreen boughs are often quite serviceable ; 
but nothing in the shape of winter mulch can be superior to salt 
or marsh hay. This is to be had quite cheaply in many 
localities. Evenly spread over the ground it will afford a perfect 
protection, and the grower may feel at ease concerning his 
strawberry bed when thus covered, in the most trying kind of 
winter weather. 

Gathering the Fruit. — At the approach of spring the 
winter mulch should be removed, or rolled aside until the patch 
can be given a thorough stirring up with cultivator and hoe. 
Whatever weeds start up, are pulled up by hand or killed with the 
hoe. Afterwards the clean mulch may be put carefully around 
the plants on each side of the rows to keep the fruit clean. 

The berries, when ripe, are picked in clean quart baskets, 
level full, and if for market, only nice, clean, sound, good-sized 
and well-colored berries are wanted in the baskets. Leave the 
imperfect fruit on the vines, or throw them away. Neither is 
there any place in the baskets for leaves and rubbish. Straw- 
berries are perishable, and do not improve in any respect after 
being taken off the vines. The sooner they are used or disposed 
of, the better. 

Strawberries in Home Garden. — Farmers and towns- 
people who grow only their own home supply, usually plant a 
little patch in their garden, and here the plants are set quite 
close, perhaps fifteen inches each way, and all tended with the 
hand hoe. Here the ground is almost always very rich, and a 

314 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

large crop can be grown on a small area. In all other ways 
the plants should be treated as already directed for general 
culture. This plan, although well enough suited to the narrow 
limits of the average village garden, is not the one which I would 
advise the farmer to adopt. The size of his kitchen garden is 
(or should be) in correspondence with the greater opportunities 
in regard to area, manure supply, and available labor which the 
farm affords, and with the greater demands of the farmer's large 
household for vegetables and fruits. One acre — rather more 
than less — is just about the proper area, and it should be arranged 
somewhat similar as shown in the diagrams on pages 20 and 22. 
This will give him the largest possible results with the least 
possible demands for hand labor. By all means let the farmer 
plant his strawberries, and his other small fruits in same plot 
also, in long rows, as advised for the market grower, and cultivate 
by horse power, early, often, and thoroughly, to save hand labor. 

Rotation. — Many growers, especially market gardeners, 
take off only a single crop, plow up the patch after the fruiting 
season, and plant it to potatoes, turnips, celery, or other crops. 
But if to be kept for another year, the matted rows after fruiting 
should be narrowed down again, using a one-horse plow, a sharp- 
cutting cultivator, or wheel-hoe, and left not over 6 inches in 
width. New runners are now allowed to occupy the whole space 
of the original matted row, thus renewing the plantation. Guard 
against weeds. I do not believe in fruiting a patch more than 
two years, or three at most, and new beds should be planted every 
other year to take the place of the old ones. 

Insects and Diseases. — The larvae of the sawfly is some- 
times and in some sections very destructive to the foliage. For a 
remedy try a solution of hellebore, one ounce to two gallons of 
water, and sprinkle or spray it on the plants. 

The strawberry leaf-roller is another destructive foe, the larvae 
of a moth which is two-brooded. The presence of this worm is 
easily detected by the rolled-up leaves. The simplest remedy is 
to mow the field after fruiting, and when the stuff is dry enough, 
set fire to it. 

For the crown-borer, troublesome in the west and far north, 
and the strawberry root-borer, a small caterpillar, I know no 
remedy except plowing up the whole patch and starting a new 
plantation elsewhere. 

The white grub has been already mentioned. The larvae of 
the goldsmith beetle resembles it in appearance and life habits, 
and should be managed in the same way. 

The tarnished plant-bug, and the dusky plant-bug are very 
unwelcome visitors to many strawberry plantations, and little 
can be done to keep them off. Spraying with the kerosene 
emulsion, or solution of buhach may do some good. 

Strawberry Culture. — 315 

These and all other insect foes can most easily be kept in 
check by a frequent renewal of the plantations (wide crop rota- 
tion), and by mowing and burning the foliage after fruiting. 
This treatment will also tend to prevent the strawberry diseases, 
such as scald, rust, etc. 

Another Method of Planting. — For loamy soils that are 
free from stones, I prefer setting the plants with a spade. I think 
it is by far the most convenient and most expeditious method. 
Let one person take a common sharp spade, and another (a boy 
will do) take a bundle of plants made ready for going into the 
ground. The field has been marked out four feet apart, or the 
plants are set by line. Thrust the spade into the ground where 
you want the first plant, and slightly turn or pull the handle tow- 
ard you, thus making an opening two or three inches wide on 
top at the back of the spade. The boy takes a plant, spreads the 
roots with a quick, jerky motion, and inserts them, as deeply 
as needed, into the opening. At the same time withdraw 
the spade and press the soil against the newly-set plant with the 
foot. Then repeat the operation where you want the next 
plant. One man and boy can plant an acre in a day in this 
manner with ease. 

Forcing Strawberries. — Sometimes this crop can be 
grown under glass with profit. In July young thrifty plants are 
started in pots for next winter's crop. Fill three-inch pots with 
good soil, and sink them to the rim along the rows of the stock 
plants. The earlier this is done after the layers start the better. 
The layers will need directing to the pots, and can be kept in 
place by means of a peg, stone or clod of earth. By keeping 
the plants well watered they will be rooted in about three weeks. 
Then place them in the shade until the pots are full of roots, and 
after that shift into six-inch pots. Pot rather firmly into 
good fibrous earth, standing the pots in an open, airy place, 
preferably in coal ashes, and giving them all the water they need. 
Before freezing weather, plunge the pots into cold frames and 
water sparingly. Any time after this, according to the exact 
time that you want the ripe fruit, the plants may be started up. 
Place them in the greenhouse, beginning with a temperature of 
45 degrees Fahrenheit, gradually increasing until it reaches 60 
degrees. Also increase the water supply gradually as the season 
advances. Plants for later use must be protected from severe 
freezing. Don't allow the plants to set too much fruit, else the 
berries will be small. A moderate number of good-sized berries 
will be more satisfactory than a large number of small ones. 
When enough have set, clip off the remaining flowers, and later 
on pick off the smallest berries also. Syringe freely to keep 
down red spider. Water moderately at the roots. Give liquid 

3i6 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

manure at times until the fruit shows indications of ripening, 
when it should be withheld, and the fruit exposed to heat and 
light as much as possible. In the mean time, of course, plants 
may have been started up for successional crops. 


The following is a list of the leading sorts : 


Beder Wood. 

Captain Jack. 

Chas. Downing. 

Cumberland Triumph. 


May King. 

Michel's Early (Mitchel's). 

Miner's (Prolific). 

Neunan's (Prolific). 

Old Ironclad (or Phelp's Seedling). 



Wilson (Albany). 


Must have one or more of the preceding list planted with 

Bubach (No. 5). 

Champion (or Windsor Chief) 







The most popular and most reliable of the list are the fol- 
lowing : 

May King. 


Neunan's Prolific. (For the South). 

Beder Wood. 











'' Light is Lifer 

ECENT development of electrical science has 
wrought wonderful changes in all our industrial 
and social conditions, changes so wonderful in 
number and character, indeed, that we now are 
constantly in expectation of the discovery of 
new manifestations and new uses of this wonder- 
ful natural force. It was a very natural idea to 
direct electrical energies upon the soil and plant 
growth in the hope of finding marked influences. 

Direct Electrification. — At the agricultural college at 
Amherst, Mass., and at several places in Europe, wires have been 
stretched across fields and gardens and passed through the soil, 
and then charged with electricity. In many cases certain crops 
were largely increased by these influences ; while other crops 
seemed to be injured rather than benefited. That a powerful in- 
fluence of the artificial use of electricity, either in the air or in 
the soil, about plants, does exist, seems hardly open to dis- 
pute. Yet it is my conviction that this discovery will remain of 
little practical value to the average soil tiller. At any rate, it is 
not of practical use now, and before it could possibly become so, 
a great deal more of accurate knowledge about this yet mys- 
terious force will have to be developed. 

Electric Light Influence. — More marked upon plant 
growth perhaps than the effects of this direct electrification, have 
been those of the electric light. Yet there is no telling, at pres- 
ent, to what extent the new factor will ever be employed in 
vegetable growing. The home gardener will scarcely feel justi- 
fied in incurring much expense for electric lights when these are 
wanted solely for the purpose of stimulating plant growth in his 
small garden or greenhouse; and he cannot be expected to re- 
ceive any benefit whatever from the stimulative effect of electric 


3i8 — How to Make the Garden Pay. 

light except in the rare instance, when his garden or greenhouse 
happens to be placed where an electric street lamp of the town 
or city sheds its light directly upon his plants. 

The results of experiments conducted recently by Prof. L. 
H. Bailey, at the Cornell Experiment Station, seem to endorse 
those of the earlier experiments by C. W. Siemens, in England, 
and P. P. Deherain, in France, and show beyond doubt, that 
periods of darkness (or rest) are not necessary to the growth and 
development of plants, and that the electric light can be profit- 
ably used in forcing the growth or maturity of at least certain 
kinds of plants. The injurious influences upon plants near the 
naked light can be prevented by the interposition of a transparent 
glass (opal globe) between light and plants. 

Different kinds of plants seem to be differently affected by 
the electric light. While some crops are markedly benefited, 

Bench of Lettuce in Ordinary Greenhouse. 

others seem to be injured, and still others show no effects either 
way. The best results have been observed on lettuce, and next 
to it, on radishes. Indeed, I believe that the electric light as a 
promoter of plant growth will be of practical value chiefly or 
only to the extensive grower of greenhouse lettuce and green- 
house radishes. 

The material difference in the rate of growth made by let- 
tuce plants in an ordinary and a lighted greenhouse, may be seen 
plainly in the annexed illustrations, which represent parts of the 
houses at the Cornell Experiment Station (from photographs 
taken in 1891 ; reduced from station bulletin). Prof Bailey's re- 
port was as follows : 

" Three weeks after transplanting both varieties in the light 
house were fully 50 per cent, in advance of those in the dark 
house in size, and the color and other characters of the plants 
were fully as good. The plants had received at this time 703^ 

Appendix. — 319 

hours of electric light. Just a month later the first heads were 
sold from the light house, but it was six weeks later when the 
first heads were sold from the dark house. In other words, the 
electric light plants were two weeks ahead of the others. This 
gain had been purchased by 161^^ hours of electric light, worth 
at current prices of street lighting about $y ; this will give an 
idea as to economic values. The electric light plants were in 
every way as good in quality as those grown in the dark 
house ; in fact, the two could not be told apart except for their 
different sizes. The illustrations show representative portions 
of the crops as they appeared five weeks after being transplanted 
to permanent quarters. The electric light plants were upon the 
benches 44 days before the first heads were sold. During this 
time there were 20 nights in which the light did not run, and 
there had been but 84 hours of electric light, worth about ;^3.50. 
The lamp exerted this influence throughout a house 20x30, and 

s ^ ,'- 



Bench of Lettuce in House with Electric Light. 

the results were as well marked in the most remote part as they 
were near the lamp. If the same results can be obtained by 
hanging the lamp over the house, instead of inside of it, by that 
means several houses might be lighted at once." 

Mr. W. W. Rawson, the famous market gardener of Arling- 
ton, near Boston, Mass., was probably the first to use the electric 
light for commercial lettuce forcing. The street lamps which 
hung near his houses, and their beneficial effects, pointed the 
way to the successful employment of electric light for this pur- 
pose. He estimates the gain of time in the production of a 
lettuce crop at about 10 per cent, over the time required for 
the production of an equal crop in a dark house, and says 
that the gain produced upon one crop pays for running the 
lamps for the entire winter. The plants seem to head up better 
under the light and the quality to be superior. The effect of the 
light is marked at a distance of 100 feet from the lamp.